234 resultados para PSORIASIS


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Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have proven a powerful hypothesis-free method to identify common disease-associated variants. Even quite large GWAS, however, have only at best identified moderate proportions of the genetic variants contributing to disease heritability. To provide cost-effective genotyping of common and rare variants to map the remaining heritability and to fine-map established loci, the Immunochip Consortium has developed a 200,000 SNP chip that has been produced in very large numbers for a fraction of the cost of GWAS chips. This chip provides a powerful tool for immunogenetics gene mapping.

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Introduction: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. We sought to test the hypothesis that due to increased inflammation, CV disease and risk factors are associated with increased risk of future RA development. Methods: The population-based Nord-Trøndelag health surveys (HUNT) were conducted among the entire adult population of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. All inhabitants 20 years or older were invited, and information was collected through comprehensive questionnaires, a clinical examination, and blood samples. In a cohort design, data from HUNT2 (1995-1997, baseline) and HUNT3 (2006-2008, follow-up) were obtained to study participants with RA (n = 786) or osteoarthritis (n = 3,586) at HUNT3 alone, in comparison with individuals without RA or osteoarthritis at both times (n = 33,567). Results: Female gender, age, smoking, body mass index, and history of previous CV disease were associated with self-reported incident RA (previous CV disease: odds ratio 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.11-2.07). The findings regarding previous CV disease were confirmed in sensitivity analyses excluding participants with psoriasis (odds ratio (OR) 1.70 (1.23-2.36)) or restricting the analysis to cases with a hospital diagnosis of RA (OR 1.90 (1.10-3.27)) or carriers of the shared epitope (OR 1.76 (1.13-2.74)). History of previous CV disease was not associated with increased risk of osteoarthritis (OR 1.04 (0.86-1.27)). Conclusion: A history of previous CV disease was associated with increased risk of incident RA but not osteoarthritis.

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The availability of population-specific normative data regarding disease severity measures is essential for patient assessment. The goals of the current study were to characterize the pattern of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Portuguese patients and to develop reference centile charts for BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and mSASSS, the most widely used assessment tools in AS. AS cases were recruited from hospital outpatient clinics, with AS defined according to the modified New York criteria. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. All radiographs were evaluated by two independent experienced readers. Centile charts for BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and mSASSS were constructed for both genders, using generalized linear models and regression models with duration of disease as independent variable. A total of 369 patients (62.3% male, mean ± (SD) age 45.4 ± 13.2 years, mean ± (SD) disease duration 11.4 ± 10.5 years, 70.7% B27-positive) were included. Family history of AS in a first-degree relative was reported in 17.6% of the cases. Regarding clinical disease pattern, at the time of assessment 42.3% had axial disease, 2.4% peripheral disease, 40.9% mixed disease and 7.1% isolated enthesopatic disease. Anterior uveitis (33.6%) was the most common extra-articular manifestation. The centile charts suggest that females reported greater disease activity and more functional impairment than males but had lower BASMI and mSASSS scores. Data collected through this study provided a demographic and clinical profile of patients with AS in Portugal. The development of centile charts constitutes a useful tool to assess the change of disease pattern over time and in response to therapeutic interventions.

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Purpose of review The field of genetic research in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is advancing rapidly. The purpose of this review is to outline recent findings, particularly, in regard to genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the non-MHC genes IL23R, ERAP1, and killer cell immunologlobulin-like receptor (KIR) complex, in AS. Recent findings: Convincing evidence has been reported for the existence of further non-B27 MHC genes involved in AS. Strong, replicated association has been reported with IL23R and ERAP1 and AS. The IL23R finding strongly implicates the TH17 lymphocyte system in AS aetiopathogenesis. Suggestive evidence of a role for KIR gene polymorphism in AS exists, but definitive findings are awaited. Summary: The findings suggest that further genome-wide studies in large case-control cohorts are likely to be very productive in this disease. The IL23R findings and subsequent immunological investigations suggest that targeted intervention in the TH17 system is likely to have major therapeutic benefit, as it does in the genetically related diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis.

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Purpose of Review Over the past 3 years, several new genes and gene deserts have been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The purpose of this review is to discuss the major findings of these studies, and the answers they provide and questions they raise about the pathogenesis of this common condition. Recent Findings: Five genes/genetic regions have now definitively been associated with AS [the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), IL23R, ERAP1, 2p15 and 21q22]. Strong evidence to support association with the disease has been demonstrated for the genes IL1R2, ANTXR2, TNFSF15, TNFR1 and a region on chromosome 16q including the gene TRADD. There is an overrepresentation of genes involved in Th17 lymphocyte differentiation/activation among genes associated with AS and the related diseases inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis, pointing strongly to this pathway as playing a major causative role in the disease. Increasing information about differential association of HLA-B27 subtypes with disease suggests a hierarchy of strength of association of those alleles with AS, providing a useful test as to the validity of different potential mechanisms of association of HLA-B27 with AS. The mechanism underlying the association of the gene deserts, 2p15 and 21q22, suggests the involvement of noncoding RNA in AS etiopathogenesis. Summary: The increasing list of genes identified as being definitely involved in AS provides a useful platform for hypothesis-driven research in the field, providing a potential alternative route to determining the underlying mechanisms involved in the disease to research focusing on HLA-B27 alone.

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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. It causes significant disability and is associated with a number of other features including peripheral arthritis, anterior uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Significant progress has been made in the genetics of AS have in the last five years, leading to new treatments in trial, and major leaps in understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of the disease.

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Endosplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) and puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (NPEPPS) are key zinc metallopeptidases that belong to the oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidase family. NPEPPS catalyzes the processing of proteosome-derived peptide repertoire followed by trimming of antigenic peptides by ERAP1 and ERAP2 for presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecules. A series of genome-wide association studies have demonstrated associations of these aminopeptidases with a range of immune-mediated diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, Behçet's disease, inflammatory bowel disease and type I diabetes, and significantly, genetic interaction between some aminopeptidases and HLA Class I loci with which these diseases are strongly associated. In this review, we highlight the current state of understanding of the genetic associations of this class of genes, their functional role in disease, and potential as therapeutic targets.

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Shared aetiopathogenic factors among immune-mediated diseases have long been suggested by their co-familiality and co-occurrence, and molecular support has been provided by analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and genome-wide association studies. The interrelationships can now be better appreciated following the genotyping of large immune disease sample sets on a shared SNP array: the 'Immunochip'. Here, we systematically analyse loci shared among major immune-mediated diseases. This reveals that several diseases share multiple susceptibility loci, but there are many nuances. The most associated variant at a given locus frequently differs and, even when shared, the same allele often has opposite associations. Interestingly, risk alleles conferring the largest effect sizes are usually disease-specific. These factors help to explain why early evidence of extensive 'sharing' is not always reflected in epidemiological overlap. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondyloarthritis are strongly genetically determined. The long-standing association with HLA-B27 is well described, although the mechanism by which that association induces AS remains uncertain. Recent developments include the description of HLA-B27 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in European and Asian populations. An increasing number of non-MHC genetic associations have been reported, which provided amongst other things the first evidence of the involvement of the IL-23 pathway in AS. The association with ERAP1 is now known to be restricted to HLA-B27 positive disease. Preliminary studies on the genetics of axial spondyloarthritis demonstrate a lower HLA-B27 carriage rate compared with AS. Studies with larger samples and including non-European ethnic groups are likely to further advance the understanding of the genetics of AS and spondyloarthritis. © 2012.

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Endoplasmatic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in trimming of peptides to an optimal length for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Polymorphisms in ERAP1 have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriasis, and subsequent in vitro enzyme studies suggest distinct catalytic properties of ERAP1 variants. To understand structure-activity relationships of this enzyme we determined crystal structures in open and closed states of human ERAP1, which provide the first snapshots along a catalytic path. ERAP1 is a zinc-metallopeptidase with typical H-E-X-X-H-(X)18-E zinc binding and G-A-M-E-N motifs characteristic for members of the gluzincin protease family. The structures reveal extensive domain movements, including an active site closure as well as three different open conformations, thus providing insights into the catalytic cycle. A K 528R mutant strongly associated with AS in GWAS studies shows significantly altered peptide processing characteristics, which are possibly related to impaired interdomain interactions.

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The International Genetics of Ankylosing Spondylitis (IGAS) meeting was held in Houston, Texas, July 25, 2009. Sixteen investigators from Asia, Australia, Europe, and North and South America presented the status of their respective cohorts of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). They also reviewed a proposal to examine their patients by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping on an Illumina Infinium microarray SNP genotyping chip in a case-control cohort exceeding 12,000 samples. This chip will type 200,000 SNP selected from the most strongly associated variants identified in genome-wide association studies of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

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A joint meeting was held in July 2009 in Houston, Texas, of members of the Spondyloarthritis Research and Therapy Network (SPARTAN), founded in 2003 to promote research, education, and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related forms of spondyloarthritis (SpA), and members of International Genetics of AS (IGAS), founded in 2003 to encourage and coordinate studies internationally in the genetics of AS. The general topic was the genetic basis of SpA, with presentations on the future of human genetic studies; microbes, SpA, and innate immunity; susceptibility of AS to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC; and individual discussions of the genetics of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, uveitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and enteropathic arthritis. Summaries of those discussions are presented.

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Objectives. It has been shown previously that IL-23R variants are associated with AS. We conducted an extended analysis in the UK population and a meta-analysis with the previously published studies, in order to refine these IL-23R associations with AS. Methods. The UK case-control study included 730 new cases and 1331 healthy controls. In the extended study, the 730 cases were combined with 1088 published cases. Allelic associations were analysed using contingency tables. In the meta-analysis, 3482 cases and 3150 controls from four different published studies and the new UK cases were combined. DerSimonian-Laird test was used to calculate random effects pooled odds ratios (ORs). Results. In the UK case-control study with new cases, four of the eight SNPs showed significant associations, whereas in the extended UK study, seven of the eight IL-23R SNPs showed significant associations (P < 0.05) with AS, maximal with rs11209032 (P < 10-5, OR 1.3), when cases with IBD and/or psoriasis were excluded. The meta-analysis showed significant associations with all eight SNPs; the strongest associations were again seen not only with rs11209032 (P = 4.06 × 10-9, OR ∼1.2) but also with rs11209026 (P < 10-10, OR ∼0.6). Conclusions. IL-23R polymorphisms are clearly associated with AS, but the primary causal association(s) is(are) still not established. These polymorphisms could contribute either increased or decreased susceptibility to AS; functional studies will be required for their full evaluation. Additionally, observed stronger associations with SNPs rs11209026 and rs11465804 upon exclusion of IBD and/or psoriasis cases may represent an independent association with AS. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

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Migration within the European Union (EU) has increased since the Union was established. Community pharmacies provide open access to health care services and can be the first, most frequently used or even the only contact with a nation s health care system among mobile community residents. In some of the mass-migration areas in Southern Europe, most of the customers may represent mobile citizens of foreign background. This has not always been taken into consideration in the development of community pharmacy services. Mobile patients have been on the EU's health policy agenda, but they have seldom been mentioned in the context of community pharmacies. In most of the EU member states, governments control the specific legislation concerning community pharmacies and there is no harmonised pharmaceutical policy or consistent minimal standards for community pharmacy services in the EU. The aim of this study was to understand medication use, the role of community pharmacies and the symptom mitigation process of mobile community residents. Finns living in Spain were used as an example to examine how community pharmacies in a EU member state meet the needs of mobile community residents. The data were collected by a survey in 2002 (response rate 53%, n= 533) and by five focus group discussions in 2006 (n=30). A large number (70%) of the respondents had moved to Spain for health reasons and suffered from chronic morbidity. Community pharmacies had an important role in the healthcare of mobile community residents and the respondents were mostly satisfied with these services. However, several medication safety risks related to community pharmacy practices were identified: 1) Availability of prescription medicines without prescription (e.g., antibiotics, sleeping pills, Viagra®, asthma medications, cardiovascular medicines, psoriasis medicines and analgesics); 2) Irrational use of medicines (e.g., 41% of antibiotic users had bought their antibiotics without a prescription, and the most common reasons for antibiotic self-medication were symptomatic common colds and sore throats); 3) Language barriers between patients and pharmacy professionals; 4) Lack of medication counselling; 5) Unqualified pharmacy personnel providing pharmacotherapy. A fifth of the respondents reported experiencing problems during pharmacy visits in Spain, and the lack of a common language was the source of most of these problems. The findings of this study indicate that regulations and their enforcement can play a crucial role in actually assuring the rational and safe use of medicines. These results can be used in the development of pharmaceutical and healthcare policies in the EU. It is important to define consistent minimum standards for community pharmacy services in the EU. Then, the increasing number of mobile community residents could access safe and high quality health care services, including community pharmacy services, in every member state within the EU.

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The possible carcinogenic risk of immunosuppressive therapies is an important issue in everyday clinical practise. Carcinogenesis is a slow multi step procedure, thus a long latency period is needed before cancer develops. PUVA therapy is used for many skin diseases including psoriasis, early stage cutaneous T cell lymphoma, atopic dermatitis, palmoplantar pustulosis and chronic eczema. There has been concern about the increased melanoma risk associated to PUVA therapy, which has previously been associated with an increased risk on non-melanoma skin cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma. The increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is also documented but it is modest compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This thesis evaluated melanoma and noncutaneous cancer risk associated to PUVA, and the persistence of nonmelanoma cancer risk after the cessation of PUVA treatment. Also, the influence of photochemotherapy to the development of secondary cancers in cutaneous T cell lymphoma and the role of short term cyclosporine in later cancer development in inflammatory skin diseases were evaluated. The first three studies were performed on psoriasis patients. The risk of melanoma started to increase 15 years after the first treatment with PUVA. The risk was highest among persons who had received over 250 treatments compared to those under 250 treatments. In noncutaneous cancer, the overall risk was not increased (RR=1.08,95% CI=0.93-1.24), but significant increases in risk were found in thyroid cancer, breast cancer and in central nervous system neoplasms. These cancers were not associated to PUVA. The increased risk of SCC was associated to high cumulative UVA exposure in the PUVA regimen. The patients with high risk had no substantial exposure to other carcinogens. In BCC there was a similar but more modest tendency. In the two other studies, the risk of all secondary cancers (SIR) in CTCL patients was 1.4 (95% CI=1.0-1.9). In separate sites, the risk of lung cancer, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas were increased. PUVA seemed not to contribute to any extent to the appearance of these cancers. The carcinogenity of short-term cyclosporine was evaluated in inflammatory skin diseases. No increased risk for any type of cancer including the skin cancers was detected. To conclude, our studies confirm the increased skin cancer risk related to PUVA treatment in psoriasis patients. In clinical practice, this has led to a close and permanent follow-up of patients treated with PUVA. In CTCL patients, PUVA treatment did not contribute to the development of secondary cancers. We could not detect any increase in the risk of cancer in patients treated with short term cyclosporine, unlike in organ transplant patients under such long-term therapy.