291 resultados para Gluten


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Objective The aim of this study was to explore the mediating and moderating relationships between emotional perceptions of coeliac disease, negative emotional states, emotion regulation, emotional eating and gluten-free diet adherence. Method Adults with coeliac disease (N = 253) were recruited from state organisations of Coeliac Australia and completed an online questionnaire measuring illness perceptions, emotion regulation strategies, negative emotional states, emotional eating and gluten-free diet adherence. Results Participants' levels of depression and anxiety, but not stress or emotional eating, were associated with gluten-free diet adherence. Emotional perception of coeliac disease was also associated with gluten-free diet adherence, and this relationship was partially mediated by depression and anxiety. Furthermore, the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression moderated the relationship between emotional perceptions and depression, but not emotional perceptions and anxiety. Conclusions Interventions to improve dietary adherence for adults with coeliac disease displaying depressive symptoms should aim to increase the use of cognitive reappraisal and reduce the use of expressive suppression. Future studies should also explore mechanisms that may moderate the relationship between emotional perceptions and anxiety.

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People with coeliac disease have to maintain a gluten-free diet, which means excluding wheat, barley and rye prolamin proteins from their diet. Immunochemical methods are used to analyse the harmful proteins and to control the purity of gluten-free foods. In this thesis, the behaviour of prolamins in immunological gluten assays and with different prolamin-specific antibodies was examined. The immunoassays were also used to detect residual rye prolamins in sourdough systems after enzymatic hydrolysis and wheat prolamins after deamidation. The aim was to characterize the ability of the gluten analysis assays to quantify different prolamins in varying matrices in order to improve the accuracy of the assays. Prolamin groups of cereals consist of a complex mixture of proteins that vary in their size and amino acid sequences. Two common characteristics distinguish prolamins from other cereal proteins. Firstly, they are soluble in aqueous alcohols, and secondly, most of the prolamins are mainly formed from repetitive amino acid sequences containing high amounts of proline and glutamine. The diversity among prolamin proteins sets high requirements for their quantification. In the present study, prolamin contents were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on ω- and R5 antibodies. In addition, assays based on A1 and G12 antibodies were used to examine the effect of deamidation on prolamin proteins. The prolamin compositions and the cross-reactivity of antibodies with prolamin groups were evaluated with electrophoretic separation and Western blotting. The results of this thesis research demonstrate that the currently used gluten analysis methods are not able to accurately quantify barley prolamins, especially when hydrolysed or mixed in oats. However, more precise results can be obtained when the standard more closely matches the sample proteins, as demonstrated with barley prolamin standards. The study also revealed that all of the harmful prolamins, i.e. wheat, barley and rye prolamins, are most efficiently extracted with 40% 1-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol at 50 °C. The extractability of barley and rye prolamins was considerably higher with 40% 1-propanol than with 60% ethanol, which is typically used for prolamin extraction. The prolamin levels of rye were lowered by 99.5% from the original levels when an enzyme-active rye-malt sourdough system was used for prolamin degradation. Such extensive degradation of rye prolamins suggest the use of sourdough as a part of gluten-free baking. Deamidation increases the diversity of prolamins and improves their solubility and ability to form structures such as emulsions and foams. Deamidation changes the protein structure, which has consequences for antibody recognition in gluten analysis. According to the resuts of the present work, the analysis methods were not able to quantify wheat gluten after deamidation except at very high concentrations. Consequently, deamidated gluten peptides can exist in food products and remain undetected, and thus cause a risk for people with gluten intolerance. The results of this thesis demonstrate that current gluten analysis methods cannot accurately quantify prolamins in all food matrices. New information on the prolamins of rye and barley in addition to wheat prolamins is also provided in this thesis, which is essential for improving gluten analysis methods so that they can more accurately quantify prolamins from harmful cereals.

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La enfermedad celíaca es una intolerancia permanente al gluten, proteína que forma parte de algunos cereales como trigo,cebada, centeno, triticale, kamut, espelta y probablemente, avena. Esta proteína puede producir una lesión severa en la mucosa del intestino de los individuos celiacos que influye en la adecuada absorción de los nutrientes de los alimentos (proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono, sales minerales y vitaminas), provocando en ocasiones desequilibrios nutricionales. Los síntomas más habituales de la enfermedad son diarrea, malnutrición, distensión abdominal, rechazo alimentario, anemia, osteoporosis y en niños, retraso en el crecimiento. En España la prevalencia de la enfermedad celíaca es del 1% aunque hay que tener en cuenta que según estudios recientes el 75% de los celíacos están sin diagnosticar. En la actualidad el único tratamiento posible es mantener de por vida una alimentación libre de gluten. Cuando se sigue una dieta estricta sin gluten, las personas celíacas recuperan la estructura normal del intestino y desaparecen los síntomas descritos. El enfermo celíaco debe retirar de su dieta habitual los cereales que contienen gluten y todos los derivados de éstos. Algunos alimentos se identifican fácilmente, como por ejemplo, harinas, pastas alimenticias, productos de bollería y pastelería, panes, etc. Sin embargo, otros derivados forman parte de los alimentos como ingredientes y no se reconocen fácilmente. Dentro de este grupo se encuentran féculas, malta, sémolas, aditivos espesantes, etc.

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Coeliac disease is one of the most common food intolerances worldwide and at present the gluten free diet remains the only suitable treatment. A market overview conducted as part of this thesis on nutritional and sensory quality of commercially available gluten free breads and pasta showed that improvements are necessary. Many products show strong off-flavors, poor mouthfeel and reduced shelf-life. Since the life-long avoidance of the cereal protein gluten means a major change to the diet, it is important to also consider the nutritional value of products intending to replace staple foods such as bread or pasta. This thesis addresses this issue by characterising available gluten free cereal and pseudocereal flours to facilitate a better raw material choice. It was observed that especially quinoa, buckwheat and teff are high in essential nutrients, such as protein, minerals and folate. In addition the potential of functional ingredients such as inulin, β-glucan, HPMC and xanthan to improve loaf quality were evaluated. Results show that these ingredients can increase loaf volume and reduce crumb hardness as well as rate of staling but that the effect diverges strongly depending on the bread formulation used. Furthermore, fresh egg pasta formulations based on teff and oat flour were developed. The resulting products were characterised regarding sensory and textural properties as well as in vitro digestibility. Scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy was used throughout the thesis to visualise structural changes occurring during baking and pasta making

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The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) formed the EPS dextran (a α-1,6-glucan) from sucrose in situ with a molecular size of 106 to 107 kDa. EPS formation in all breads was analysed using size exclusion chromatography and highest amounts were formed in buckwheat (4 g/ kg) and quinoa sourdough (3 g/ kg). The facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp) was identified as strong acidifier and was chosen due to its ubiquitous presence in gluten-free as well as wheat sourdoughs (Vogelmann et al. 2009). Both Wc and Lp, showed highest total titratable acids in buckwheat (16.8 ml; 26.0 ml), teff (16.2 ml; 24.5 ml) and quinoa sourdoughs (26.4 ml; 35.3 ml) correlating with higher amounts of fermentable sugars and higher buffering capacities. Sourdough incorporation reduced the crumb hardness after five days of storage in buckwheat (Wc -111%), teff (Wc -39%) and wheat (Wc -206%; Lp -118%) sourdough breads. The rate of staling (N/ day) was reduced in buckwheat (Ctrl 8 N; Wc 3 N; Lp 6 N), teff (Ctrl 13 N; Wc 9 N; Lp 10 N) and wheat (Ctrl 5 N; Wc 1 N; Lp 2 N) sourdough breads. Bread dough softening upon Wc and Lp sourdough incorporation accounted for increased crumb porosity in buckwheat (+10.4%; +4.7), teff (+8.1%; +8.3%) and wheat sourdough breads (+8.7%; +6.4%). Weissella cibaria MG1 sourdough improved the aroma quality of wheat bread but had no impact on aroma of gluten-free breads. Microbial shelf life however, was not prolonged in any of the breads regardless of the starter culture used. Due to the high prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus particular amongst coeliac patients, glycaemic control is of great (Berti et al. 2004). The in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads with and without sourdough addition was analysed to predict the GI (pGI). Sourdough can decrease starch hydrolysis in vitro, due to formation of resistant starch and organic acids. Predicted GI of gluten-free control breads were significantly lower than for the reference white wheat bread (GI=100). Starch granule size was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and was significantly smaller in quinoa flour (<2 μm). This resulted in higher enzymatic susceptibility and hence higher pGI for quinoa bread (95). Lowest hydrolysis indexes for sorghum and teff control breads (72 and 74, respectively) correlate with higher gelatinisation peak temperatures (69°C and 71°C, respectively). Levels of resistant starch were not increased by addition of Weissella cibaria MG1 (weak acidifier) or Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (strong acidifier). The pGI was significantly decreased for both wheat sourdough breads (Wc 85; Lp 76). Lactic acid can promote starch interactions with gluten hence decreasing starch susceptibility (Östman et al. 2002). For most gluten-free breads, the pGI was increased upon sourdough addition. Only sorghum and teff Lp sourdough breads (69 and 68, respectively) had significantly decreased pGI. Results suggest that the increase of starch hydrolysis in gluten-free breads was related to mechanism other than presence of organic acids and formation of resistant starch.

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The physicochemical and nutritional properties of two fruit by-products were initially studied. Apple pomace (AP) contained a high level of fibre and pectin. The isolated AP pectin had a high level of methylation which developed viscous pastes. Orange pomace also had high levels of fibre and pectin, and it was an abundant source of minerals such as potassium and magnesium. Due to the fibrous properties of orange pomace flour, proofing and water addition were studied in a bread formulation. When added at levels greater than 6%, the loaf volume decreased. An optimised formulation and proofing time was derived using the optimisation tool; these consisted of 5.5% orange pomace, 94.6% water inclusion and with 49 minutes proofing. These optimised parameters doubled the total dietary fibre content of the bread compared to the original control. Pasting results showed how orange pomace inclusions reduced the final viscosity of the batter, reducing the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. Rheological properties i.e. the storage modulus (G') and complex modulus (G*) increased in the orange pomace batter compared to the control batter. This demonstrates how the orange pomace as an ingredient improved the robustness of the formulation. Sensory panellists scored the orange pomace bread comparably to the control bread. Milled apple pomace was studied as a potential novel ingredient in an extruded snack. Parameters studied included apple pomace addition, die head temperature and screw speed. As screw speed increased the favourable extrudate characteristics such as radical expansion ratio, porosity and specific volume decreased. The inclusion of apple pomace had a negative effect on extrudate characteristics at levels greater than 8% addition. Including apple pomace reduced the hardness and increased the crispiness of the snack. The optimised and validated formulation and extrusion process contained the following parameters: 7.7% apple pomace, 150°C die head temperature and a screw speed of 69 rpm.

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As part of the “free-from” trend, biopreservation for bread products has increasingly become important to prevent spoilage since artificial preservatives are more and more rejected by consumers. A literature review conducted as part of this thesis revealed that the evaluation of more suitable antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is important. Moreover, increasing the knowledge about the origin of the antifungal effect is fundamental for further enhancement of biopreservation. This thesis addresses the investigation of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280, Lb. brevis R2: and Lb. reuteri R29 for biopreservation using in vitro trials and in situ sourdough fermentations of quinoa, rice and wheat flours as biopreservatives in breads. Their contribution to quality and shelf life extension on bread was compared and related to their metabolic activity and substrate features. Moreover, the quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids produced during sourdough fermentation was analysed. Overall a specific profile of antifungal compounds was found in the sourdough samples which were strain and substrate dependently different. The best preservative effect in quinoa sourdough and wheat sourdough bread was achieved when Lb. amylovorus DSM19280 fermented sourdough was used. However, the concentration of the antifungal compounds found in these biopreservatives were much lower when compared with Lb. reuteri R29 as the highest producer. Nevertheless, the artificial application of the highest concentration of these antifungal compounds in chemically acidified wheat sourdough bread succeeded in a longer shelf life than achieved only by acidifying the dough. This evidences their partial contribution to the antifungal activity and their synergy. Additionally, a HRGC/MS method for the identification and quantification of the antifungal active compounds cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Pro-Pro), cyclo(Met-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro) was successfully developed by using stable isotope dilutions assays with the deuterated counterparts. It was observed that the concentrations of cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Pro-Pro), and cyclo(Phe-Pro) increased only moderately in MRS-broth and wort fermentation by the activity of the selected microorganism, whereas the concentration of cyclo(Met-Pro) stayed unchanged.

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OBJECTIVE: Strict lifelong compliance to a gluten-free diet (GFD) minimizes the long-term risk of mortality, especially from lymphoma, in adult celiac disease (CD). Although serum IgA antitransglutaminase (IgA-tTG-ab), like antiendomysium (IgA-EMA) antibodies, are sensitive and specific screening tests for untreated CD, their reliability as predictors of strict compliance to and dietary transgressions from a GFD is not precisely known. We aimed to address this question in consecutively treated adult celiacs. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 95 non-IgA deficient adult (median age: 41 yr) celiacs on a GFD for at least 1 yr (median: 6 yr) were subjected to 1) a dietician-administered inquiry to pinpoint and quantify the number and levels of transgressions (classified as moderate or large, using as a cutoff value the median gluten amount ingested in the overall noncompliant patients of the series) over the previous 2 months, 2) a search for IgA-tTG-ab and -EMA, and 3) perendoscopic duodenal biopsies. The ability of both antibodies to discriminate celiacs with and without detected transgressions was described using receiver operating characteristic curves and quantified as to sensitivity and specificity, according to the level of transgressions. RESULTS: Forty (42%) patients strictly adhered to a GFD, 55 (58%) had committed transgressions, classified as moderate (< or = 18 g of gluten/2 months; median number 6) in 27 and large (>18 g; median number 69) in 28. IgA-tTG-ab and -EMA specificity (proportion of correct recognition of strictly compliant celiacs) was 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, and sensitivity (proportion of correct recognition of overall, moderate, and large levels of transgressions) was 0.52, 0.31, and 0.77, and 0.62, 0.37, and 0.86, respectively. IgA-tTG-ab and -EMA titers were correlated (p < 0.001) to transgression levels (r = 0.560 and R = 0.631, respectively) and one to another (p < 0.001) in the whole patient population (r = 0.834, N = 84) as in the noncompliant (r = 0.915, N = 48) group. Specificity and sensitivity of IgA-tTG-ab and IgA-EMA for recognition of total villous atrophy in patients under a GFD were 0.90 and 0.91, and 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In adult CD patients on a GFD, IgA-tTG-ab are poor predictors of dietary transgressions. Their negativity is a falsely secure marker of strict diet compliance.