149 resultados para Microcystins


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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Microcystins (MC) are the most studied toxins of cyanobacteria since they are widely distributed and account for several cases of human and animal poisoning, being potent inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). The phosphatases PP1 and PP2A are also present in plants, which may also suffer adverse effects due to the inhibition of these enzymes. In aquatic plants, biomass reduction is usually observed after absorption of cyanotoxins, which can bioaccumulate in its tissues. In terrestrial plants, the effects caused by microcystins vary from inhibition to stimulation as the individuals develop from seedling to adult, and include reduction of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, oxidative stress, decreased photosynthetic activity and even cell apoptosis, as well as bioaccumulation in plant tissues. Thus, the irrigation of crop plants by water contaminated with microcystins is not only an economic problem but becomes a public health issue because of the possibility of food contamination, and this route of exposure requires careful monitoring by the responsible authorities.

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In this manuscript, an automatic setup for screening of microcystins in surface waters by employing photometric detection is described. Microcystins are toxins delivered by cyanobacteria within an aquatic environment, which have been considered strongly poisonous for humans. For that reason, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a provisional guideline value for drinking water of 1 mu g L-1. In this work, we developed an automated equipment setup, which allows the screening of water for concentration of microcystins below 0.1 mu g V. The photometric method was based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the analytical signal was monitored at 458 nm using a homemade LED-based photometer. The proposed system was employed for the detection of microcystins in rivers and lakes waters. Accuracy was assessed by processing samples using a reference method and applying the paired t-test between results. No significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. Other useful features including a linear response ranging from 0.05 up to 2.00 mu g L-1 (R-2 =0.999) and a detection limit of 0.03 mu g L-1 microcystins were achieved. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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The contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by water-borne crude extracts of the cyanobacterium microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa (Kutzing) Kutzing was investigated. The aim of the study was to determine whether bioaccumulation of microcystins occurs in lettuce foliar tissue when sprayed with solutions containing microcystins at concentrations observed in aquatic systems (0.62 to 12.5 mu g center dot L-1). Microcystins were found in lettuce foliar tissues (8.31 to 177.8 mu g per Kg of fresh weight) at all concentrations of crude extracts. Spraying with water containing microcystins and cyanobacteria may contaminate lettuce at levels higher than the daily intake of microcystins recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), underscoring the need to monitor such food exposure pathways by public authorities.

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The increased occurrence of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms and the production of associated cyanotoxins have presented a threat to drinking water sources. Among the most common types of cyanotoxins found in potable water are microcystins (MCs), a family of cyclic heptapeptides containing substrates. MCs are strongly hepatotoxic and known to initiate tumor promoting activity. The presence of sub-lethal doses of MCs in drinking water is implicated as one of the key risk factors for an unusually high occurrence of primary liver cancer. ^ A variety of traditional water treatment methods have been attempted for the removal of cyanotoxins, but with limited success. Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) are attractive alternatives to traditional water treatments. We have demonstrated ultrasonic irradiation and UV/H2O2 lead to the degradation of cyanotoxins in drinking water. These studies demonstrate AOTs can effectively degrade MCs and their associated toxicity is dramatically reduced. We have conducted detailed studies of different degradation pathways of MCs and conclude that the hydroxyl radical is responsible for a significant fraction of the observed degradation. Results indicate preliminary products of the sonolysis of MCs are due to the hydroxyl radical attack on the benzene ring and substitution and cleavage of the diene of the Adda peptide residue. AOTs are attractive methods for treatment of cyanotoxins in potable water supplies. ^ The photochemical transformation of MCs is important in the environmental degradation of MCs. Previous studies implicated singlet oxygen as a primary oxidant in the photochemical transformation of MCs. Our results indicate that singlet oxygen predominantly leads to degradation of the phycocyanin, pigments of blue green algae, hence reducing the degradation of MCs. The predominant process involves isomerization of the diene (6E to 6Z) in the Adda side chain via photosensitized isomerization involving the photoexcited phycocyanin. Our results indicate that photosensitized processes play a key role in the environmental fate and elimination of MCs in the natural waters. ^

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Several cyanobacterial genera produce the hepatotoxins, microcystins. Microcystins are produced only in cells that have microcystin synthetase gene (mcy) clusters, which encode enzyme complexes involved in microcystin biosynthesis. Microcystin-producing and nonmicrocystin-producing genotypes of single cyanobacterial genus may occur simultaneously in situ. Previously, the effects of environmental factors on the growth and microcystin production of cyanobacteria have mainly been studied by means of isolated cyanobacteria cultures in the laboratory. Studies in the field have been difficult, owing to the lack of methods to identify and quantify the different genotypes. In this study, genus-specific microcystin synthetase E (mcyE) gene primers were designed and a method to identify and quantify the mcyE copy numbers was developed and used in situ. Microcystis and Anabaena mcyE genes were observed in two Finnish lakes. Microcystis appeared to be the most abundant microcystin producer in Lake Tuusulanjärvi and in one basin of Lake Hiidenvesi. Because the most potent microcystin-producing genus of a lake can be identified, it will be possible in the future to design genus-targeted strategies for lake restoration. Effects of P and N concentrations on the biomass of microcystin-producing and nonmicrocystin-producing Microcystis strains and an Anabaena strain were studied in cultures. P and N concentrations and their combined effect increased cyanobacterial biomass of all Microcystis strains. The biomass of microcystin-producing Microcystis was higher than that of nonmicrocystin-producing strains at high nutrient concentrations. The P concentration increased Anabaena biomass, but the effect of N concentration was statistically insignificant for growth yield, probably due to the ability of the genus to fix molecular N2. P and N concentrations and combined nutrients caused an increase in cellular microcystin concentrations of the Microcystis strain cultivated in chemostat cultures. Cyanobacteria are able to hydrolyse nutrients from organic matter through extracellular enzyme activities. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity was observed in an axenic N2-fixing Anabaena strain grown in batch cultures. The P concentration caused a statistically significant increase in LAP activity, whereas the effect of N concentration was insignificant. The highest LAP activities were observed in the most eutrophic basins of Lake Hiidenvesi. LAP activity probably originated mostly from attached heterotrophic bacteria and less from cyanobacteria.

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Mass occurrences (blooms) of cyanobacteria are common in aquatic environments worldwide. These blooms are often toxic, due to the presence of hepatotoxins or neurotoxins. The most common cyanobacterial toxins are hepatotoxins: microcystins and nodularins. In freshwaters, the main producers of microcystins are Microcystis, Anabaena, and Planktothrix. Nodularins are produced by strains of Nodularia spumigena in brackish waters. Toxic and nontoxic strains of cyanobacteria co-occur and cannot be differentiated by conventional microscopy. Molecular biological methods based on microcystin and nodularin synthetase genes enable detection of potentially hepatotoxic cyanobacteria. In the present study, molecular detection methods for hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were developed, based on microcystin synthetase gene E (mcyE) and the orthologous nodularin synthetase gene F (ndaF) sequences. General primers were designed to amplify the mcyE/ndaF gene region from microcystin-producing Anabaena, Microcystis, Planktothrix, and Nostoc, and nodularin-producing Nodularia strains. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analyses to study how cyanobacterial mcy genes have evolved. The results showed that mcy genes and microcystin are very old and were already present in the ancestor of many modern cyanobacterial genera. The results also suggested that the sporadic distribution of biosynthetic genes in modern cyanobacteria is caused by repeated gene losses in the more derived lineages of cyanobacteria and not by horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analysis also proposed that nda genes evolved from mcy genes. The frequency and composition of the microcystin producers in 70 lakes in Finland were studied by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Potential microcystin producers were detected in 84% of the lakes, using general mcyE primers, and in 91% of the lakes with the three genus-specific mcyE primers. Potential microcystin-producing Microcystis were detected in 70%, Planktothrix in 63%, and Anabaena in 37% of the lakes. The presence and co-occurrence of potential microcystin producers were more frequent in eutrophic lakes, where the total phosphorus concentration was high. The PCR results could also be associated with various environmental factors by correlation and regression analyses. In these analyses, the total nitrogen concentration and pH were both associated with the presence of multiple microcystin-producing genera and partly explained the probability of occurrence of mcyE genes. In general, the results showed that higher nutrient concentrations increased the occurrence of potential microcystin producers and the risk for toxic bloom formation. Genus-specific probe pairs for microcystin-producing Anabaena, Microcystis, Planktothrix, and Nostoc, and nodularin-producing Nodularia were designed to be used in a DNA-chip assay. The DNA-chip can be used to simultaneously detect all these potential microcystin/nodularin producers in environmental water samples. The probe pairs detected the mcyE/ndaF genes specifically and sensitively when tested with cyanobacterial strains. In addition, potential microcystin/nodularin producers were identified in lake and Baltic Sea samples by the DNA-chip almost as sensitively as by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), which was used to validate the DNA-chip results. Further improvement of the DNA-chip assay was achieved by optimization of the PCR, the first step in the assay. Analysis of the mcy and nda gene clusters from various hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacteria was rewarding; it revealed that the genes were ancient. In addition, new methods detecting all the main producers of hepatotoxins could be developed. Interestingly, potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial strains of Microcystis, Planktothrix, and Anabaena, co-occurred especially in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes. Protecting waters from eutrophication and restoration of lakes may thus decrease the prevalence of toxic cyanobacteria and the frequency of toxic blooms.

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Cyanobacterial mass occurrences, also known as water blooms, have been associated with adverse health effects of both humans and animals. They can also be a burden to drinking water treatment facilities. Risk assessments of the blooms have generally focused on the cyanobacteria themselves and their toxins. However, heterotrophic bacteria thriving among cyanobacteria may also be responsible for many of the adverse health effects, but their role as the etiological agents of these health problems is poorly known. In addition, studies on the water purification efficiency of operating water treatment plants during cyanobacterial mass occurrences in their water sources are rare. In the present study, over 600 heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from natural freshwater, brackish water or from treated drinking water. The sampling sites were selected as having frequent cyanobacterial occurrences in the water bodies or in the water sources of the drinking water treatment plants. In addition, samples were taken from sites where cyanobacterial water blooms were surmised to have caused human health problems. The isolated strains represented bacteria from 57 different genera of the Gamma-, Alpha- or Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Bacilli and Deinococci classes, based on their partial 16S rRNA sequences. Several isolates had no close relatives among previously isolated bacteria or cloned 16S rRNA genes of uncultivated bacteria. The results show that water blooms are associated with a diverse community of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria. Chosen subsets of the isolated strains were analysed for features such as their virulence gene content and possible effect on cyanobacterial growth. Of the putatively pathogenic haemolytic strains isolated in the study, the majority represented the genus Aeromonas. Therefore, the Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from water samples associated with adverse health effects were screened for the virulence gene types encoding for enterotoxins (ast, alt and act/aerA/hlyA), flagellin subunits (flaA/flaB), lipase (lip/pla/lipH3/alp-1) and elastase (ahyB) by PCR. The majority (90%) of the Aeromonas strains included one or more of the six screened Aeromonas virulence gene types. The most common gene type was act, which was present in 77% of the strains. The fla, ahyB and lip genes were present in 30 37% of the strains. The prevalence of the virulence genes implies that the Aeromonas may be a factor in some of the cyanobacterial associated health problems. Of the 183 isolated bacterial strains that were studied for possible effects on cyanobacterial growth, the majority (60%) either enhanced or inhibited growth of cyanobacteria. In most cases, they enhanced the growth, which implies mutualistic interactions. The results indicate that the heterotrophic bacteria have a role in the rise and fall of the cyanobacterial water blooms. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics and the ability to degrade cyanobacterial hepatotoxins of 13 previously isolated Betaproteobacteria strains, were also studied. The strains originated from Finnish lakes with frequent cyanobacterial occurrence. Tested strains degraded microcystins -LR and -YR and nodularin. The strains could not be assigned to any described bacterial genus or species based on their genetic or phenotypic features. On the basis of their characteristics a new genus and species Paucibacter toxinivorans was proposed for them. The water purification efficiency of the drinking water treatment processes during cyanobacterial water bloom in water source was assessed at an operating surface water treatment plant. Large phytoplankton, cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, endotoxins and cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were efficiently reduced to low concentrations, often below the detection limits. In contrast, small planktonic cells, including also possible bacterial cells, regularly passed though the water treatment. The passing cells may contribute to biofilm formation within the water distribution system, and therefore lower the obtained drinking water quality. The bacterial strains of this study offer a rich source of isolated strains for examining interactions between cyanobacteria and the heterotrophic bacteria associated with them. The degraders of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins could perhaps be utilized to assist the removal of the hepatotoxins during water treatment, whereas inhibitors of cyanobacterial growth might be useful in controlling cyanobacterial water blooms. The putative pathogenicity of the strains suggests that the health risk assessment of the cyanobacterial blooms should also cover the heterotrophic bacteria.

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Syanobakteerit (sinilevät) ovat olleet Itämeressä koko nykymuotoisen Itämeren ajan, sillä paleolimnologiset todisteet niiden olemassaolosta Itämeren alueella ovat noin 7000 vuoden takaa. Syanobakteerien massaesiintymät eli kukinnat ovat kuitenkin sekä levinneet laajemmille alueille että tulleet voimakkaimmiksi viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana. Tähän on osasyynä ihmisten aiheuttama kuormitus, joka rehevöittää Itämerta. Suomenlahti, jota tämä tutkimus käsittelee, on kärsinyt tästä rehevöitymiskehityksestä muita Itämeren altaita enemmän. Syanobakteerit muodostavat jokakesäisiä kukintoja Suomenlahdella - niin sen avomerialueilla kuin rannoillakin. Yleisimmät kukintoja muodostavat syanobakteerisuvut ovat Nodularia, Anabaena ja Aphanizomenon. Kukinnat aiheuttavat paitsi esteettistä haittaa myös terveydellisen riskitekijän. Niiden myrkyllisyys liitetään usein Nodularia-suvun tuottamaan nodulariini-maksamyrkkyyn. Itämeren Aphanizomenon-suvun on todettu olevan myrkytön. Vaikka Itämeren kukintoja aiheuttavista Nodularia- ja Aphanizomenon-syanobakteereista tiedetään varsin paljon, on molekyylimenetelmiin pohjautuva syanobakteeritutkimus ohittanut Itämeren Anabaena-suvun monelta osin. Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli syventää käsitystämme Itämeren Anabaena-syanobakteerista, sen mahdollisesta myrkyllisyydestä, geneettisestä monimuotoisuudesta ja fylogeneettisista sukulaisuussuhteista. Tässä työssä eristettiin 49 planktista Anabaena-kantaa, joista viisi tuottivat mikrokystiinejä. Tämä oli ensimmäinen yksiselitteinen todiste, että Itämeren Anabaena tuottaa maksamyrkyllisiä mikrokystiini-yhdisteitä. Jokainen eristetty myrkyllinen Anabaena-kanta tuotti useita mikrokystiini-variantteja. Lisäksi mikrokystiinejä löydettiin kukintanäytteistä, joissa oli myrkkyä syntetisoivia geenejä sisältäneitä Anabaena-syanobakteereita. Myrkkyjä löydettiin molempina tutkimusvuosina 2003 ja 2004. Myrkkyjen esiintyminen ei siten ollut vain yksittäinen ilmiö. Tässä työssä saimme viitteitä siitä, että maksamyrkyllinen Anabaena-syanobakteeri esiintyisi vähäsuolaisissa vesissä. Tämä riippuvuussuhde jää kuitenkin tulevien tutkimuksien selvitettäväksi. Tässä työssä havaittiin mikrokystiinisyntetaasi-geenien inaktivoituminen Itämeren Anabaena-kannassa ja kukintanäytteissä. Kuvasimme Anabaena-kannan mikrokystiinisyntetaasigeenien sisältä insertioita, jotka hyvin todennäköisesti inaktivoivat myrkyntuoton. Insertion sisältäneeltä kannalta löysimme kuitenkin kaikki mikrokystiinisyntetaasigeenit osoittaen, että geenien olemassaolo ei välttämättä varmista kannan mikrokystiinintuottoa. Mielenkiintoista oli se, että inaktivaation aiheuttavia insertioita löytyi kukintanäytteistä molemmilta tutkimusvuosilta. Vastaavia insertioita ei kuitenkaan löydetty makean veden Anabaena-kannoista tai järvinäytteistä. On yleistä, että syanobakteerikukinnoista löytyy usean syanobakteerisuvun edustajia. Myrkyllisiä sukuja tai lajeja ei voida kuitenkaan erottaa mikroskooppisesti myrkyttömistä. Käsillä olevassa tutkimuksessa kehitettiin molekyylimenetelmä, jolla on mahdollista määrittää kukinnan mahdollisesti maksamyrkylliset syanobakteerisuvut. Tätä menetelmää sovellettiin Itämeren kukintojen tutkimiseen. Itämeren pintavesistä ja ranta-alueiden pohjasta eristetyt Anabaena-kannat osoittautuivat geneettisesti monimuotoisiksi. Tämä Anabaena-syanobakteerien geneettinen monimuotoisuus vahvistettiin monistamalla geenejä suoraan kukintanäytteistä ilman kantojen eristystä. Makeiden vesien ja Itämeren Anabaena-kannat ovat geneettisesti hyvin samankaltaisia. Geneettisissä vertailuissa kävi kuitenkin ilmi, että pohjassa elävien Anabaena-kantojen geneettinen monimuotoisuus oli suurempaa kuin pintavesistä eristettyjen kantojen. Itämeren Anabaena-kantojen sekvenssit muodostivat omia ryhmiä sukupuun sisällä, jolloin on mahdollista, että nämä edustavat Itämeren omia Anabaena-ekotyyppejä. Tämä tutkimus oli ensimmäinen, jossa uusin molekyylimenetelmin systemaattisesti selvitettiin Itämeren Anabaena-syanobakteerin geneettistä populaatiorakennetta, fylogeniaa ja myrkyntuottoa. Tulevaisuudessa monitorointitutkimuksissa on otettava huomioon myös Itämeren Anabaena-syanobakteerin mahdollinen maksamyrkyntuotto – erityisesti vähäsuolaisemmilla rannikkovesillä.

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2甲-基-3-甲氧基-4-苯基丁酸(MMPB)法是检测微囊藻毒素(Microcystins,MC)的重要方法之一。本文研究了温度、pH值、反应时间和氧化剂浓度等实验参数的影响,并在优化条件下采用气相色谱法对水中的微囊藻毒素进行检测。实验得到的最佳反应条件为:pH=9,初始反应温度2℃反应1 h,再升温至25℃反应2 h;KMnO4的初始浓度为0.0156 mol/L。本法对水溶液中的微囊藻的检出限为0.0225μg,回收率为93.5%。

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A 115 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary cyanobacteria on growth, microcystins (MCs) accumulation in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus) and the recovery when the fish were free of cyanobacteria. Three experimental diets were formulated: the control (cyanobacteria free diet); one test diet with cyanobacteria from Lake Taihu (AMt 80.0 mu g MCs g(-1) diet) and one with cyanobacteria from Lake Dianchi (AMd, 410.0 rho g MCs g(-1) diet). Each diet was fed to fish for 60 days and then all fish were free of cyanobacteria for another 55 days. A significant increase in feeding rate (FR) was observed in fish fed AMd diet after a first 30-day exposure (1(st) EP), and in fish fed both AMt diet and AMd diet after a second 30-day exposure (2(nd) EP). Specific growth rates (SGR) of fish fed AMt diet and AMd diet were both obviously affected after the first 30-day exposure, but SGR was only significantly affected in fish fed AMt diet after the second 30-day exposure. After a 55-day recovery, there were no significant differences among diets in the indices mentioned above. Much higher concentrations of MCs were accumulated in tissues of all fish exposed to cyanobacteria. After the 55-day recovery, MC concentrations in fish tissues were significantly lower than those on day 60. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Recent studies in mammals have revealed that the cyanobacterial toxin MC-LR suppresses immune functions. Nevertheless, immunotoxic effects of microcystins have been little studied in fish. In this paper, we present the profiles of the immune modulation of MC-LR in grass carp, and quantitative real-time PCR methodology was developed for the measurement of relative transcription changes of six immune-related genes in the spleen and head kidney of the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, which were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mu g MC-LR center dot kg(-1) body weight in a three-week period. This study was focused exclusively on gene transcription level changes at different time points after MC-LR exposure, so, only one dose was given. The investigated genes were interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), type I interferon (Type I IFN), peptidoglycan recognition protein-L (PGRP-L), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) genes. The results demonstrated that the transcription levels of the TNF-alpha, type I IFN, and PGRP-L genes in the spleen and head kidney were significantly low at all time points, and those of IL-1 beta were significantly low in the head kidney at different time points. In addition, IgM and MHC-I transcription levels were only significantly low in the spleen and head kidney at 21 d postinjection. The changes in the transcription levels of immune-related genes induced by MC-LR confirmed its effect on inhibiting immune function at the transcription level.

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Microcystins are heptapeptide toxins produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-RR(MC-RR) is a common variant among the 80 variants identified so far. There have been many investigations documenting the toxic effects of microcystins on animals and higher plants, but little is known on the toxic effects of microcystins on algae, especially at molecular level. We studied the effects of MC-RR on gene expression profile of a few antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. After two days post-exposure, a high dose toxin (5 mg/l, about 4.8 x 10(-3) mM) significantly increased expression levels of the genes gpx1, sodB, katG, acnB, gamma-TMTand dnaK2, while a relatively low dose toxin (1 mg/l, about 9.63 x 10(-4) mM) induced a moderate and slow increase of gene expression. Our results indicate that MC-RR could induce the oxidative stress in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and the increase in gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Hsp70 might protect the organism from the oxidative damage. in addition, cell aggregation was observed during the early period of exposure, which might be a specific oxidative stress reaction to MC-RR. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.