2 resultados para genotypes
em Cochin University of Science
The microalgal community as primary producers has to play a significant role in the biotic and abitoic interactions of any aquatic ecosystem. Whenever a community is exposed to a pollutant, responses can occur because individuals acclimate to pollutant caused changes and selection can occur favouring resistant genotypes within a population and selection among species can result in changes in community structure. The microalgal community of industrial effluent treatment systems are continuously exposed to pollutants and there is little data available on the structure and seasonal variation of microalgal community of industrial effluent holding ponds, especially of a complex effluent like that of refinery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the annual variation in the ecology, biomass, productivity and community structure of the algal community of a refinery effluent holding pond. The results of the study showed the pond to be a eutrophic system with a resistant microalgal community with distinct seasonal variation in species composition
In the present study diversity of E. coli in the water samples of Cochin estuary were studied for a period of 3 years ranging from January 2010- December 2012. The stations were selected based on the closeness to satellite townships and waste input. Two of the stations (Chitoor and Thevara) were fixed upstream, two in the central part of the estuary namely Bolgatty and Off Marine Science Jetty, and one at the Barmouth. Diversity was assessed in terms of serotypes, phylogenetic groups and genotypes. Two groups of seafood samples such as fish and shellfish collected from the Cochin estuary were used for isolation of E. coli. One hundred clinical E. coli isolates were collected from one public health centre, one hospital and five medical labs in and around Cochin City, Kerala. From our results it was clear that pathogen cycling is occurring through food, water and clinical sources. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and fish and shellfish that harbour these strains might pose potential health risk to consumer. Estuarine environment is a melting pot for various kinds of wastes, both organic and inorganic. Mixing up of waste water from various sources such as domestic, industries, hospitals and sewage released into these water bodies resulting in the co-existence of E. coli from various sources thus offering a conducive environment for horizontal gene transfer. Opportunistic pathogens might acquire genes for drug resistance and virulence turning them to potential pathogens. Prevalence of ExPEC in the Cochin estuary, pose threat to people who use this water for fishing and recreation. Food chain also plays an important role in the transit of virulence genes from the environments to the human. Antibiotic resistant E. coli are widespread in estuarine water, seafood and clinical samples, for reasons well known such as indiscriminate use of antibiotics in animal production systems, aquaculture and human medicine. Since the waste water from these sources entering the estuary provides selection pressure to drug resistant mutants in the environment. It is high time that the authorities concerned should put systems in place for monitoring and enforcement to curb such activities. Microbial contamination can limit people’s enjoyment of coastal waters for contact recreation or shellfish-gathering. E. coli can make people sick if they are present in high levels in water used for contact recreation or shellfish gathering. When feeding, shellfish can filter large volumes of seawater, so any microorganisms present in the water become accumulated and concentrated in the shellfish flesh. If E. coli contaminated shellfish are consumed the impact to human health includes gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bacteraemia. In conclusion, the high prevalence of various pathogenic serotypes and phylogenetic groups, multidrug-resistance, and virulence factor genes detected among E. coli isolates from stations close to Cochin city is a matter of concern, since there is a large reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence traits within the community, and that the resistance genes and plasmid-encoded genes for virulence were easily transferable to other strains. Given the severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease in humans and the inability and/or the potential risks of antibiotic administration for treatment, it appears that the most direct and effective measure towards prevention of STEC and ExPEC infections in humans and ensuring public health may be considered as a priority.