6 resultados para Microcystins

em Biblioteca Digital da Produ����o Intelectual da Universidade de S��o Paulo


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In this manuscript, an automatic setup for screening of microcystins in surface waters by employing photometric detection is described. Microcystins are toxins delivered by cyanobacteria within an aquatic environment, which have been considered strongly poisonous for humans. For that reason, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a provisional guideline value for drinking water of 1 mu g L-1. In this work, we developed an automated equipment setup, which allows the screening of water for concentration of microcystins below 0.1 mu g V. The photometric method was based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the analytical signal was monitored at 458 nm using a homemade LED-based photometer. The proposed system was employed for the detection of microcystins in rivers and lakes waters. Accuracy was assessed by processing samples using a reference method and applying the paired t-test between results. No significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. Other useful features including a linear response ranging from 0.05 up to 2.00 mu g L-1 (R-2 =0.999) and a detection limit of 0.03 mu g L-1 microcystins were achieved. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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The contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by water-borne crude extracts of the cyanobacterium microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa (Kutzing) Kutzing was investigated. The aim of the study was to determine whether bioaccumulation of microcystins occurs in lettuce foliar tissue when sprayed with solutions containing microcystins at concentrations observed in aquatic systems (0.62 to 12.5 mu g center dot L-1). Microcystins were found in lettuce foliar tissues (8.31 to 177.8 mu g per Kg of fresh weight) at all concentrations of crude extracts. Spraying with water containing microcystins and cyanobacteria may contaminate lettuce at levels higher than the daily intake of microcystins recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), underscoring the need to monitor such food exposure pathways by public authorities.

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Species of Microcystis are the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in several countries. Despite extensive studies regarding the production of bioactive cyanopeptides in this genus, there are limited data on isolated strains from Brazil. Three Microcystis sp. strains were isolated from the Salto Grande Reservoir (LTPNA01, 08 and 09) and investigated for the presence of mcy genes, microcystins and other cyanopeptides. Microcystin and microginin production was confirmed in two isolates using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry after electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TOF), and the structures of two new microginin congeners were proposed (MG756 Ahda-Val-Leu-Hty-Tyr and MG770 MeAhda-Val-Leu-Hty-Tyr). The biosynthesis profile of the identified cyanopeptides was evaluated at different growth phases via a newly developed HPLC-UV method. Results demonstrated no substantial differences in the production of microcystins and microginins after data normalization to cell quota, suggesting a constitutive biosynthesis. This study represents the first confirmed co-production of microginins and microcystins in Brazilian strains of Microcystis sp. and highlights the potential of Brazilian cyanobacteria as a source of natural compounds with pharmaceutical interest.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of new oligonucleotide primers (mcyB-F/R, mcyB-F/R-A, and mcyB-F/R-B) designed from Brazilian cyanobacteria for the detection of microcystin-producing genotypes in 27 environmental samples from water reservoirs and 11 strains of Microcystis. Microcystins were found using HPLC in all 11 strains and 19 of the environmental samples. The new oligonucleotide primers amplified fragments of microcystin-producing genes, including the eight environmental samples in which no microcystins were detected by HPLC, but which presented amplified fragments, thereby demonstrating the existence of microcystin-producing genes. The new oligonucleotide primers exhibited better specificity when used with environmental samples and were more reliable in comparison with those described in the literature (mcyB-FAA/RAA and mcyA-Cd/FR), which generate false-negative results. The better performance of these new oligonucleotide primers underline the need for designing molecular markers that are well fitted to the regional biological diversity. As this is a fast predictive technique for determining the presence or absence of microcystins, it could be used either alone or in conjunction with other techniques, such as the screening of samples to be sent for quantitative toxicological analysis using HPLC, thereby reducing monitoring cost and time. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.

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Water pollution caused by toxic cyanobacteria is a problem worldwide, increasing with eutrophication. Due to its biological significance, genotoxicity should be a focus for biomonitoring pollution owing to the increasing complexity of the toxicological environment in which organisms are exposed. Cyanobacteria produce a large number of bioactive compounds, most of which lack toxicological data. Microcystins comprise a class of potent cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced mainly by Microcystis aeruginosa. Other natural products can also be synthesized by cyanobacteria, such as the protease inhibitor, aeruginosin. The hepatotoxicity of microcystins has been well documented, but information on the genotoxic effects of aeruginosins is relatively scarce. In this study, the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of methanolic extracts from two strains of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4, containing high levels of microcystin, and M. aeruginosa NPCD-1, with high levels of aeruginosin, were evaluated. Four endpoints, using plant assays in Allium cepa were applied: rootlet growth inhibition, chromosomal aberrations, mitotic divisions, and micronucleus assays. The microcystin content of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 was confirmed through ELISA, while M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 did not produce microcystins. The extracts of M. aeruginosa NPLJ-4 were diluted at 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ppb of microcystins: the same procedure was used to dilute M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 used as a parameter for comparison, and water was used as the control. The results demonstrated that both strains inhibited root growth and induced rootlet abnormalities. The strain rich in aeruginosin was more genotoxic, altering the cell cycle, while microcystins were more mitogenic. These findings indicate the need for future research on non-microcystin producing cyanobacterial strains. Understanding the genotoxicity of M. aeruginosa extracts can help determine a possible link between contamination by aquatic cyanobacteria and high risk of primary liver cancer found in some areas as well as establish water level limits for compounds not yet studied. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Abstract Background Many important toxins and antibiotics are produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. Microcystins are a chemically diverse family of potent peptide toxins and the end-products of a hybrid NRPS and PKS secondary metabolic pathway. They are produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and are responsible for the poisoning of humans as well as the deaths of wild and domestic animals around the world. The chemical diversity of the microcystin family is attributed to a number of genetic events that have resulted in the diversification of the pathway for microcystin assembly. Results Here, we show that independent evolutionary events affecting the substrate specificity of the microcystin biosynthetic pathway have resulted in convergence on a rare [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR chemical variant. We detected this rare microcystin variant from strains of the distantly related genera Microcystis, Nostoc, and Phormidium. Phylogenetic analysis performed using sequences of the catalytic domains within the mcy gene cluster demonstrated a clear recombination pattern in the adenylation domain phylogenetic tree. We found evidence for conversion of the gene encoding the McyA2 adenylation domain in strains of the genera Nostoc and Phormidium. However, point mutations affecting the substrate-binding sequence motifs of the McyA2 adenylation domain were associated with the change in substrate specificity in two strains of Microcystis. In addition to the main [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR variant, these two strains produced a new microcystin that was identified as [Met1] microcystin-LR. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both point mutations and gene conversion result in functional mcy gene clusters that produce the same rare [D-Leu1] variant of microcystin in strains of the genera Microcystis, Nostoc, and Phormidium. Engineering pathways to produce recombinant non-ribosomal peptides could provide new natural products or increase the activity of known compounds. Our results suggest that the replacement of entire adenylation domains could be a more successful strategy to obtain higher specificity in the modification of the non-ribosomal peptides than point mutations.