142 resultados para rotavirus


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Objective: To assess the impact of introducing a publicly funded infant rotavirus vaccination program on disease notifications and on laboratory testing and results. Design and setting: Retrospective analysis of routinely collected data (rotavirus notifications [2006–2008] and laboratory rotavirus testing data from Queensland Health laboratories [2000–2008]) to monitor rotavirus trends before and after the introduction of a publicly funded infant rotavirus vaccination program in Queensland in July 2007. Main outcome measures: Age group-specific rotavirus notification trends; number of rotavirus tests performed and the proportion positive. Results: In the less than 2 years age group, rotavirus notifications declined by 53% (2007) and 65% (2008); the number of laboratory tests performed declined by 3% (2007) and 15% (2008); and the proportion of tests positive declined by 45% (2007) and 43% (2008) compared with data collected before introduction of the vaccination program. An indirect effect of infant vaccination was seen: notifications and the proportion of tests positive for rotavirus declined in older age groups as well. Conclusions: The publicly funded rotavirus vaccination program in Queensland is having an early impact, direct and indirect, on rotavirus disease as assessed using routinely collected data. Further observational studies are required to assess vaccine effectiveness. Parents and immunisation providers should ensure that all Australian children receive the recommended rotavirus vaccine doses in the required timeframe.

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VP6, the intermediate capsid protein of the virion, specifies subgroup specificity of rotavirus, It is also the most conserved, both at nucleotide and amino acid levels, among group A rotaviruses and is the target of choice for rotavirus detection, In this study we report the sequence of the subgroup I (SGI)-specific VP6 from the serotype G2 strain IS2 isolated from a child suffering from acute diarrhoea in Bangalore ana its comparison with the published VP6 sequences. Interestingly, IS2 gene 6 shared highest homology with that from bovine UK strain and the protein contained substitutions by lysine at amino acid positions 97 and 134, In contrast, the amino acids Met and Glu/Asp at these respective positions are highly conserved in all the other group A rotaviruses sequenced so far, These observations have obvious implications for the evolution of serotype G2 and G2-like strains circulating in India, The SGI VP6, of a human rotavirus, possessing epitopes that are conformationally similar to those found in the native protein in the virion, was successfully expressed in E. coli and purified for the first time by single-step affinity chromatography.

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The complete sequence of a P4 type VP4 gene from a G2 serotype human rotavirus, IS2, isolated in India has been determined. Although the IS2 VP4 is highly homologous to the other P4 type alleles, it contained acidic amino acid substitutions at several positions that make it acidic among the P4 type alleles that are basic. Moreover, comparative sequence analysis revealed unusual polymorphism in members of the P4 type at amino acid position 393 which is highly conserved in members of other VP4 types. To date, expression of complete VP4 inE. coli has not been achieved. In this study we present successful expression inE. coli of the complete VP4 as well as VP8* and VP5* cleavage subunits in soluble form as fusion proteins of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and their purification by single-step affinity chromatography. The hemagglutinating activity exhibited by the recombinant protein was specifically inhibited by the antiserum raised against it. Availability of pure VP4 proteins should facilitate development of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for P serotyping of rotaviruses.

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Rotavirus is a major cause of acute infantile diarrhoea worldwide. The virus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA that codesfor six structural proteins (VP1-6) and six non-structural proteins(NSP1-6). NSPs are proteins expressed from the virus genome in the infected cell, but are not incorporated into the mature virus article. NSPs play an essential role in virus replication, morphogenesis and pathogenesis, and most of them exhibit multifunctional properties. Structure-function analysis of the NSPs is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the virus circumvents host innate immune responses, inhibits cellular protein synthesis, hijacks the protein synthetic machinery for its own propagation and manifests the disease process. Because of their essential roles in virus biology, NSPs represent potential targets for the development of antiviral agents. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of NSPs has been hindered due to low-level expression and aggregation. To date, the complete three-dimensional structure of only NSP2 has been determined. The structures of the N- and C-terminal domains of NSP3 and the diarrhoea-inducing domain of NSP4 have also been determined. This review primarily covers the structural and biological functions of the NSPs whose three-dimensional structural aspects have been fully or partially understood, but provides a brief account of other NSPs and the structural features of the mature virion as determined by electron cryomicroscopy.

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In an epidemiological study of symptomatic human rotaviruses in Mysore, India during 1993 and 1994, isolates MP409 and MP480 were isolated from two children suffering from severe, acute dehydrating diarrhea. Both isolates exhibited 'long' RNA pattern and subgroup I specificity suggesting the likelihood of their animal origin. Both isolates did not react with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for serotypes G1 to G6 as well as CIO. To determine the genetic origin of these isolates, complete nucleotide sequences of genes encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, nonstructural proteins NSP1 and NSP3 and viral enterotoxin protein NSP4 from MP409 and partial sequences of genes from MP480 were determined. Comparison of the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of 250 nucleotides revealed complete identity of the gene sequences in both strains suggesting that MP409 and MP480 are two different isolates of a single strain. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of VP4, VP7, NSP1 and NSP3 of MP409 with published sequences of strains belonging to different serotypes revealed that both outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 and NSP1 are highly related to the respective proteins from the P6[1], G8 type bovine rotavirus A5 isolated from a calf with diarrhoea in Thailand and that the NSP3 is highly homologous to that of bovine rotaviruses. The NSP 1 protein showed greatest sequence identity with NSP4s belonging to the KUN genetic group to which NSP4s from human G2 type strains and bovine rotaviruses belong. MP409 and MP480 likely signify interspecies transmission of P6[1], G8 type strains from cattle to humans and represent the first P6[1] type rotaviruses isolated in humans. These and our previous studies on the asymptomatic neonatal strain I321 are of evolutionary and epidemiological significance in the context of close association of majority of the Indian population with cattle.

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The nucleotide sequence of genes 4 and 9, encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 of a serotype 10 tissue culture-adapted strain, 1321, representative of asymptomatic neonatal rotaviruses isolated from neonates in Bangalore, India, were determined. Comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of 1321 VP4 and VP7 with previously published sequences of various serotypes revealed that both genes were highly homologous to the respective genes of serotype 10 bovine rotavirus, B223. The VP4 of 1321 represents a new human P serotype and the 1321 and related strains represent the first description of neonatal rotaviruses that appear to derive both surface proteins from an animal rotavirus.

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NSP3, an acidic nonstructural protein, encoded by gene 7 has been implicated as the key player in the assembly of the 11 viral plus-strand RNAs into the early replication intermediates during rotavirus morphogenesis. To date, the sequence or NSP3 from only three animal rotaviruses (SA11, SA114F, and bovine UK) has been determined and that from a human strain has not been reported. To determine the genetic diversity among gene 7 alleles from group A rotaviruses, the nucleotide sequence of the NSP3 gene from 13 strains belonging to nine different G serotypes, from both humans and animals, has been determined. Based on the amino acid sequence identity as well as phylogenetic analysis, NSP3 from group A rotaviruses falls into three evolutionarily related groups, i.e., the SA11 group, the Wa group, and the S2 group. The SA 11/SA114F gene appears to have a distant ancestral origin from that of the others and codes for a polypeptide of 315 amino acids (aa) in length. NSP3 from all other group A rotaviruses is only 313 aa in length because of a 2-amino-acid deletion near the carboxy-terminus, While the SA114F gene has the longest 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 132 nucleotides, that from other strains suffered deletions of varying lengths at two positions downstream of the translational termination codon. In spite of the divergence of the nucleotide (nt) sequence in the protein coding region, a stretch of about 80 nt in the 3' UTR is highly conserved in the NSP3 gene from all the strains. This conserved sequence in the 3' UTR might play an important role in the regulation of expression of the NSP3 gene. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

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A novel pentameric structure which differs from the previously reported tetrameric form of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 is reported here. A significant feature of this pentameric form is the absence of the calcium ion located in the core region of the tetrameric structures. The lysis of cells, the crystallization of the region spanning residues 95 to 146 of NSP4 (NSP4(95-146)) of strain ST3 (ST3: NSP4(95-146)) at acidic pH, and comparative studies of the recombinant purified peptide under different conditions by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and of the crystal structures suggested pH-, Ca(2+)-, and protein concentration-dependent oligomeric transitions in the peptide. Since the NSP4(95-146) mutant lacks the N-terminal amphipathic domain (AD) and most of the C-terminal flexible region (FR), to demonstrate that the pentameric transition is not a consequence of the lack of the N- and C-terminal regions, glutaraldehyde cross-linking of the Delta N72 and Delta N94 mutant proteins, which contain or lack the AD, respectively, but possess the complete C-terminal FR, was carried out. The results indicate the presence of pentamers in preparations of these longer mutants. Detailed SEC analyses of Delta N94 prepared under different conditions, however, revealed protein concentration-dependent but metal ion-and pH-independent pentamer accumulation at high concentrations which dissociated into tetramers and lower oligomers at low protein concentrations. While calcium appeared to stabilize the tetramer, magnesium in particular stabilized the dimer. Delta N72 existed primarily in the multimeric form under all conditions. These findings of a calcium-free NSP4 pentamer and its concentration-dependent and largely calcium-independent oligomeric transitions open up a new dimension in an understanding of the structural basis of its multitude of functions.

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The region spanning residues 95-146 of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 from the asymptomatic human strain ST3 has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.6 angstrom. Several attempts to solve the structure by the molecular-replacement method using the available tetrameric structures of this domain were unsuccessful despite a sequence identity of 73% to the already known structures. A more systematic approach with a dimer as the search model led to an unexpected pentameric structure using the program Phaser. The various steps involved in arriving at this molecular-replacement solution, which unravelled a case of subtle variation between different oligomeric states unknown at the time of solving the structure, are presented in this paper.

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The crystal structure of the region spanning residues 95-146 of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 from the asymptomatic human strain ST3 was determined at a resolution of 2.5 angstrom. Severe diffraction anisotropy, rotational pseudo-symmetry and twinning complicated the refinement of this structure. A systematic explanation confirming the crystal pathologies and describing how the structure was successfully refined is given in this report.