1000 resultados para light microscopy


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Preliminary results show microradiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to be more accurate methods of accessing growth layer groups (GLGs) in the teeth of Tursiops truncatus than transmitted light microscopy. Microradiography shows the rhythmic deposition of mineral as alternating radiopaque and radiolucent layers. It improves the resolution of GLGs near the pulp cavity in older individuals, better than either SEM or light microscopy. SEM of etched sections show GLGs as ridges and grooves which are easily counted from the micrograph. SEM also shows GLGs to be composed of fine incremental layers of uniform size and number which may allow for more precise age determination. Accessory layers are usually hypomineralized layers within the hypermineralized layer of the GLG and are more readily distinguishable as such in SEM of etched sections and microradiographs than in thin sections viewed under transmitted light. The neonatal line is hypomineralized, appearing translucent under transmitted light, radiolucent in a microradiograph, and as a ridge in SEM. (PDF contains 6 pages.)

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In order to study the oriented (epitaxial) crystallization of thermoplastic polymers on oriented polymer substrates, generally the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used. With this instrument, the crystallized material can easily be resolved and orientation relationships can be monitored by electron diffraction. Disadvantages are the time consuming sample preparations and difficulties in the in-situ observations of the crystallization events, because of the radiation sensitivity of the polymer crystals. It is demonstrated that these disadvantages of the TEM can be eleminated by the use of different methods of light optical contrasts under specific preparation conditions of the samples and that the optical microscopy being a supplementary method to the TEM for investigations of epitaxial crystallization.

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Aim (1)
A pilot study to determine the accuracy of interpretation of whole slide digital images in a broad range of general histopathology cases of graded complexity. (2) To survey the participating histopathologists with regard to acceptability of digital pathology.

Materials and methods
Glass slides of 100 biopsies and minor resections were digitally scanned in their entirety, producing digital slides. These cases had been diagnosed by light microscopy at least 1 year previously and were subsequently reassessed by the original reporting pathologist (who was blinded to their original diagnosis) using digital pathology. The digital pathology-based diagnosis was compared with the original glass slide diagnosis and classified as concordant, slightly discordant (without clinical consequence) or discordant. The participants were surveyed at the end of the study.

Results
There was concordance between the original light microscopy diagnosis and digital pathology-based diagnosis in 95 of the 100 cases while the remaining 5 cases showed only slight discordance (with no clinical consequence). None of the cases were categorised as discordant. Participants had mixed experiences using digital pathology technology.

Conclusions
In the broad range of cases we examined, digital pathology is a safe and viable method of making a primary histopathological diagnosis.

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Livers of thirty specimens of Astyanax altiparanae obtained from a commercial fish farm were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, in order to describe the hepatic parenchyma and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, the liver showed only three hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinar arrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmatic reticulum, with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion, and the rough endosplasmatic reticulum was concentrically distributed.

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This work is an example of the improvement on quantitative fractography by means of digital image processing and light microscopy. Two techniques are presented to investigate the quantitative fracture behavior of Ti-4Al-4V heat-treated alloy specimens, under Charpy impact testing. The first technique is the Minkowski method for fractal dimension measurement from surface profiles, revealing the multifractal character of Ti-4Al-4V fracture. It was not observed a clear positive correlation of fractal values against Charpy energies for Ti-4Al-4V alloy specimens, due to their ductility, microstructural heterogeneities and the dynamic loading characteristics at region near the V-notch. The second technique provides an entire elevation map of fracture surface by extracting in-focus regions for each picture from a stack of images acquired at successive focus positions, then computing the surface roughness. Extended-focus reconstruction has been used to explain the behavior along fracture surface. Since these techniques are based on light microscopy, their inherent low cost is very interesting for failure investigations.

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Porosity in starch consolidation casting technique is rightly related to original size and morphology of starch granules, leaving a pore structure after burning out. This work reports the results for the addition of different native potato and corn starch proportions in suspension,; with TiO(2) (rutile) powder. Gelling temperature have been defined after observation under light microscopy using a heating stage. Analysis of porous network and isolated pores have been clone from images of samples surfaces obtained by depth from focus reconstruction, revealing a qualitative correlation of pores characteristics and starches additions in suspensions, suggesting that the presence of isolated or interconnected pores can be handled by starches selection to control the amylopectin and amylose contents in slurries. Also, the analysis of porous fraction distribution shows no consistent pattern through specimens' volume according to starches in mixtures.

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Different secondary caries models may present different results. The purpose of this study was to compare different in vitro secondary caries models, evaluating the obtained results by polarized-light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Standardized human enamel specimens (n = 12) restored with different materials (Z250 conventional composite resin-CRZ, Freedom polyacid-modified composite resin-CRF, Vitremer resin-modified glass-ionomer-GIV, and Fuji IX conventional glass-ionomer cement-GIF) were submitted to microbiological (MM) or chemical caries models (CM). The control group was not submitted to any caries model. For MM, specimens were immersed firstly in sucrose broth inoculated with Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35688, incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO(2) for 14 days and then in remineralizing solution for 14 days. For CM, specimens were submitted to chemical pH-cycling. Specimens were ground, submitted to PLM and then were dehydrated, gold-sputtered and submitted to SEM and EDS. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (alpha = 0.05). No differences between in vitro caries models were found. Morphological differences in enamel demineralization were found between composite resin and polyacid-modified composite resin (CRZ and CRF) and between the resin-modified glass-ionomer and the glass-ionomer cement (GIF and GIV). GIF showed higher calcium concentration and less demineralization, differing from the other materials. In conclusion, the glass-ionomer cement showed less caries formation under both in vitro caries models evaluated. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 90B: 635-640, 2009

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Secondary caries is the main cause of direct restoration replacement. The purpose of this study was to analyze enamel adjacent to different restorative materials after in situ cariogenic challenge using polarized-light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Twelve volunteers, with a low level of dental plaque, a low level of mutans streptococci, and normal salivary flow, wore removable palatal acrylic appliances containing enamel specimens restored with Z250 composite, Freedom composite, Fuji IX glass-ionomer cement, or Vitremer resin-modified glass-ionomer for 14 days. Volunteers dripped one drop of 20% sucrose solution (n = 10) or distilled water (control group) onto each specimen 8 times per day. Specimens were removed from the appliances and submitted to PLM for examination of the lesion area (in mm(2)), followed by dehydration, gold-sputtering, and submission to SEM and EDS. The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents were evaluated in weight per cent (%wt). Differences were found between Z250 and Vitremer, and between Z250 and FujiIX, when analyzed using PLM. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis results showed differences between the studied materials regarding Ca %wt. In conclusion, enamel adjacent to glass-ionomer cement presented a higher Ca %wt, but this material did not completely prevent enamel secondary caries under in situ cariogenic challenge.

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We performed a light microscope and a computer three-dimensional reconstruction study of serial sections of the molar enamel organ of 3- and 5-day-old rats perfused with Indian ink through the arterial system. The tooth germs were fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. For the three-dimensional reconstruction, light micrographs of the serial sections were digitized, and aligned using the serial EM Align software downloaded from http://synapses.bu.edu/tools/. After alignment, the boundaries of the India-ink-filled blood vessels were manually traced with a mouse using the software IGL trace (version 1.26b), also downloaded from the above website. After tracing, a three-dimensional representation of the blood vessel contours was generated in a VRML format and visualized with the help of the software Cortona Web3D viewer (version 4.0) downloaded from http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona. Our results showed that in regions where ameloblasts are polarized the capillaries are arranged in three distinct levels: (1) penetrating and leaving capillaries in relation to the outer enamel epithelium; (2) capillaries crossing and branching inside the stellate reticulum; and (3) capillaries branching and anastomosing profusely within the stratum intermedium, thereby forming an extensive capillary plexus intimately associated with the cells of the stratum intermedium. The existence of a conspicuous capillary plexus intermingled with cells of the stratum intermedium, as shown in our results, suggests that some molecules produced by cells of the stratum intermedium could be released into the capillary plexus and thereafter carried to the dental follicle.

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Drug delivery systems involving the use of polymers are widely studied and discovery of biocompatible polymers has become the focus of research in this area. Psoralen loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to be used in PUVA therapy (psoralen and UVA irradiation (ultraviolet A, 320-400 nm) of psoriasis were identified in paraffin sections by histological analysis. The psoralen loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique. They were spherical and possessed an external smooth surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. This study describes a modification in the routine preparation of microsphere samples for examination by light microscopy. The changes involved fixative agents and/or stains allowing the identification of microspheres containing a non-fluorescent material. The preservation and identification of microspheres in tissues for histological processing in paraffin was greatly improved by these modifications as proven by our results. (c) 2007 Elsevicr Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Studies have shown that the town of Libby, Montana and surrounding forested areas have been contaminated with Libby amphibole asbestos (LA) by activity from the vermiculite mine located northeast of Libby. The mine was in production from the 1920s until its closing in 1990. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) created the operable units (OU) within the superfund site due to the LA contamination. In addition to the work completed in this research, previous studies have shown that there is an exposure pathway for the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS) personnel tasked with forest maintenance in and around the Tubb gulch OU3 area. Tree bark, duff, and soil composite samples were collected to characterize the LA contamination in the Tubb Gulch area west of the mine. Composite samples were analyzed first by polarized light microscopy (PLM) (for bark and duff) and second by transmission electron microscopy for all media sources (TEM). The objective was to determine if PLM analysis could be used as a primary analytical tool for bark and duff sampling, since TEM is considerably more expensive and takes longer for the laboratory analysis. Fifteen positive composite samples that were initially analyzed via PLM were selected for further analyses via TEM for bark and duff media types. Bark sampling results revealed positive TEM values in 14 of 15 (93%) of the samples and duff sampling results revealed positive TEM values in 15 of 15 (100%) of the samples. These data suggest that PLM analysis may be a reliable initial analytical screening method. Since the LA concentrations for bark were expressed as fibers per surface area of bark and the LA concentrations for duff were expressed as fibers per gram, statistical correlation analyses could not be performed. A further limitation with this assessment is that bark and duff samples revealing non-detect values via PLM analysis were not selected for TEM analysis; therefore, the potential for false negative results via PLM was not assessed. The results of this study were valuable in further characterizing the Tubb Gulch area. All bark and duff composite samples revealed the presence of asbestos structures via TEM with the exception of one bark sample. Based on these source media results, there is a potential for LA exposure to USFS personnel or members of the public when working or recreating in the Tubb Gulch area. It is important to note that the results did not follow a concentration gradient in that some of the lowest concentrations were detected closest to the mine. These data suggest that LA contamination was dispersed not only from the mining activities but during transportation of the vermiculite concentrate to Libby and to the train loading facility.

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Samples from a monthly monitoring programme in the Cantabrian Sea were analysed with a FlowCAM-based automated technique. The estimates of abundance, biomass size spectra and taxonomic diversity of nano- and microplankton communities were compared with those obtained by traditional microscopical analysis of the same samples. The structure and abundance of a preserved plankton sample determined using FlowCAM showed minimal differences compared with traditional microscopical estimates. The effects of sample preservation and inaccuracies in the automatic classification are the main causes of discrepancies in the size structure determination between the two approaches. However, the synoptic understanding of the seasonal variation in the abundance, biomass and diversity obtained from the two methods is similar. Our results suggest that the natural variations in the community attributes explored are of greater magnitude than the error introduced by the methods and that the fully automatic method is adequate to explore these variations.