1000 resultados para irradiation


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Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is the procedure of choice for the management of the early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of logistics issues associated with the protracted treatment involved with the radiation treatment. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin, rather than the whole breast. Hence because of the small volume of irradiation a higher dose can be delivered in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include Mammosite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy and Contura, Hybrid brachytherapy devices include SAVI and ClearPath. This paper reviews the different techniques, identifying the weaknesses and strength of each approach and proposes a direction for future research and development. It is evident that APBI will play a role in the management of a selected group of early breast cancer. However, the relative role of the different techniques is yet to be clearly identified.

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As solar hydrogen is a sustainable and environmental friendly energy carrier, it is considered to take the place of fossil fuels in the near future. Solar hydrogen can be generated by splitting of water under solar light illumination. In this study, the use of nanostructured hematite thin-film electrodes in photocatalytic water splitting was investigated. Hematite (á-Fe2O3) has a narrow band-gap of 2.2 eV, which is able to utilise approximately 40% of solar radiation. However, poor photoelectrochemical performance is observed for hematite due to low electrical conductivity and a high rate of electron-hole recombination. An extensive review of useful measures taken to overcoming the disadvantages of hematite so as to enhance its performance was presented including thin-film structure, nanostructuring, doping, etc. Since semiconductoring materials which exhibit an inverse opal structure are expected to have a high surface-volume ratio, unique optical characteristics and a shorter distance for photogenerated holes to travel to the electrode/electrolyte interface, inverse opals of hematite thin films deposited on FTO glass substrate were successfully prepared by doctor blading using PMMA as a template. However, due to the poor adhesion of the films, an acidic medium (i.e., 2 M HCl) was employed to significantly enhance the adhesion of the films, which completely destroyed the inverse opal structure. Therefore, undoped, Ti and Zn-doped hematite thin films deposied on FTO glass substrate without an inverse opal structure were prepared by doctor blading and spray pyrolysis and characterised using SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. Regarding the doped hematite thin films prepared by doctor blading, the photoelectrochemical activity of the hematite photoelectrodes was improved by incorporation of Ti, most likely owing to the increased electrical conductivity of the films, the stabilisation of oxygen vacancies by Ti4+ ions and the increased electric field of the space charge layer. A highest photoresponse was recorded in case of 2.5 at.% Ti which seemed to be an optimal concentration. The effect of doping content, thickness, and calcination temperature on the performance of the Ti-doped photoelectrodes was investigated. Also, the photoactivity of the 2.5 at.% Ti-doped samples was examined in two different types of electrochemical cells. Zn doping did not enhance the photoactivity of the hematite thin films though Zn seemed to enhance the hole transport due to the slow hole mobility of hematite which could not be overcome by the enhancement. The poor performance was also obtained for the Ti-doped samples prepared by spray pyrolysis, which appeared to be a result of introduction of impurities from the metallic parts of the spray gun in an acidic medium. Further characterisation of the thin-film electrodes is required to explain the mechanism by which enhanced performance was obtained for Ti-doped electrodes (doctor blading) and poor photoactivity for Zn and Ti-doped samples which were synthesised by doctor blading and spray pyrolysis, respectively. Ti-doped hematite thin films will be synthesised in another way, such as dip coating so as to maintain an inverse opal structure as well as well adhesion. Also, a comparative study of the films will be carried out.

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One of the greatest challenges for the study of photocatalysts is to devise new catalysts that possess high activity under visible light illumination. This would allow the use of an abundant and green energy source, sunlight, to drive chemical reactions. Gold nanoparticles strongly absorb both visible light and UV light. It is therefore possible to drive chemical reactions utilising a significant fraction of full sunlight spectrum. Here we prepared gold nanoparticles supported on various oxide powders, and reported a new finding that gold nanoparticles on oxide supports exhibit significant activity for the oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol in the air at ambient temperature, when illuminated with visible light. We suggested that visible light can greatly enhance local electromagnetic fields and heat gold nanoparticles due to surface plasmon resonance effect which provides activation energy for the oxidation of organic molecules. Moreover, the nature of the oxide support has an important influence on the activity of the gold nanoparticles. The finding reveals the possibility to drive chemical reactions with sunlight on gold nanoparticles at ambient temperature, highlighting a new direction for research on visible light photocatalysts. Gold nanoparticles supported on oxides also exhibit significant dye oxidation activity under visible light irradiation in aqueous solution at ambient temperature. Turnover frequencies of the supported gold nanoparticles for the dye degradation are much higher than titania based photocatalysts under both visible and UV light. These gold photocatalysts can also catalyse phenol degradation as well as selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol under UV light. The reaction mechanism for these photocatalytic oxidations was studied. Gold nanoparticles exhibit photocatalytic activity due to visible light heating gold electrons in 6sp band, while the UV absorption results in electron holes in gold 5d band to oxidise organic molecules. Silver nanoparticles also exhibit considerable visible light and UV light absorption due to surface plasmon resonance effect and the interband transition of 4d electrons to the 5sp band, respectively. Therefore, silver nanoparticles are potentially photocatalysts that utilise the solar spectrum effectively. Here we reported that silver nanoparticles at room temperature can be used to drive chemical reactions when illuminated with light throughout the solar spectrum. The significant activities for dye degradation by silver nanoparticles on oxide supports are even better than those by semiconductor photocatalysts. Moreover, silver photocatalysts also can degrade phenol and drive the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under UV light. We suggested that surface plasmon resonance effect and interband transition of silver nanoparticles can activate organic molecule oxidations under light illumination.

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Gold nanoparticles supported on CeO2 were found to be efficient photocatalysts for three selective reductions of organic compounds at ambient temperatures, under irradiation of visible light; their reduction ability can be tuned by manipulating the irradiation wavelength.

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With new photocatalysts of gold nanoparticles supported on zeolite supports (Au/zeolite), oxidation of benzyl alcohol and its derivatives into the corresponding aldehydes can proceed well with a high selectivity (99%) under visible light irradiation at ambient temperature. Au/zeolite photocatalysts were characterized by UV/Vis, XPS, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET, IR, and Raman techniques. The Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) effect of gold nanoparticles, the adsorption capability of zeolite supports, and the molecular polarities of aromatic alcohols were demonstrated to have an essential correlation with the photocatalytic performances. In addition, the effects of light intensity, wavelength range, and the role of molecular oxygen were investigated in detail. The kinetic study indicated that the visible light irradiation required much less apparent activation energy for photooxidation compared with thermal reaction. Based on the characterization data and the photocatalytic performances, we proposed a possible photooxidation mechanism.

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Studies of the optical properties and catalytic capabilities of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag), have formed the basis for the very recent fast expansion of the field of green photocatalysis: photocatalysis utilizing visible and ultraviolet light, a major part of the solar spectrum. The reason for this growth is the recognition that the localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Au NPs and Ag NPs can couple the light flux to the conduction electrons of metal NPs, and the excited electrons and enhanced electric fields in close proximity to the NPs can contribute to converting the solar energy to chemical energy by photon-driven photocatalytic reactions. Previously the LSPR effect of noble metal NPs was utilized almost exclusively to improve the performance of semiconductor photocatalysts (for example, TiO2 and Ag halides), but recently, a conceptual breakthrough was made: studies on light driven reactions catalysed by NPs of Au or Ag on photocatalytically inactive supports (insulating solids with a very wide band gap) have demonstrated that these materials are a class of efficient photocatalysts working by mechanisms distinct from those of semiconducting photocatalysts. There are several reasons for the significant photocatalytic activity of Au and Ag NPs. (1) The conduction electrons of the particles gain the irradiation energy, resulting in high energy electrons at the NP surface which is desirable for activating molecules on the particles for chemical reactions. (2) In such a photocatalysis system, both light harvesting and the catalysing reaction take place on the nanoparticle, and so charge transfer between the NPs and support is not a prerequisite. (3) The density of the conduction electrons at the NP surface is much higher than that at the surface of any semiconductor, and these electrons can drive the reactions on the catalysts. (4) The metal NPs have much better affinity than semiconductors to many reactants, especially organic molecules. Recent progress in photocatalysis using Au and Ag NPs on insulator supports is reviewed. We focus on the mechanism differences between insulator and semiconductor-supported Au and Ag NPs when applied in photocatalytic processes, and the influence of important factors, light intensity and wavelength, in particular estimations of light irradiation contribution, by calculating the apparent activation energies of photo reactions and thermal reactions.

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In this work we examine two aspects of the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The first aspect studied is determination of a stable range of concentrations of the anti-oxidant Tetrakis Hydroxy Phosphonium Chloride (THPC). Once the desired THPC concentration is determined, we proceed to an investigation into the effect of pre-irradiation storage time and how this affects the dose response of the gel.

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Purpose: The cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression of transgenes in mammalian cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of methylation and upregulation of the CMV promoter by irradiation and the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin in vivo using non-invasive fluorescence in vivo imaging. Procedures: Murine fibrosarcoma LPB and mammary carcinoma TS/A cells were stably transfected with plasmids encoding CMV and p21 promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Solid TS/A tumors were induced by subcutaneous injection of fluorescent tumor cells, while leg muscles were transiently transfected with plasmid encoding GFP under the control of the CMV promoter. Cells, tumors, and legs were treated either by DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, irradiation, or cisplatin. GFP expression was determined using a fluorescence microplate reader in vitro and by non-invasive fluorescence imaging in vivo. Results: Treatment of cells, tumors, and legs with 5-azacytidine (re)activated the CMV promoter. Furthermore, treatment with irradiation or cisplatin resulted in significant upregulation of GFP expression both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: Observed alterations in the activity of the CMV promoter limit the usefulness of this widely used promoter as a constitutive promoter. On the other hand, inducibility of CMV promoters can be beneficially used in gene therapy when combined with standard cancer treatment, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. © 2010 The Author(s).