1000 resultados para genotypes


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This work was conducted to evaluate biological parameters of Plutella xylostella L. reared on leaves of several cauliflower genotypes under laboratory conditions. The experiment was set in a randomized block design and arranged in a 6 x 2 factorial (genotypes x generations). Leaf disks of the cultivars Barcelona, Verona, Piracicaba Precoce, Sharon, Silver Streak, and Teresopolis Gigante were placed in Petri dishes with 12 newly-hatched larvae. Leaf disks were initially changed after the fourth day, but daily afterwards until the larvae reached the pupal stage. The same procedure was adopted for the second generation. Twenty adults of each sex were separated from each genotype to evaluate their longevity, and I 0 couples from each treatment were used to assess female fecundity. The lowest larval survival was obtained on the 'Silver Streak' (78.9%) and highest on 'Verona' (97.1%). The 'Silver Streak' and `Teresopolis Gigante' showed the lowest pupal weights (4.83 mg and 5.11 mg, respectively), as well as the lowest fecundity, 119.4 and 123.0 eggs/female, respectively, while 'Piracicaba Precoce' the highest (167.7 eggs/female). Males obtained from larvae reared on `Teresopolis Gigante' and 'Silver Streak' lived shorter (5.1 days), while the short-lived females were obtained from larvae reared on 'Barcelona' and 'Verona' (4.9 and 5.0 days). Insect development was prolonged in the second generation in all tested genotypes.

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The Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the main plague-insect specie of Brassicaceae plants in Brazil and all over the world. The resistant genotypes use to its control is a promising alternative. This work aimed evaluates the eggs distribution along the plant, the adults' density per plant, and determine the cauliflower genotypes effect in the P. xylostella oviposition. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal Campus Phytossanity Department (Departamento de Fitossanidade). It was evaluated the eggs distribution, the P. xylostella adults density effect using Sharon hybrid, and tests with or without choose choice to determine the P. xylostella nonpreference in the Teresopolis Gigante, Verona, Barcelona, Sharon, Silver Streak, and Piracicaba Precoce genotypes. It is possible conclude that P. xylostella has higher willingness to oviposits in the stem than in the basal leaves. The three couple density of P. xylostella per plant is the best to discriminate cauliflower genotypes regarding the resistance grade to nonpreference choose choice to oviposition. During the P. xylostella oviposition preference tests with choose choice, the genotypes Sharon, Piracicaba Precoce, Barcelona, Verona e Teresopolis Gigante are less desirable to oviposition; while during the no choose choice tests the genotypes did not differ among them.

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of soybean and is found in all producing countries. The purpose of this study was to validate microsatellite markers previously identified as associated with resistance to powdery mildew in soybean. The study was conducted in two F, parent populations with contrasting resistance to powdery mildew, In the analysis 10 SSR primers were used for the populations. and tour polymorphic markers were identified for cross I (MGBR95-20937 x IAC-Foscarin 31) and three for cross 2 (MGBR-46 x Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) 48). The Chi-square analysis of the phenotypic evaluation confirmed the expected segregation (3: 1) of a dominant gene related to resistance. The polymorphic markers also segregated as expected (1:2:1). The markers Sat 366 and Sat 393 in the crosses 1 and 2. respectively, located at 9.41 and 12.45 cM from the gene. were considered promising for marker-assisted selection for resistance to powdery mildew in soybean. at a selection efficiency of 92.7% and 60.3% respectively.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of crude protein, crude fiber and crude fat (ether extract) of 25 genotypes of kale from the Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronomico de Campinas and of one genotype grown in the region of Jaboticabal-SP. The plants were cultivated in the field, and the leaves after collection were pre-dried in a convection oven at 65 degrees C for 72 h. Afterward, the leaves were analyzed for crude protein, crude fiber and crude fat (ether-soluble materials). Significant differences were detected among the different genotypes for all the characteristics examined. of the genotypes studied, six showed more than 30% crude protein: HS-20 (32.56%), Comum (31.70%), Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 (31.16%), Pires 2 de Campinas (30.63%), Manteiga 1-916 (30.36%), and Manteiga de Ribeirao Pires I-2446 (30.03%). In relation to crude fiber, the highest percentage was seen in the genotype Manteiga de Mococa (10.92%), differing significantly from the other genotypes studied. With regard to crude fat, the highest percentage was found in the genotype HS-20 (3.72%), and Pires 1 de Campinas (3.34%). of the genotypes tested, HS-20 stood out among the others, showing both the highest percentage of protein and fat.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the predominant species of begomovirus in São Paulo State, Brazil, and infects primarily tomato and pepper plants. There is no information about genetic resistance of pepper to this virus, so in this work the reaction of 29 genotypes of Capsicum spp. was evaluated by inoculation of two ToSRV isolates: ToSRV-Sk (isolated from a tomato plant) and ToSRV-PJU (isolated from a pepper plant). For both isolates, two C. annuun genotypes (Catarino Cascabel - México and Silver) showed no symptoms 30 days after inoculation (d.a.i). In a second experiment, these two genotypes were evaluated for 150 d.a.i and, again, no symptoms could be observed. However, the virus was detected by RCA-PCR, indicating that both genotypes are susceptible, but less affected by ToSRV infection. Catarino Cascabel - México and Silver can be indicated for use in breeding programs for resistance of pepper to ToSRV.

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With the objective of assessing castor bean genotypes in relation to the influence of seeds treatment on agronomic characteristics and physiological quality of seeds, two experiments were conducted between November, 2005 and March, 2006. In the first study, experimental design used was randomized complete blocks, in factorial scheme (2 x 10), by comparing Lyra hybrid and AL Guarany 2002 cultivar and nine fungicides, including its mixtures and test, with four repetitions. Plant height, stem diameter, medium yield and observation of diseases incidence were evaluated. In the second study, conducted in randomized entirely design, in factorial scheme 2 x 10 with four repetitions, Savana and AL Guarany 2002 genotypes were analyzed, using the same fungicides. Germination, infected and dead seeds, vigor, initial moisture content and simulation of field emergency and seeds sanitary quality were also evaluated. The results obtained point that there is positive influence of seed treatment on agronomic characteristics in castor bean crop, increasing grain yield for AL Guarany cultivar and Lyra hybrid. In the analysis of seed quality, it was observed that seed treatments with fungicides and their mixtures provided superior percentages of germination and vigor, reduced the number of infected and dead seeds and increased seeds emergency for Guarany 2002 cultivar and Savana hybrid.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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A participação de perfilhos na produção de grãos é de grande importância para a cultura do trigo, sendo influenciável pelas características do genótipo e condições do ambiente. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o efeito de doses de fósforo (P) na emissão, sobrevivência e contribuição produtiva de perfilhos de duas cultivares de trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Foi adotado um esquema fatorial 2 x 5 em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, sendo avaliadas duas cultivares de trigo (IAC 370 e IAC 375) e cinco doses de P (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 mg dm-3). Quanto maior a dose de P, maior a emissão, a sobrevivência e a participação de perfilhos na produção total de grãos, em especial para perfilhos secundários. A cultivar IAC 370 apresentou altas taxas de abortamento de perfilhos, enquanto a IAC 375 manteve grande parte dos perfilhos emitidos.

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HIV infection is associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism due to a host's response mechanism and the current antiretroviral therapy. The pathological appearance and progression of atherosclerosis is dependent on the presence of injurious agents in the vascular endothelium and variations in different subsets of candidate genes. Therefore, the Hha I polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E gene was evaluated in addition to triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein (apo) Al, B and E levels in 86 Brazilian HIV-infected patients and 29 healthy controls. The allele frequency for apoE in the HIV-infected group and controls was in agreement with data on the Brazilian population. Dyslipidemia was observed in the HIV group and verified by increased levels of triglycerides, VLDL and apoE, and decreased levels of HDL and apoAl. The greatest abnormalities in these biochemical variables were shown in the HIV-infected individuals whose immune function was more compromised. The effect of the genetic variation at the APOE gene on biochemical variables was more pronounced in the HIV-infected individuals who carried the apoE2/3 genotype. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-receiving group presented increased levels of total cholesterol and apoE. Dyslipidemia was a predictable consequence of HIV infection and the protease inhibitors intensified the increase in apoE values.

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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is believed to dispose carriers to gastric cancer by inducing chronic inflammation. The inflammatory processes may result in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that damage DNA. In this study, we investigated the relationships between DNA damage in the gastric mucosa and cogA, vocA, and iceA genotypes of H. pylori. The study was conducted with biopsies from the gastric antrum and corpus of 98 H. pylori-infected and 26 uninfected control patients. H. pylori genotypes were determined by PCR and DNA damage was measured in gastric mucosal cells by the Comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis). All patients were nonsmokers, not abusing alcohol, and not using prescription or recreational drugs. Levels of DNA damage were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the H. pylori-infected patients than in uninfected patients. In comparison with the level of DNA damage in the uninfected controls, the extent of DNA damage in both the antrum (OR = 8.45; 95% Cl 2.33-37.72) and the corpus (OR 6.55; 95% Cl 2.52-17.72) was related to infection by cagA(+)/vocAs1m1 and iceA1 strains. The results indicate that the genotype of H. pylori is related to the amount of DNA damage in the gastric mucosa. These genotypes could serve as biomarkers for the risk of extensive DNA damage and possibly gastric cancer. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.