1000 resultados para genotypes


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In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male out-competing his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

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Various statistical methods have been proposed to evaluate associations between measured genetic variants and disease, including some using family designs. For breast cancer and rare variants, we applied a modified segregation analysis method that uses the population cancer incidence and population-based case families in which a mutation is known to be segregating. Here we extend the method to a common polymorphism, and use a regressive logistic approach to model familial aggregation by conditioning each individual on their mother's breast cancer history. We considered three models: 1) class A regressive logistic model; 2) age-of-onset regressive logistic model; and 3) proportional hazards familial model. Maximum likelihood estimates were calculated using the software MENDEL. We applied these methods to data from the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study on the CYP17 5UTR TC MspA1 polymorphism measured for 1,447 case probands, 787 controls, and 213 relatives of case probands found to have the CC genotype. Breast cancer data for first- and second-degree relatives of case probands were used. The three methods gave consistent estimates. The best-fitting model involved a recessive inheritance, with homozygotes being at an increased risk of 47% (95% CI, 28-68%). The cumulative risk of the disease up to age 70 years was estimated to be 10% or 22% for a CYP17 homozygote whose mother was unaffected or affected, respectively. This analytical approach is well-suited to the data that arise from population-based case-control-family studies, in which cases, controls and relatives are studied, and genotype is measured for some but not all subjects.

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The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) encodes a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in regulating serotonergic neurotransmission and related aspects of mood and behaviour. The short allele of a 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (S-allele) within the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) confers lower transcriptional activity relative to the long allele (L-allele) and may act to modify the risk of serotonin-mediated outcomes such as anxiety and substance use behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (or not) 5-HTTLPR genotypes moderate known associations between attachment style and adolescent anxiety and alcohol use outcomes. Participants were drawn from an eight-wave study of the mental and behavioural health of a cohort of young Australians followed from 14 to 24 years of age (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, 1992 - present). No association was observed within low-risk attachment settings. However, within risk settings for heightened anxiety (ie, insecurely attached young people), the odds of persisting ruminative anxiety (worry) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (B30% per allele: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.97, P¼0.029). Within risk settings for binge drinking (ie, securely attached young people), the odds of reporting persisting high-dose alcohol consumption (bingeing) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (B35% per allele: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64–0.86, Po0.001). Our data suggest that the S-allele is likely to be important in psychosocial development, particularly in those settings that increase risk of anxiety and alcohol use problems.

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The possibility for fishery-induced evolution of life history traits is an important but unresolved issue for exploited fish populations. Because fisheries tend to select and remove the largest individuals, there is the evolutionary potential for lasting effects on fish production and productivity. Size selection represents an indirect mechanism of selection against rapid growth rate, because individual fish may be large because of rapid growth or because of slow growth but old age. The possibility for direct selection on growth rate, whereby fast-growing genotypes are more vulnerable to fishing irrespective of their size, is unexplored. In this scenario, faster-growing genotypes may be more vulnerable to fishing because of greater appetite and correspondingly greater feeding-related activity rates and boldness that could increase encounter with fishing gear and vulnerability to it. In a realistic whole-lake experiment, we show that fast-growing fish genotypes are harvested at three times the rate of the slow-growing genotypes within two replicate lake populations. Overall, 50% of fast-growing individuals were harvested compared with 30% of slow-growing individuals, independent of body size. Greater harvest of fast-growing genotypes was attributable to their greater behavioral vulnerability, being more active and bold. Given that growth is heritable in fishes, we speculate that evolution of slower growth rates attributable to behavioral vulnerability may be widespread in harvested fish populations. Our results indicate that commonly used minimum size-limits will not prevent overexploitation of fast-growing genotypes and individuals because of size-independent growth-rate selection by fishing.

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Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex of multiple risk factors that contribute to the onset of cardiovascular disorder, including lowered levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and abdominal obesity. Smoking, mood disorders, and oxidative stress are associated with the MetS. Paraoxonase (PON)1 is an antioxidant bound to HDL, that is under genetic control by functional polymorphisms in the PON1 Q192R coding sequence. Aims and methods This study aimed to delineate the associations of the MetS with plasma PON1 activity, PON1 Q192R genotypes, smoking, and mood disorders (major depression and bipolar disorder), while adjusting for HDL cholesterol, body mass index, age, gender, and sociodemographic data. We measured plasma PON1 activity and serum HDL cholesterol and determined PON1 Q192R genotypes through functional analysis in 335 subjects, consisting of 97 with and 238 without MetS. The severity of nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Scale. Results PON1 Q192R functional genotypes and PON1 Q192R genotypes by smoking interactions were associated with the MetS. The QQ and QR genotypes were protective against MetS while smoking increased metabolic risk in QQ carriers only. There were no significant associations between PON1 Q192R genotypes and smoking by genotype interactions and obesity or overweight, while body mass index significantly increased MetS risk. Smoking and especially severe nicotine dependence are significantly associated with the MetS although these effects were no longer significant after considering the effects of the smoking by PON1 Q192R genotype interaction. The MetS was not associated with mood disorders, major depression or bipolar disorder. Discussion PON1 Q192R genotypes and genotypes by smoking interactions are risk factors for the MetS that together with lowered HDL and increased body mass and age contribute to the MetS.

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BACKGROUND: We describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisitions in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged ≤5-years, eradication treatment efficacy, and genotypic relationships between upper and lower airway isolates and strains from non-CF sources. METHODS: Of 168 CF children aged ≤5-years in a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-directed therapy trial, 155 had detailed microbiological results. Overall, 201/271 (74%) P. aeruginosa isolates from BAL and oropharyngeal cultures were available for genotyping, including those collected before and after eradication therapy. RESULTS: Eighty-two (53%) subjects acquired P. aeruginosa, of which most were unique strains. Initial eradication success rate was 90%, but 36 (44%) reacquired P. aeruginosa, with genotypic substitutions more common in BAL (12/14) than oropharyngeal (3/11) cultures. Moreover, oropharyngeal cultures did not predict BAL genotypes reliably. CONCLUSIONS: CF children acquire environmental P. aeruginosa strains frequently. However, discordance between BAL and oropharyngeal strains raises questions over upper airway reservoirs and how to best determine eradication in non-expectorating children.

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Visando a alcançar alta eficiência na indução de calos a partir de explantes foliares de plantas matrizes de C. arabica com alta heterozigose, por meio da embriogênese somática indireta, foram instalados três experimentos. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 2x5, constituído de dois meios de cultura (BOXTEL & BERTHOULY, 1996 e TEIXEIRA et al., 2004) e cinco genótipos de C. arabica. No segundo experimento, foi avaliado o potencial de produção de calos embriogênicos em 10 genótipos, sendo cada genótipo considerado como um tratamento e, no terceiro experimento, foram avaliadas as variações nas concentrações de 2.4-D (2,5 e 20µM) e 2-iP (2,5 e 20µM) nos meios primário e secundário de TEIXEIRA et al. (2004). As culturas foram mantidas a 25oC, sob obscuridade. Para os genótipos 2.2 e 7.2, verificou-se a superioridade do meio de cultura Teixeira et al. (2004) em relação ao meio BOXTEL & BERTHOULY (1996). No genótipo 4.2, observou-se o comportamento inverso, ou seja, a superioridade do meio BOXTEL & BERTHOULY (1996). Os genótipos 3.0 e 5.0 apresentaram o mesmo comportamento em ambos os meios de cultura estudados, evidenciando que a produção de embriões somáticos é fortemente dependente do genótipo. A indução de calos depende da relação de 2-iP e 2.4-D. A combinação de 20.0µM of 2.4-D e 20.0µM of 2-iP promoveu a maior porcentagem de indução de calos embriogênicos.

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera spp. são altamente polífagas, podendo causar danos econômicos em diversas culturas agrícolas. em vista de sua emergente importância na cultura do tomate, principalmente o destinado à indústria, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a não preferência, para alimentação, de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) e Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) por genótipos de tomateiro, e classificá-los quanto aos graus de resistência. Como padrão susceptível, utilizou-se o cultivar comercial Santa Clara e, como resistente, a linhagem PI 134417, sendo avaliadas, ainda, as linhagens PI 134418, PI 126931, LA 462 e LA 716. Realizaram-se testes de não preferência, para alimentação, com e sem chance de escolha, avaliando-se a atratividade dos genótipos de tomateiro para as lagartas, em tempos pré-estabelecidos após sua liberação, além da massa foliar consumida. em geral, os genótipos LA 716 e PI 126931 foram os menos atrativos para a S. frugiperda, enquanto Santa Clara foi o mais atrativo e consumido. Quanto a S. eridania, os genótipos PI 126931, LA 462, LA 716 e PI 134418 foram os menos preferidos, para a alimentação, pelas lagartas, e Santa Clara e PI 134417 foram os mais atrativos e consumidos. Os genótipos LA e PI 126931 são moderadamente resistentes, do tipo não preferência para alimentação, para a S. frugiperda e S. eridania; PI 134418 e LA 462 são moderadamente resistentes a S. eridania; PI 134417 é susceptível a S. frugiperda e S. eridania; Santa Clara é altamente susceptível a S. frugiperda e S. eridania.

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Considerada importante praga do algodoeiro, a mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pode através de sua alimentação, diminuir o vigor das plantas, trasmitir vírus e prejudicar a qualidade da fibra. Visando avaliar a resistência de genótipos de algodoeiro, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, realizaram-se testes de atratividade e não-preferência para oviposição, com e sem chance de escolha, em telado, a temperatura ambiente. Verificou-se baixa atratividade das plantas dos genótipos Fabrika, CNPA Ita 90, Makina, Coodetec 407 e IAC 01-639 CPA 02-24 a adultos dessa mosca-branca, o que pode representar um componente de resistência destes materiais genéticos ao inseto. Os genótipos BRS Aroeira, Coodetec 406, Fabrika e Coodetec 401 apresentaram resistência do tipo não-preferência para oviposição, nos testes com e sem chance de escolha. Os números de tricomas e de glândulas de gossipol por cm² não foram adequados para se avaliar a não-preferência para oviposição de adultos da mosca-branca em genótipos de algodoeiro.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)