1000 resultados para genotypes


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Statins have pleiotropic effects, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) upregulation and increased nitric oxide formation, which can be modulated by a genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of the eNOS gene (T-786C). Here, we report our investigation of whether this polymorphism modulates the effects of atorvastatin on the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. We genotyped 200 healthy subjects (males, 18-60 years of age) and then randomly selected 15 of these with the TT genotype and 15 with the CC genotype to receive placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day oral administration) for 14 days. Cell membrane fluidity was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-labeling method. The EPR spectra were registered on a VARIAN-E4 spectrometer. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBA-RS) and plasma membrane cholesterol were determined in the erythrocytes. Atorvastatin reduced membrane fluidity in CC subjects (P < 0.05) but not in those with the TT genotype (P > 0.05). While no significant differences were found in plasma membrane cholesterol concentrations, higher TBA-RS concentrations were found in the CC subjects than in the TT subjects (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that a short treatment with atorvastatin is disadvantageous to subjects with the CC genotype for the T-786C polymorphism compared to those with TT genotype, at least in terms of the hemorheological properties of erythrocytes.

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV), exhibits considerable genetic diversity, but presents a relatively well conserved 5 ` noncoding region (5 ` NCR) among all genotypes. In this study, the structural features and translational efficiency of the HCV 5 ` NCR sequences were analyzed using the programs RNAfold, RNAshapes and RNApdist and with a bicistronic dual luciferase expression system, respectively. RNA structure prediction software indicated that base substitutions will alter potentially the 5 ` NCR structure. The heterogeneous sequence observed on 5 ` NCR led to important changes in their translation efficiency in different cell culture lines. Interactions of the viral RNA with cellular transacting factors may vary according to the cell type and viral genome polymorphisms that may result in the translational efficiency observed. J. Med. Virol. 81: 1212-1219, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Background: JC virus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is classified in 8 different genotypes. Previous reports have suggested a positive association between specific genotypes and PML. Objective: To compare genotypes and adaptive mutations of JCV strains from Brazilian AIDS patients with and without PML. Study design: The VP1 region of JCV was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from cerebrospinal fluid samples from 51 patients with PML and from urine samples of 47 patients with AIDS without central nervous system disease. Genotyping was done by phylogenetic analysis. Amino acid replacement and selection pressures were also investigated. Results: JCV genotype frequency distributions showed that genotypes 2 (32.7%), 1 (26.5%) and 3 (23.5%) were the most prevalent. Genotype 1 had a positive association (p < 0.0001) and genotype 3 showed an inverse association (p < 0.001) with PML. A previously undescribed point mutation at residue 91 (L/I or L/V) and (L/P), non-genotype-associated, was found in 5/49 (10.2%) and 2/47 (4.3%) JCV sequences from PML and non-PML patients, respectively. This mutation was under positive selection only in PML patients. A previously described substitution of T-A in position 128 showed a significant difference between PML and non-PML cases (70% versus 16%, respectively, p < 0.0005). Conclusion: In Brazilian patients with AIDS, JCV genotype 1 showed a strong association with PML (p < 0.0001) and JCV genotype 3 showed an inverse association with PML. The possible association of aminoacids substitution in residues 91 and 128 with PML in patients with AIDS must be further investigated. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Human papillomavirus is a DNA virus that includes 118 genotypes. HPV16 is responsible for 80% of cervical cancer in women. Men are important reservoirs and major transmitters of HPV to their partners. The aim of this study was to detect HPV DNA and to determine the prevalence of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in urine samples of men infected with HIV-1. This study included 223 patients infected with HIV-1 from the Center of Reference on HIV/AIDS (CRT-SP) and an outpatient clinic of HIV. Urine samples were collected and after DNA extraction real-time PCR was performed for detection of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then tested by conventional PCR using type-specific primers for the four HPV types. A total of 223 men infected with HIV-1 were tested, 81% of whom were on HAART. Four (5.8%) were positive for HPV6, 18 (26.1%) were positive for HPV11, 22 (31.9%) were positive for HPV16 and five (7.2%) were positive for HPV18 by conventional PCR. Twenty (29%) patients had other HPV types and five patients (1.5%) had multiple types. The mean T CD4+cells count was 517 and 441 cells/mm(3) (P=0.30), in HPV negative and positive men, respectively. The HIV viral load was higher in the HPV negative group than for in the men with HPV (P=0.0002). A 30.9% prevalence of HPV was found in asymptomatic urine samples of men infected with HIV-1. This study suggests that urine may be a useful specimen for HPV screening. J. Med. Virol 81:2007-2011, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Introduction: Several lines of evidence support an immunologic involvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): the increased prevalence of OCD in patients with rheumatic fever (RF), and the aggregation of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders among relatives of RF probands. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in RF and other autoimmune diseases. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNFA gene have been associated with RE Given the association between OCD and RF, the goal of the present study was to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms within the promoter region of TNFA and OCD. Materials and methods: Two polymorphisms were investigated: -308 G/A and -238 G/A. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of these polymorphisms were examined in 111 patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for OCD and compared with the frequencies in 250 controls. Results: Significant associations were observed between both polymorphisms and OCD. For -238 G/A, an association between the A allele and OCD was observed (X-2 = 12.05, p = 0.0005). A significant association was also observed between the A allele of the -308 G/A polymorphism and OCD (X-2 = 7.09, p = 0.007). Finally, a haplotype consisting of genotypes of these two markers was also examined. Significant association was observed for the A-A haplotype (p = 0.0099 after correcting for multiple testing). Discussion: There is association between the -308 G/A and -238 G/A TNFA polymorphisms and OCD in our Brazilian sample. However, these results need to be replicated in larger samples collected from different populations. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Introduction: Interethnic admixture is a source of cryptic population structure that may lead to spurious genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenomic studies. We studied the impact of population stratification on the distribution of ABCB1 polymorphisms (1236C > T, 2677G > T/A and 3435C > T) among Brazilians, a highly admixed population with Amerindian, European and African ancestral roots. Methods: Individual DNA from 320 healthy adults was genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers, and the proportions of African component of ancestry (ACA) were estimated. ABCB1 genotypes were determined by the single base extension/termination method. We describe the association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and ACA by fitting a linear proportional odds logistic regression model to the data. Results: The distribution of the ABCB1 2677G > T/A and 3435C > T, but not the 1236C > T, SNPs displayed a significant trend for decreasing frequency of the T alleles and TT genotypes from White to Intermediate to Black individuals. The same trend was observed in the frequency of the T/nonG/T haplotype at the 1236, 2677 and 3435 loci. When the population sample was proportioned in quartiles, according to the individual ACA estimates, the frequency of the T allele and TT genotype at each locus declined progressively from the lowest (< 0.25 ACA) to the highest (> 0.75 ACA) quartile. Linear proportional odds logistic regression analysis confirmed that the odds of having the T allele at each locus decreases in a continuous manner with the increase of the ACA, throughout the ACA range (0.13-0.94) observed in the overall population sample. A significant association was also detected between the individual ACA estimates and the presence of the T/nonG/T haplotype in the overall population. Conclusion: Self-identification according to the racial/color categories proposed by the Brazilian Census is insufficient to properly control for population stratification in pharmacogenomic studies of ABCB1.

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A dosing algorithm including genetic (VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes) and nongenetic factors (age, weight, therapeutic indication, and cotreatment with amiodarone or simvastatin) explained 51% of the variance in stable weekly warfarin doses in 390 patients attending an anticoagulant clinic in a Brazilian public hospital. The VKORC1 3673G>A genotype was the most important predictor of warfarin dose, with a partial R(2) value of 23.9%. Replacing the VKORC1 3673G>A genotype with VKORC1 diplotype did not increase the algorithm`s predictive power. We suggest that three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (5808T>G, 6853G>C, and 9041G>A) that are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with 3673G>A would be equally good predictors of the warfarin dose requirement. The algorithm`s predictive power was similar across the self-identified ""race/color"" subsets. ""Race/color"" was not associated with stable warfarin dose in the multiple regression model, although the required warfarin dose was significantly lower (P = 0.006) in white (29 +/- 13 mg/week, n = 196) than in black patients (35 +/- 15 mg/week, n = 76).

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Understanding the genetic basis of traits involved in adaptation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology but remains poorly understood. Here, we use genome-wide association mapping using a custom 50 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a natural population of collared flycatchers to examine the genetic basis of clutch size, an important life-history trait in many animal species. We found evidence for an association on chromosome 18 where one SNP significant at the genome-wide level explained 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. We also detected two suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 9 and 26. Fitness differences among genotypes were generally weak and not significant, although there was some indication of a sex-by-genotype interaction for lifetime reproductive success at the suggestive QTL on chromosome 26. This implies that sexual antagonism may play a role in maintaining genetic variation at this QTL. Our findings provide candidate regions for a classic avian life-history trait that will be useful for future studies examining the molecular and cellular function of, as well as evolutionary mechanisms operating at, these loci.

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The phenotypic effect of a gene is normally described by the mean-difference between alternative genotypes. A gene may, however, also influence the phenotype by causing a difference in variance between genotypes. Here, we reanalyze a publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana dataset [1] and show that genetic variance heterogeneity appears to be as common as normal additive effects on a genomewide scale. The study also develops theory to estimate the contributions of variance differences between genotypes to the phenotypic variance, and this is used to show that individual loci can explain more than 20% of the phenotypic variance. Two well-studied systems, cellular control of molybdenum level by the ion-transporter MOT1 and flowering-time regulation by the FRI-FLC expression network, and a novel association for Leaf serration are used to illustrate the contribution of major individual loci, expression pathways, and gene-by-environment interactions to the genetic variance heterogeneity.

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Genetic variation at ten microsatellite lociand one anonymous-nuclear locus was assayed for three geographic samples of the criticallyendangered North American cyprinid Notropis mekistocholas (Cape Fear shiner). Despite low abundance of this species, there was little suggestion of small population effects; allele diversity and heterozygosity were relatively high, FIS values within samples were non-significant, and genotypes were distributed in frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Genetic divergence among samples was minimal despite the presence of dams, constructed in the early1900s, that separate the sample sites. This suggests that recent gene flow has been sufficient to inhibit genetic divergence or that gene flow has been reduced but there has been insufficient time for genetic divergence to develop. Tests of heterozygosity excess were non-significant, suggesting that N.mekistocholas in the localities sampled have not undergone recent reductions ineffective population size. Future studies employing larger sample sizes to provide more robust tests of population structure and temporally separated samples to estimate contemporaneous Ne are warranted.