1000 resultados para genotypes


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Oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria, are thought to be aetiological factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum-periodonticum-simiae group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Tannerella forsythia in atheromatous plaques from coronary arteries was determined by real-time PCR. Forty-four patients displaying cardiovascular disease were submitted to periodontal examination and endarterectomy of coronary arteries. Approximately 60-100 mg atherosclerotic tissue was removed surgically and DNA was obtained. Quantitative detection of periodontopathic bacteria was performed using universal and species-specific TaqMan probe/primer sets. Total bacterial and periodontopathic bacterial DNA were found in 94.9 and 92.3 %, respectively, of the atheromatous plaques from periodontitis patients, and in 80.0 and 20.0%, respectively, of atherosclerotic tissues from periodontally healthy subjects. All periodontal bacteria except for the F. nucleatum-periodonticum-simiae group were detected, and their DNA represented 47.3 % of the total bacterial DNA obtained from periodontitis; patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia were detected most often. The presence of two or more periodontal species could be observed in 64.1 % of the samples. In addition, even in samples in which a single periodontal species was detected, additional unidentified microbial DNA could be observed. The significant number of periodontopathic bacterial DNA species in atherosclerotic tissue samples from patients with periodontitis suggests that the presence of these micro-organisms in coronary lesions is not coincidental and that they may in fact contribute to the development of vascular diseases.

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Introduction: Very little is known of the diversity and expression of virulence factors of serotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Toxic activity on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and cdt and ltx genotyping were evaluated in A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Methods: Forty-one A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates were analysed for CHO cell growth inhibition. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reactions specific to the ltx promoter region, serotype-specific and cdt region and by sequencing of cdtB. Results: cdtABC was detected in 40 strains. Analysis of the cdtA upstream region revealed 10 cdt genotypes. Toxicity to CHO cells was detected for 92.7% of the isolates; however, no correlation between the toxic activity and the cdt genotype was detected. Serotype c was more prevalent among Brazilian samples (68.0%). Four serotype b isolates from subjects with aggressive periodontitis were associated with high leukotoxin production and exhibited moderate to strong toxic activity in CHO cells, but were classified in different cdt genotypes. High levels of toxicity in CHO cells were not associated with a particular serotype; 57.1% of serotype a isolates presented low toxicity to CHO cells whereas the highly toxic strains belonged to serotypes b and c. Sequencing of cdtB revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism of amino acid 281 but this was not related to the toxic activity in CHO cells. Conclusion: Differences in prevalence of the low and highly cytotoxic strains among serotypes reinforce the hypothesis that serotype b and c isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans are more virulent than serotype a strains.

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Background and Objective: Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. A high between-subject variation in the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA has been verified, which may be a result of genetic polymorphisms and/or the presence of periodontopathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola (called the red complex) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, we investigated the effect of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) -308G/A gene polymorphism and of periodontopathogens on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the periodontal tissues of nonsmoking patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 127) and in control subjects (n = 177). Material and Methods: The TNFA-308G/A single nucleotide polymorphism was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, whereas the tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and the periodontopathogen load were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of the TNFA-308 single nucleotide polymorphism in control and chronic periodontitis groups, in spite of the higher frequency of the A allele in the chronic periodontitis group. The concomitant analyses of genotypes and periodontopathogens demonstrated that TNFA-308 GA/AA genotypes and the red-complex periodontopathogens were independently associated with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in periodontal tissues, and no additive effect was seen when both factors were present. P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola counts were positively correlated with the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. TNFA-308 genotypes were not associated with the periodontopathogen detection odds or with the bacterial load. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the TNFA-308 A allele and red-complex periodontopathogens are independently associated with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in diseased tissues of nonsmoking chronic periodontitis patients and consequently are potentially involved in determining the disease outcome.

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Human parvovirus B19 is the only member of the genus Erythrovirus that causes human disease. Recent findings of several strains with considerable sequence divergence from B19 have suggested a new classification for parvovirus genotypes as 1 (B19), 2 (A-6 and LaLi) and 3 (V9). In their overall DNA sequence, the three genotypes differ by similar to 10%. Here, we report the isolation of a genotype-3-related strain named BR543 during a prospective study conducted in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Analysis of the nearly full-length genome sequence of BR543 indicates that this B19 variant sequence clusters with Gh2768, a strain from Ghana belonging to subtype 3b, and showed mostly synonymous substitutions.

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In this study, we revisited the phylogeography of the three of major DENV-3 genotypes and estimated its rate of evolution, based on the analysis of the envelope (E) gene of 200 strains isolated from 31 different countries around the world over a time period of 50 years (1956-2006). Our phylogenetic analysis revealed a geographical subdivision of DENV-3 population in several country-specific clades. Migration patterns of the main DENV-3 genotypes showed that genotype I was mainly circumspect to the maritime portion of Southeast-Asia and South Pacific, genotype 11 stayed within continental areas in South-East Asia, while genotype III spread across Asia, East Africa and into the Americas. No evidence for rampant co-circulation of distinct genotypes in a single locality was found, suggesting that some factors, other than geographic proximity, may limit the continual dispersion and reintroduction of new DENV-3 variants. Estimates of the evolutionary rate revealed no significant differences among major DENV-3 genotypes. The mean evolutionary rate of DENV-3 in areas with long-term endemic transmissions (i.e., Indonesia and Thailand) was similar to that observed in the Americas, which have been experiencing a more recent dengue spread. We estimated the origin of DENV-3 virus around 1890, and the emergence of current diversity of main DENV-3 genotypes between the middle 1960s and the middle 1970s, coinciding with human population growth, urbanization, and massive human movement, and with the description of the first cases of DENV-3 hemorrhagic fever in Asia. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Aims: Sheep are important carriers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in several countries. However, there are a few reports about ovine STEC in American continent. Methods and Results: About 86 E. coli strains previously isolated from 172 healthy sheep from different farms were studied. PCR was used for detection of stx(1), stx(2), eae, ehxA and saa genes and for the identification of intimin subtypes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR was performed to investigate the variants of stx(1) and stx(2), and the flagellar antigen (fliC) genes in nonmotile isolates. Five isolates were eae(+) and stx(-), and belonged to serotypes O128:H2/beta-intimin (2), O145:H2/gamma, O153:H7/beta and O178:H7/epsilon. Eighty-one STEC isolates were recovered, and the stx genotypes identified were stx(1c)stx(2d-O118) (46.9%), stx(1c) (27.2%), stx(2d-O118) (23.4%), and stx(1c)stx(2dOX3a) (2.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 27 profiles among 53 STEC and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that healthy sheep in Sao Paulo, Brazil, can be carriers of potential human pathogenic STEC and atypical EPEC. Significance and Impact of the Study: As some of the STEC serotypes presently found have been involved with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in other countries, the important role of sheep as sources of STEC infection in our settings should not be disregarded.

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We describe a cross-sectional, survey to identify risk factors for colonisation of neonates by extended-spectrum P-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. This occurred following exposure to a colonised healthcare worker during an outbreak in an intermediate-risk neonatal. unit. In total, 120 neonates admitted consecutively during a three-month period were screened for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae by rectal swabbing and 27 were identified as colonised. Multivariate analysis showed colonisation to be independently associated with use of antibiotics and absence of breastfeeding. Previous use of antibiotics presented an odds ratio (OR) of 12.3 [95% confidence interval. (Cl): 3.66-41.2, P < 0.001]. The most commonly used antibiotics were penicillin and amikacin. Breastfeeding was associated with reduced risk for colonisation (OR: 0.22; 95% Cl: 0.05-0.99; P = 0.049). Nine isotates recovered during the first stage of the outbreak and 27 isolates from surveillance cultures were typed thereafter by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, revealing six different profiles (A-F). Clones A, C, and E were implicated in the first stage of the outbreak, whereas among the 27 strains recovered from surveillance cultures, all six clones were identified. Clone A was also found on the hand of a nursing auxiliary with onychomycosis. We concluded that prior antimicrobial use predisposed to colonisation. The possible role of breastfeeding as a protective factor needs to be further elucidated. Detection of different genotypes of ESBL-producing K. pneumonioe suggests that dissemination of mobile genetic elements bearing the ESBL gene may have been superimposed on the simple dissemination of a clone during the outbreak. (c) 2008 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a significant cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in all age groups, particularly in children. Two genetic groups and four subgroups of hMPV have been described. They co-circulate during an epidemic in variable proportions. The aims were to characterize the genotypes of hMPV recovered from children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection and to establish the molecular epidemiology of strains circulating in Santiago of Chile during a 2-year period. The detection of the N gene by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out for screening 545 infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Santiago during 2003-2004. The genetic typing of hMPV was performed by analyzing the fusion gene sequences. hMPV was detected in 10.2% (56/545 cases). Phylogenetic analysis of F gene sequences from 39 Chilean hMPV strains identified the two groups and four subgroups previously described. Strains clustered into group A were split further into the sub lineages A1, A2, and A3. Most Chilean strains clustered into the proposed novel A3 sub lineage (59%). A3 viruses were present in both years, while A1 and A2 circulated just in I year. In conclusion, hMPV is a relevant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in Chilean children and the potential novel cluster of group A emphasize the need for further regional genetic variability studies. J. Med. Virol. 81:340-344, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Although Trypanosoma theileri and allied trypanosomes are the most widespread trypanosomes in bovids little is known about proteolytic enzymes in these species. We have characterized genes encoding for cathepsin L-like (CATL) cysteine proteases from isolates of cattle, water buffalo and deer that largely diverged from homologues of other trypanosome species. Analysis of 78 CATL catalytic domain sequences from 22 T. theileri trypanosomes disclosed 6 genotypes tightly clustered together into the T. theileri clade. The CATL genes in these trypanosomes are organized in tandem arrays of similar to 1.7 kb located in 2 chromosomal bands of 600-720 kb. A diagnostic PCR assay targeting CATL sequences detected T. theileri of all genotypes from cattle, buffaloes and cervids and also from tabanid vectors. Expression of T. theileri cysteine proteases was demonstrated by proteolytic activity in gelatin gels and hydrolysis of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate. Results from this work agree with previous data using ribosomal and spliced leader genes demonstrating that CATL gene sequences are useful for diagnosis, population genotyping and evolutionary studies of T. theileri trypanosomes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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We comparatively examined the nutritional, molecular and optical and electron microscopical characteristics of reference species and new isolates of trypanosomatids harboring bacterial endosymbionts. Sequencing of the V7V8 region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene distinguished six major genotypes among the 13 isolates examined. The entire sequences of the SSU rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes were obtained for phylogenetic analyses. In the resulting phylogenetic trees, the symbiont-harboring species clustered as a major clade comprising two subclades that corresponded to the proposed genera Angomonas and Strigomonas. The genus Angomonas comprised 10 flagellates including former Crithidia deanei and C. desouzai plus a new species. The genus Strigomonas included former Crithidia oncopelti and Blastocrithidia cuiicis plus a new species. Sequences from the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) and size polymorphism of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles revealed considerable genetic heterogeneity within the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA and ITS rDNA sequences demonstrated that all of the endosymbionts belonged to the Betaproteobacteria and revealed three new species. The congruence of the phylogenetic trees of trypanosomatids and their symbionts support a co-divergent host-symbiont evolutionary history. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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We characterized sequences from genes encoding cathepsin L-like (CatL-like) cysteine proteases from African and South American isolates of Trypanosoma vivax and T. vivax-like organisms, and evaluated their suitability as genetic markers for population structure analysis and diagnosis. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences corresponding to CatL-like catalytic domains revealed substantial polymorphism, and clades of sequences (TviCatL1-9) were separated by large genetic distances. TviCatL1-4 sequences were from cattle isolates from West Africa (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) and South America (Brazil and Venezuela), which belonged to the same T. vivax genotype. T. vivax-like genotypes from East Africa showed divergent sequences, including TviCatL5-7 for isolates from Mozambique and TviCatL8-9 for an isolate from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of CatL-like gene data supported the relationships among trypanosome species reflected in the phylogenies based on the analysis of small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. The discovery of different CatL-like sequences for each genotype, defined previously by ribosomal DNA data, indicate that these sequences provide useful targets for epidemiological and population genetic studies. Regions in CatL-like sequences shared by all T. vivax genotypes but not by other trypanosomes allowed the establishment of a specific and sensitive diagnostic PCR for epidemiological studies in South America and Africa. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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In this study, we addressed the phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax and related trypanosomes nested in the subgenus Duttonella through combined morphological and phylogeographical analyses. We previously demonstrated that the clade T. vivax harbours a homogeneous clade comprising West African/South American isolates and the heterogeneous East African isolates. Herein we characterized a trypanosome isolated from a nyala antelope (Tragelaphus angasi) wild-caught in Mozambique (East Africa) and diagnosed as T. vivax-like based on biological, morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships, phylogeographical patterns and estimates of genetic divergence were based on SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of T. vivax from Brazil and Venezuela (South America), Nigeria (West Africa), and from T. vivax-like trypanosomes from Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania (East Africa). Despite being well-supported within the T. vivax clade, the nyala trypanosome was highly divergent from all other T. vivax and T. vivax-like trypanosomes, even those from East Africa. Considering its host origin, morphological features, behaviour in experimentally infected goats, phylogenetic placement, and genetic divergence this isolate represents a new genotype of trypanosome closely phylogenetically related to T. vivax. This study corroborated the high complexity and the existence of distinct genotypes yet undescribed within the subgenus Duttonella.

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The population structure of Plasmodium vivax remains elusive. The markers of choice for large-scale population genetic studies of eukaryotes, short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, have been recently reported to be less polymorphic in R vivax. Here we investigate the microsatellite diversity and geographic structure in P vivax, at both local and global levels, using 14 new markers consisting of tri- or tetranucleotide repeats. The local-level analysis, which involved 50 field isolates from Sri Lanka, revealed unexpectedly high diversity (average virtual heterozygosity [H-E], 0.807) and significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium in this region of low malaria endemicity. Multiple-clone infections occurred in 60% of isolates sampled in 2005. The global-level analysis of field isolates or monkey-adapted strains identified 150 unique haplotypes among 164 parasites from four continents. Individual P. vivax isolates could not be unambiguously assigned to geographic populations. For example, we found relatively low divergence among parasites from Central America, Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania, but substantial differentiation between parasites from the same continent (South Asia and Southeast Asia) or even from the same country (Brazil). Parasite relapses, which may extend the duration of P. vivax carriage in humans, are suggested to facilitate the spread of strains across continents, breaking down any pre-existing geographic structure. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports Clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that Circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDII sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.

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Background and Objective: Although certain serotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are associated more with aggressive periodontitis than are other serotypes, the correlation between distinct lineages and virulence traits in this species is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the polymorphism of genes encoding putative virulence factors of clinical isolates, and to correlate these findings with A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes, genotypes and periodontal status of the hosts. Material and Methods: Twenty-six clinical isolates from diverse geographic populations with different periodontal conditions were evaluated. Genotyping was performed using pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding leukotoxin, Aae, ApaH and determinants for serotype-specific O polysaccharide were investigated. Results: The isolates were classified into serotypes a-f, and exhibited three apaH genotypes, five aae alleles and 25 macrorestriction profiles. Two serotype b isolates (7.7%), obtained from Brazilian patients with aggressive periodontitis, were associated with the highly leukotoxic genotype; these isolates showed identical fingerprint patterns and aae and apaH genotypes. Serotype c, obtained from various periodontal conditions, was the most prevalent among Brazilian isolates, and isolates were distributed in two aae alleles, but formed a genetically distinct group based on apaH analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between fingerprinting genotypes and serotypes/apaH genotypes, but not with aae genotypes. Conclusion: Apart from the deletion in the ltx promoter region, no disease-associated markers were identified. Non-JP2-like strains recovered from individuals with periodontal disease exhibited considerable genetic variation regarding aae/apaH genotypes, serotypes and XhoI DNA fingerprints.