1000 resultados para genotypes


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A compartmented soil-glass bead culture system was used to investigate characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic accumulation and speciation in mature rice plants with different capacities of forming iron plaque on their roots. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure were utilized to identify the mineralogical characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic sequestration in plaque on the rice roots. Iron plaque was dominated by (oxyhydr)oxides, which were composed of ferrihydrite (81-100%), with a minor amount of goethite (19%) fitted in one of the samples. Sequential extraction and XANES data showed that arsenic in iron plaque was sequestered mainly with amorphous and crystalline iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and that arsenate was the predominant species. There was significant variation in iron plaque formation between genotypes, and the distribution of arsenic in different components of mature rice plants followed the following order:? iron plaque > root > straw > husk > grain for all genotypes. Arsenic accumulation in grain differed significantly among genotypes. Inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were the main arsenic species in rice grain for six genotypes, and there were large genotypic differences in levels of DMA and inorganic arsenic in grain. A compartmented soil-glass bead culture system was used to investigate characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic accumulation and speciation in mature rice plants with different capacities of forming iron plaque on their roots. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure were utilized to identify the mineralogical characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic sequestration in plaque on the rice roots. Iron plaque was dominated by (oxyhydr)oxides, which were composed of ferrihydrite (81-100%), with a minor amount of goethite (19%) fitted in one of the samples. Sequential extraction and XANES data showed that arsenic in iron plaque was sequestered mainly with amorphous and crystalline iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and that arsenate was the predominant species. There was significant variation in iron plaque formation between genotypes, and the distribution of arsenic in different components of mature rice plants followed the following order:? iron plaque > root > straw > husk > grain for all genotypes. Arsenic accumulation in grain differed significantly among genotypes. Inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were the main arsenic species in rice grain for six genotypes, and there were large genotypic differences in levels of DMA and inorganic arsenic in grain.

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Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg-1, with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg-1. The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg-1 dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg-1 dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root » soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg-1 dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.

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Strains of many infectious agents differ in fundamental epidemiological parameters including transmissibility, virulence and pathology. We investigated whether genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, bTB) differ significantly in transmissibility and virulence, combining data from a nine-year survey of the genetic structure of the M. bovis population in Northern Ireland with detailed records of the cattle population during the same period. We used the size of herd breakdowns as a proxy measure of transmissibility and the proportion of skin test positive animals (reactors) that were visibly lesioned as a measure of virulence. Average breakdown size increased with herd size and varied depending on the manner of detection (routine herd testing or tracing of infectious contacts) but we found no significant variation among M. bovis genotypes in breakdown size once these factors had been accounted for. However breakdowns due to some genotypes had a greater proportion of lesioned reactors than others, indicating that there may be variation in virulence among genotypes. These findings indicate that the current bTB control programme may be detecting infected herds sufficiently quickly so that differences in virulence are not manifested in terms of outbreak sizes. We also investigated whether pathology of infected cattle varied according to M. bovis genotype, analysing the distribution of lesions recorded at post mortem inspection. We concentrated on the proportion of cases lesioned in the lower respiratory tract, which can indicate the relative importance of the respiratory and alimentary routes of infection. The distribution of lesions varied among genotypes and with cattle age and there were also subtle differences among breeds. Age and breed differences may be related to differences in susceptibility and husbandry, but reasons for variation in lesion distribution among genotypes require further investigation. © 2013 Wright et al.

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Background

We describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisitions in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged ≤5-years, eradication treatment efficacy, and genotypic relationships between upper and lower airway isolates and strains from non-CF sources.

Methods

 Of 168 CF children aged ≤5-years in a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-directed therapy trial, 155 had detailed microbiological results. Overall, 201/271 (74%) P. aeruginosa isolates from BAL and oropharyngeal cultures were available for genotyping, including those collected before and after eradication therapy.

Results

Eighty-two (53%) subjects acquired P. aeruginosa, of which most were unique strains. Initial eradication success rate was 90%, but 36 (44%) reacquired P. aeruginosa, with genotypic substitutions more common in BAL (12/14) than oropharyngeal (3/11) cultures. Moreover, oropharyngeal cultures did not predict BAL genotypes reliably.

Conclusions

 CF children acquire environmental P. aeruginosa strains frequently. However, discordance between BAL and oropharyngeal strains raises questions over upper airway reservoirs and how to best determine eradication in non-expectorating children.

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Recent molecular-typing studies suggest cross-infection as one of the potential acquisition pathways for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In Australia, there is only limited evidence of unrelated patients sharing indistinguishable P. aeruginosa strains. We therefore examined the point-prevalence, distribution, diversity and clinical impact of P. aeruginosa strains in Australian CF patients nationally. 983 patients attending 18 Australian CF centres provided 2887 sputum P. aeruginosa isolates for genotyping by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR assays with confirmation by multilocus sequence typing. Demographic and clinical details were recorded for each participant. Overall, 610 (62%) patients harboured at least one of 38 shared genotypes. Most shared strains were in small patient clusters from a limited number of centres. However, the two predominant genotypes, AUST-01 and AUST-02, were widely dispersed, being detected in 220 (22%) and 173 (18%) patients attending 17 and 16 centres, respectively. AUST-01 was associated with significantly greater treatment requirements than unique P. aeruginosa strains. Multiple clusters of shared P. aeruginosa strains are common in Australian CF centres. At least one of the predominant and widespread genotypes is associated with increased healthcare utilisation. Longitudinal studies are now needed to determine the infection control implications of these findings.

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The current epidemic of Hepatitis C infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men is associated with increasing use of recreational drugs. Multiple HCV infections have been reported in haemophiliacs and intravenous drug users. Using ultra-deep sequencing analysis, we present the case of an HIV-positive MSM with evidence of three sequential HCV infections, each occurring during the acute phase of the preceding infection, following risk exposures. We observed rapid replacement of the original strain by the incoming genotype at subsequent time points. The impact of HCV super-infection remains unclear and UDS may provide new insights.

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By the end of 2004, the Canadian swine population had experienced a severe 2 increase in the incidence of Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), a problem that was 3 associated with the emergence of a new Porcine circovirus-2 genotype (PCV-2b), previously 4 unrecovered in North America. Thus it became important to develop a diagnostic tool that could 5 differentiate between the old and new circulating genotypes (PCV-2a and -2b, respectively). 6 Consequently, a multiplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mrtqPCR) assay that 7 could sensitively and specifically identify and differentiate PCV-2 genotypes was developed. A 8 retrospective epidemiological survey that used the mrtqPCR assay was performed to determine if 9 cofactors could affect the risk of PCVAD. From 121 PCV-2–positive cases gathered for this 10 study, 4.13%, 92.56% and 3.31% were positive for PCV-2a, PCV-2b, and both genotypes, 11 respectively. In a data analysis using univariate logistic regressions, PCVAD compatible 12 (PCVAD/c) score was significantly associated with the presence of Porcine reproductive and 13 respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), PRRSV viral load, PCV-2 viral load, and PCV-2 14 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results. Polytomous logistic regression analysis revealed that 15 PCVAD/c score was affected by PCV-2 viral load (P = 0.0161) and IHC (P = 0.0128), but not by 16 the PRRSV variables (P > 0.9); suggesting that mrtqPCR in tissue is a reliable alternative to IHC. 17 Logistic regression analyses revealed that PCV-2 increased the odds ratio of isolating 2 major 18 swine pathogens of the respiratory tract, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus 19 suis serotypes 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, which are serotypes commonly associated with clinical 20 diseases.

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Sixty-one animals with different Halothane genes (homozygous halothane positive, n=34; and homozygous halothane negative, n=27) were fed with three diets (controlgroup, with no supplement; magnesium (Mg) group with 1.28g MgCO3/kg and tryptophan (Trp) group with 5g L-Trp/kg) during the last 5 days before slaughter. Animals were submitted to minimal stress ante mortem conditions. Pig behaviour was recorded at the experimental farm, raceway to the CO2 stunning system and during the stunning period. Corneal reflexes were recorded after stunning as well. There were no differences in feed intake among diets (p>0.05) during the 5 days of treatment. The halothane positive (nn) group had lower intake than the halothane negative (NN) group (p<0.01). The behaviour of the pigs in the raceway did not differ (p>0.05) among treatments or halothane genotype. A significant (p<0.001) interaction diet*halothane was found in the time to appear the first retreat attempt during the exposure to the CO2 system. In the nn group, the time of performing the first retreat attempt was later in the Mg (p<0.05) than the Control group. Moreover, in the Mg group, the nn had a later (p<0.05) first retreat attempt than the NN. Thus, Mg supplementation could have a positive effect on welfare of nn pigs. The nn had a lower proportion of animals that showed corneal reflexes after stunning than NN, indicating a higher effectiveness of the stunning method in nn pigs. Neither Mg nor Trp affected carcass quality and meat quality parameters, although significant differences were found between genotypes

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1. Data for modern egg-type hybrids reared on constant daylengths show that, as expected, they mature more quickly than earlier genotypes. However, the constant photoperiod which gives earliest sexual maturity has not changed as a result of selection and is 10 h for both early and modern genotypes. 2. Further analysis showed that the rate of delay in sexual maturity for constant photoperiods above 10 h is similar for modern and for early hybrids ( +0.29 d for each incremental one hour of photoperiod), the response of modern hybrids below 10 h ( +4.22 d for each one-hour reduction in photoperiod) is more than double that of early hybrids ( +1.71 d/h).

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in vitro studies were conducted on five sorghum genotypes developed for the dry tropical highland climate of Kenya and which can be fed to ruminants fresh or as silage. The five sorghum genotypes consisted of two normal white mid-rib (WMR) genotypes, coded E1291 and E65181, and three brown-midrib (BMR) genotypes, coded Lan-5, Lan-6 and Lan-12. Whole mature plants (herbage plus grain) and silage made from E 1291 were used in the study. An in vitro manual gas production technique was used to compare the nutritive characteristics of these genotypes for ruminants. These sorghums differed significantly in true organic matter degraded (OMDeg), which ranged from 520 to 678 g/kg after 24 h incubation and 706 to 805 g/kg after 72 h incubation. All the BMR sorghums had a higher degradability than the WMR genotype, E6518, and the silage, with Lan-5 having the highest degradability. Methane produced per g OMDeg ranged from 40.6 to 46.4 mL/g after 24 h incubation and from 53.1 to 62.6 mL/g after 72 h incubation. It was similar for all genotypes after 24 h incubation but Lan-12 had the highest methane production after 72 h incubation. After 24 h and 72 h incubation all the genotypes produced a similar total amount of gas per OMDeg (293 to 309 and 357 to 385 mL/g, respectively) with similar total short chain fatty acid concentrations in the liquid digesta (7.8 to 10.4 and 9.5 to 10.3 mmol, respectively) and acetate to propionate ratios of 2.16 to 2.49 and 2.35 to 2.87, respectively. The sorghums showed great potential as ruminant feed sources in the region.

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The effects of temperature and light integral on fruit growth and development of five cacao genotypes (Amelonado, AMAZ 15/15, SCA 6, SPEC 54/1 and UF 676) were studied in semi-controlled environment glasshouses in which the thermal regimes of cacao-growing regions of Brazil, Ghana and Malaysia were simulated. Fruit losses because of physiological will (cherelle will) were greater at higher temperatures and also differed significantly between genotypes, reflecting genetic differences in competition for assimilates between vegetative and reproductive components. Short-term measurements of fruit growth indicated faster growth rates at higher temperatures. In addition, a significant negative linear relationship between temperature and development time was observed. There was an effect of genotype on this relationship, such that time to fruit maturation at a given temperature was greatest for the clone UF 676 and least for AMAZ 15/15. Analysis of base temperatures, derived from these relationships indicated genetic variability in sensitivity of cacao fruit growth to temperature (base temperatures ranged from 7.5 degrees C for Amelonado and AMAZ 15/15 to 12.9 for SPEC 54/1). Final fruit size was a positive function of beam number for all genotypes and a positive function of light integral for Amelonado in the Malaysia simulated environment (where the temperature was almost constant). In simulated environments where temperature was the main variable (Brazil and Ghana) increases in temperature resulted in a significant decrease in final pod size for one genotype (Amelonado) in Brazil and for two genotypes (SPEC 54/1 and UF 676) in Ghana. It was hypothesised that pod growth duration (mediated by temperature), assimilation and beam number are all determinants of final pod size but that under specific conditions one of these factors may override the others. There was variability between genotypes in the response of beam size and beam lipid content to temperature. Negative relationships between temperature and bean size were found for Amelonado and UF 676. Lipid concentration was a curvilinear function of temperature for Amelonado and UF 676, with optimal temperatures of 23 degrees C and 24 degrees C, respectively. The variability observed here of different cacao genotypes to temperature highlights the need and opportunities for appropriate matching of planting material with local environments.

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Standardisation of microsatellite allele profiles between laboratories is of fundamental importance to the transferability of genetic fingerprint data and the identification of clonal individuals held at multiple sites. Here we describe two methods of standardisation applied to the microsatellite fingerprinting of 429 Theobroma cacao L. trees representing 345 accessions held in the worlds largest Cocoa Intermediate Quarantine facility: the use of a partial allelic ladder through the production of 46 cloned and sequenced allelic standards (AJ748464 to AJ48509), and the use of standard genotypes selected to display a diverse allelic range. Until now a lack of accurate and transferable identification information has impeded efforts to genetically improve the cocoa crop. To address this need, a global initiative to fingerprint all international cocoa germplasm collections using a common set of 15 microsatellite markers is in progress. Data reported here have been deposited with the International Cocoa Germplasm Database and form the basis of a searchable resource for clonal identification. To our knowledge, this is the first quarantine facility to be completely genotyped using microsatellite markers for the purpose of quality control and clonal identification. Implications of the results for retrospective tracking of labelling errors are briefly explored.

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The effect of temperature on early vegetative growth, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content was examined on four genotypes of cacao (Amelonado, AMAZ 15–15, SCA 6 and SPEC 54/1). A controlled environment glasshouse was used to simulate the temperature conditions of three cacao-growing regions (Bahia, Brazil; Tafo, Ghana and Lower Perak, Malaysia) over the course of a year. Base temperatures calculated from increments in main stem growth varied from 18.6°C for AMAZ 15/15 to 20.8°C for SPEC 54/1. Temporal variation in Fv/Fm observed for two of the clones (SCA 6 and SPEC 54/1) in two of the compartments were correlated with temperature differences over time. Significant differences were also recorded between genotypes in leaf chlorophyll content. It was shown that variation over time in leaf chlorophyll content could be quantified accurately as a function of temperature and light integral. The results imply that genetic variability exists in cacao in response to temperature stress.

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The effect of increasing salinity and freezing stress singly and in combination on a range of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in foliar tissue of six Crataegus genotypes was examined. In general, increased stress reduced fluorescence values and absorption, trapping and electron transport energy fluxes per leaf reaction center and cross section, with decreased sigmoidicity of OJIP curves as a measure of the plastoquinone pool, reflecting decreased energy fluxes. Based on percentage reduction in a performance index from controls compared to stress-treated values, plants were ranked in order of tolerant > intermediate > sensitive. Use of this PIp ranking criteria enabled the distinguishing of marked differences in foliar salt/freezing hardiness between the Crataegus species used. Interpretation of the photochemical data showed that salinity and freezing affects both the acceptor and donor side of Photosystem II, while OJIP observations provided information regarding structural and functional changes in the leaf photosynthetic apparatus of the test species. It is concluded that chlorophyll fluorescence offers a rapid screening technique for assessing foliar salinity and freezing tolerance of woody perennials