1000 resultados para genotypes


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2007

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2007

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El nucleopoliedrovirus de Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV) es un patógeno natural de las poblaciones larvarias de S. exigua que constituye la base de un bioinsecticida comercializado en España para el control biológico de esta plaga en pimiento. Recientes estudios han demostrado que la transmisión del virus a la descendencia (transmisión vertical) se da con frecuencia y podría ser una característica deseable para su uso en aplicaciones de campo. En el presente trabajo se discute la conveniencia de utilizar una mezcla de dos genotipos SeAl1 (transmisión vertical) y SeG25 (transmisión horizontal) en determinadas proporciones para mejorar las características que cada uno de ellos presenta por separado y así explotar cada una de las vías de transmisión. La patogenicidad (CL50) del genotipo SeG25, y de cualquiera de las mezclas que contienen un 25, 50 o 75 % del mismo, fue más alta que la del aislado SeAl1. Sin embargo, en términos de virulencia (TMM) y productividad (OBs/larva) no se observaron diferencias significativas entre genotipos ni entre sus mezclas. Además se evaluó la capacidad de producir infecciones encubiertas de cada genotipo y sus mezclas sometiendo larvas de S. exigua a infecciones subletales del virus. Se encontraron transcritos del virus para el gen temprano ie0 mediante RT-PCR en los adultos supervivientes a infecciones provocadas por el genotipo SeG25 y todas las mezclas. También se testaron otros dos genes virales que se expresan de manera temprana y tardía en la infección de baculovirus (DNA-polimerasa y polihedrina) para los que en ningún caso se detectaron transcritos.

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Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts. The highest incidence for this disease is on Vancouver Island, Canada, where an outbreak is expanding into neighboring regions including mainland British Columbia and the United States. This outbreak is caused predominantly by C. gattii molecular type VGII, specifically VGIIa/major. In addition, a novel genotype, VGIIc, has emerged in Oregon and is now a major source of illness in the region. Through molecular epidemiology and population analysis of MLST and VNTR markers, we show that the VGIIc group is clonal and hypothesize it arose recently. The VGIIa/IIc outbreak lineages are sexually fertile and studies support ongoing recombination in the global VGII population. This illustrates two hallmarks of emerging outbreaks: high clonality and the emergence of novel genotypes via recombination. In macrophage and murine infections, the novel VGIIc genotype and VGIIa/major isolates from the United States are highly virulent compared to similar non-outbreak VGIIa/major-related isolates. Combined MLST-VNTR analysis distinguishes clonal expansion of the VGIIa/major outbreak genotype from related but distinguishable less-virulent genotypes isolated from other geographic regions. Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak.

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BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancers (ICC). Approximately 80% of ICC cases are diagnosed in under-developed countries. Vaccine development relies on knowledge of HPV genotypes characteristic of LSIL, HSIL and cancer; however, these genotypes remain poorly characterized in many African countries. To contribute to the characterization of HPV genotypes in Northeastern Tanzania, we recruited 215 women from the Reproductive Health Clinic at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Cervical scrapes and biopsies were obtained for cytology and HPV DNA detection. RESULTS: 79 out of 215 (36.7%) enrolled participants tested positive for HPV DNA, with a large proportion being multiple infections (74%). The prevalence of HPV infection increased with lesion grade (14% in controls, 67% in CIN1 cases and 88% in CIN2-3). Among ICC cases, 89% had detectable HPV. Overall, 31 HPV genotypes were detected; the three most common HPV genotypes among ICC were HPV16, 35 and 45. In addition to these genotypes, co-infection with HPV18, 31, 33, 52, 58, 68 and 82 was found in 91% of ICC. Among women with CIN2-3, HPV53, 58 and 84/83 were the most common. HPV35, 45, 53/58/59 were the most common among CIN1 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In women with no evidence of cytological abnormalities, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV58 with HPV16, 35, 52, 66 and 73 occurring equally. Although numerical constraints limit inference, findings that 91% of ICC harbor only a small number of HPV genotypes suggests that prevention efforts including vaccine development or adjuvant screening should focus on these genotypes.

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Giant viruses are known to be significant mortality agents of phytoplankton, often being implicated in the terminations of large Emiliania huxleyi blooms. We have previously shown the high temporal variability of E. huxleyi-infecting coccolithoviruses (EhVs) within a Norwegian fjord mesocosm. In the current study we investigated EhV dynamics within a naturally-occurring E. huxleyi bloom in the Western English Channel. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and marker gene sequencing, we uncovered a spatially highly dynamic Coccolithovirus population that was associated with a genetically stable E. huxleyi population as revealed by the major capsid protein gene (mcp) and coccolith morphology motif (CMM), respectively. Coccolithoviruses within the bloom were found to be variable with depth and unique virus populations were detected at different stations sampled indicating a complex network of EhV-host infections. This ultimately will have significant implications to the internal structure and longevity of ecologically important E. huxleyi blooms.

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Twenty-eight mapped barley SSRs were used to examine changes in the level and pattern of variability in northern European spring barley over time. Comparing the most recently introduced cultivars with a group of 19 landraces and key progenitors termed 'foundation genotypes' we observed a reduction in the spectrum of alleles at 28 loci over time, and highlighted chromosomal regions with limited SSR allelic variation. The 19 'foundation genotypes' contained 72% of the alleles present in all the cultivars sampled. The smallest number of genotypes required to encompass all of the alleles detected in this study was 44, several of which were recently introduced cultivars. The level of diversity within modern cultivars was lower (0.484) than in the 'foundation genotypes' (0.597), although the values varied with the SSR locus. A total of 74 rare alleles (frequency

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Factors that influence response to drug treatment are of increasing importance. We report an analysis of genetic factors affecting response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in 165 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele was associated with early and late cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment in mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) greater than or equal to21) (P

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A study is performed to examine the distribution and frequency of 25S rRNA intron genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from different anatomical sites of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Germ-tube positive Candida isolates (n=65) from 65 patients are included and isolates are characterised by 25S intron genotyping, whereby all can be subdivided into four genotypes (A-D). Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the frequency and genotype distribution of the Candida isolates and the anatomical site of colonisation. Furthermore, analysis of the transposable intron region in the 25S rRNA gene demonstrated equal distribution, regardless of age and anatomical site of isolation (groin, throat, etc.). Therefore, there does not appear to be any selective pressure associated with any anatomical site, resulting in an ecological shift in the frequency of genotypes present. This suggests that C. albicans intron genotypes equally colonise those sites of the body examined in this study. Although such an ecological finding as this is interesting, it perpetuates the continued need to find a genotypic typing scheme that helps to identify the source (nosocomial or endogenous) and mode of entry of C. albicans into patients in the ICU setting, resulting in C. albicans bloodstream infection.

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Objective: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control.

Methods: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112) versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68) groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma.

Key Results: The results indicated that LTA4H A-9188.G, TNFa G-308.A and IL-4Ra A1727.G polymorphisms were significantly associated with the development of difficult asthma in paediatric patients (p,0.001, p = 0.019 and p = 0.037, respectively). Haplotype analysis also revealed two haplotypes (ATA haplotype of IL-4Ra A1199.C, IL-4Ra T1570.C and IL- 4Ra A1727.G and CA haplotype of TNFa C-863.A and TNFa G-308.A polymorphisms) which were significantly associated with difficult asthma in children (p = 0.04 and p = 0.018, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: The study revealed multiple SNPs and haplotypes in LTA4H, TNFa and IL4-Ra genes which constitute risk factors for the development of difficult asthma in children. Of particular interest is the LTA4H A- 9188.G polymorphism which has been reported, for the first time, to have strong association with severe asthma in children. Our results suggest that screening for patients with this genetic marker could help characterise the heterogeneity of responses to leukotriene-modifying medications and, hence, facilitate targeting these therapies to the subset of patients who are most likely to gain benefit. ©2013 Almomani et al.

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The nucleotide sequence encoding the C terminus of the nucleocapsid protein of measles virus (MV) is the most variable in the genome. The sequence of this region is reported for 21 new MV strains and for virus RNA obtained from cases of subacute panencephalitis (SSPE) tissue. The nucleotide sequence of a total of 65 MV strains has been analysed using the CLUSTAL program to determine the relationships between the strains. An unrooted tree shows that eight different genotypes can be discerned amongst the sequences analysed so far. The data show that the C-terminal coding sequence of the nucleocapsid gene, although highly variable between strains, is stable in a given strain and does not appear to diverge in tissue culture. It therefore provides a good 'signature' sequence for specific genotypes. The sequence of this region can be used to discriminate new imported viruses from old 'endemic' strains of MV in a geographical area. The different genotypes are not geographically restricted although some appear to be the mainly 'endemic' types in large areas of the world. In global terms there appears to be at least four co-circulating genotypes of MV. The low level of divergence in the Edmonston lineage group isolated before 1970 indicates that some isolates are probably laboratory contaminants. This applies to some SSPE isolates such as the Halle, Mantooth and Horta-Barbosa strains as well as some wild-type isolates from that period.

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Significant genotypic difference in response to arsenate toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa) was investigated in root elongation, arsenate uptake kinetics, physiological and biochemical response and arsenic (As) speciation. Uptake kinetics data showed that P-deprived genotype 94D-54 had a little higher As uptake than P-deprived 94D-64, but the difference was not large enough to cause acute toxicity in P-deprived 94D-54. There was no difference in tissue P concentrations between the two genotypes under P deficient conditions. In addition, arsenic speciation in plant tissues (using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) was not different between P pretreatments and between genotypes. P-deprived genotype 94D-54 suffered much higher stress induced by arsenate toxicity than P-deprived genotype 94D-64, in terms of lipid peroxidation, tissue H2O2 concentrations and exosmosis of K, P and As. However, P-deprived 94D-54 also had higher overproduction of enzymatic antioxidants (with higher GPX, SOD, CAT) and NPT (non-protein thiols) than P-deprived 94D-64. It appeared that, the higher sensitivity of P-deprived 94D-54 to arsenate toxicity might cause the overproduction of NPT, thus leading to the depletion of GSH and to the accumulation of H2O2. The differential sensitivity of the two genotypes has major implications for breeding rice for As affected paddy soil.