1000 resultados para genotypes


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The Queensland strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) breeding program in subtropical Australia aims to improve sustainable profitability for the producer. Selection must account for the relative economic importance of each trait and the genetic architecture underlying these traits in the breeding population. Our study used estimates of the influence of a trait on production costs and profitability to develop a profitability index (PI) and an economic weight (i.e., change in PI for a unit change in level of trait) for each trait. The economic weights were then combined with the breeding values for 12 plant and fruit traits on over 3000 genotypes that were represented in either the current breeding population or as progenitors in the pedigree of these individuals. The resulting linear combination (i.e., sum of economic weight × breeding value for all 12 traits) estimated the overall economic worth of each genotype as H, the aggregate economic genotype. H values were validated by comparisons among commercial cultivars and were also compared with the estimated gross margins. When the H value of ‘Festival’ was set as zero, the H values of genotypes in the pedigree ranged from –0.36 to +0.28. H was highly correlated (R2 = 0.77) with the year of selection (1945–98). The gross margins were highly linearly related (R2 > 0.98) to H values when the genotype was planted on less than 50% of available area, but the relationship was non-linear [quadratic with a maximum (R2 > 0.96)] when the planted area exceeded 50%. Additionally, with H values above zero, the variation in gross margin increased with increasing H values as the percentage of area planted to a genotype increased. High correlations among some traits allowed the omission of any one of three of the 12 traits with little or no effect on ranking (Spearman’s rank correlation 0.98 or greater). Thus, these traits may be dropped from the aggregate economic genotype, leading to either cost reductions in the breeding program or increased selection intensities for the same resources. H was efficient in identifying economically superior genotypes for breeding and deployment, but because of the non-linear relationship with gross margin, calculation of a gross margin for genotypes with high H is also necessary when cultivars are deployed across more than 50% of the available area.

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Reproduction records from 2137 cows first mated at 2 years of age and recorded through to 8.5 years of age were used to study the genetics of early and lifetime reproductive performance from two genotypes (1020 Brahman and 1117 Tropical Composite) in tropical Australian production systems. Regular ultrasound scanning of the reproductive tract, coupled with full recording of mating, calving and weaning histories, allowed a comprehensive evaluation of a range of reproductive traits. Results showed components traits of early reproductive performance had moderate to high heritabilities, especially in Brahmans. The heritability of lactation anoestrous interval in 3-year-old cows was 0.51 +/- 0.18 and 0.26 +/- 0.11 for Brahman and Tropical Composite, respectively. Heritabilities of binary reproductive output traits (conception rate, pregnancy rate, calving rate and weaning rate) from first and second matings were generally moderate to high on the underlying scale. Estimates ranged from 0.15 to 0.69 in Brahman and 0.15 to 0.34 in Tropical Composite, but were considerably lower when expressed on the observed scale, particularly for those traits with high mean levels. Heritabilities of lifetime reproduction traits were low, with estimates of 0.11 +/- 0.06 and 0.07 +/- 0.06 for lifetime annual weaning rate in Brahman and Tropical Composite, respectively. Significant differences in mean reproductive performance were observed between the two genotypes, especially for traits associated with anoestrus in first-lactation cows. Genetic correlations between early-in-life reproductive measures and lifetime reproduction traits were moderate to high. Genetic correlations between lactation anoestrous interval and lifetime annual weaning rate were -0.62 +/- 0.24 in Brahman and -0.87 +/- 0.32 in Tropical Composite. The results emphasise the substantial opportunity that exists to genetically improve weaning rates in tropical beef cattle breeds by focusing recording and selection on early-in-life female reproduction traits, particularly in Brahman for traits associated with lactation anoestrus.

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Genetic correlations of young bull and heifer puberty traits with measures of early and lifetime female reproductive performance were estimated in two tropical beef cattle genotypes. Heifer age at puberty was highly (r(g) = -0.71 +/- 0.11) and moderately (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.20) genetically correlated with pregnancy rate at first annual mating (mating 1) and lifetime annual calving rate, respectively in Brahman (BRAH). In Tropical Composite (TCOMP), heifer age at puberty was highly correlated with reproductive outcomes from the first re-breed (mating 2), mainly due to its association with lactation anoestrous interval (r(g) = 0.72 +/- 0.17). Scrotal circumference were correlated with heifer age at puberty (r(g) = -0.41 +/- 0.11 at 12 months in BRAH; -0.30 +/- 0.13 at 6 months in TCOMP) but correlations were lower with later female reproduction traits. Bull insulin-like growth factor-I was correlated with heifer age at puberty (r(g) = -0.56 +/- 0.11 in BRAH; -0.43 +/- 0.11 in TCOMP) and blood luteinising hormone concentration was moderately correlated with lactation anoestrous interval (r(g) = 0.59 +/- 0.23) in TCOMP. Semen quality traits, including mass activity, motility and percent normal sperm were genetically correlated with lactation anoestrus and female lifetime female reproductive traits in both genotypes, but the magnitudes of the relationships differed with bull age at measurement. Preputial eversion and sheath scores were genetically associated with lifetime calving and weaning rates in both genotypes. Several of the early-in-life male and female measures examined were moderately to highly genetically correlated with early and lifetime female reproduction traits and may be useful as indirect selection criteria for improving female reproduction in tropical breeds in northern Australia.

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The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of soil water extraction and drought resistance among genotypes of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) a perennial C-4 grass. Four wild Australian ecotypes (1-1, 25a1, 40-1, and 81-1) and four cultivars (CT2, Grand Prix, Legend, and Wintergreen) were examined in field experiments with rainfall excluded to monitor soil water extraction at 30-190 cm depths. In the study we defined drought resistance as the ability to maintain green canopy cover under drought. The most drought resistant genotypes (40-1 and 25a1) maintained more green cover (55-85% vs 5-10%) during water deficit and extracted more soil water (120-160 mm vs 77-107 mm) than drought sensitive genotypes, especially at depths from 50 to 110 cm, though all genotypes extracted water to 190 cm. The maintenance of green cover and higher soil water extraction were associated with higher stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and relative water content. For all genotypes, the pattern of water use as a percentage of total water use was similar across depth and time We propose the observed genetic variation was related to different root characteristics (root length density, hydraulic conductivity, root activity) although shoot sensitivity to drying soil cannot be ruled out.

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Significant genotypic differences in tolerance of pollen germination and seed set to high temperatures have been shown in sorghum. However, it is unclear whether differences were associated with variation in either the threshold temperature above which reproductive processes are affected, or in the tolerance to increased temperature above that threshold. The objectives of this study were to (a) dissect known differences in heat tolerance for a range of sorghum genotypes into differences in the threshold temperature and tolerance to increased temperatures, (b) determine whether poor seed set under high temperatures can be compensated by increased seed mass, and (c) identify whether genotypic differences in heat tolerance in a controlled environment facility (CEF) can be reproduced in field conditions. Twenty genotypes were grown in a CEF under four day/night temperatures (31.9/21.0 °C, 32.8/21.0 °C, 36.1/21.0 °C, and 38.0/21.0 °C), and a subset of six genotypes was grown in the field under four different temperature regimes around anthesis. The novelty of the findings in this study related to differences in responsiveness to high temperature—genotypic differences in seed set percentage were found for both the threshold temperature and the tolerance to increased maximum temperature above that threshold. Further, the response of seed set to high temperature in the field study was well correlated to that in the CEF (R2 = 0.69), although the slope was significantly less than unity, indicating that heat stress effects may have been diluted under the variable field conditions. Poor seed set was not compensated by increased seed mass in either CEF or field environments. Grain yield was thus closely related to seed set percentage. This result demonstrates the potential for development of a low-cost field screening method to identify high-temperature tolerant varieties that could deliver sustainable yields under future warmer climates.

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Poultry are considered a major source for campylobacteriosis in humans. A total of 1866 Campylobacter spp. isolates collected through the poultry processing chain were typed using flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism to measure the impact of processing on the genotypes present. Temporally related human clinical isolates (n = 497) were also typed. Isolates were obtained from whole chicken carcass rinses of chickens collected before scalding, after scalding, before immersion chilling, after immersion chilling and after packaging as well as from individual caecal samples. A total of 32 genotypes comprising at least four isolates each were recognised. Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was calculated for each sampling site within each flock, for each flock as a whole and for the clinical isolates. From caecal collection to after packaging samples the D value did not change in two flocks, decreased in one flock and increased in the fourth flock. Dominant genotypes occurred in each flock but their constitutive percentages changed through processing. There were 23 overlapping genotypes between clinical and chicken isolates. The diversity of Campylobacter is flock dependant and may alter through processing. This study confirms that poultry are a source of campylobacteriosis in the Australian population although other sources may contribute.

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[EN]In an attempt to predict intramuscular fatty acid composition using easily accessible fat depots, between-tissue correlations were studied in 75 Asturiana de los Valles bulls with different levels of muscular hypertrophy, and 25 Asturiana de la Montan˜ a bulls. Trans-18:1 in intramuscular fat was highly and positively correlated with levels in subcutaneous and intermuscular fats, while levels of total n-3 were not correlated. Predicting intramuscular fatty acid composition using easily accessible depots is thus possible for some fatty acids exhibiting high between-tissue correlations (e.g., trans-18:1) but breed and tissue specific deposition may limit this for others (e.g., n-3 fatty acids).

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Background: Noroviruses (NoVs) are genetically diverse, with genogroup II-and within it-genotype 4 (GII.4) being the most prevalent cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize genogroup II NoV causing acute gastroenteritis in the Basque Country (northern Spain) from 2009-2012. Methods: The presence of NoV RNA was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from children younger than 15 years old with community-acquired acute gastroenteritis, and from hospitalized adults or elderly residents of nursing homes with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frames ORF1 (encoding the polymerase) and ORF2 (encoding the major capsid protein) were partially amplified and sequenced. Recombinant strains were confirmed by PCR of the ORF1/ORF2 junction region. Results: NoV was detected in 16.0% (453/2826) of acute gastroenteritis episodes in children younger than 2 years, 9.9% (139/1407) in children from 2 to 14 years, and 35.8% (122/341) in adults. Of 317 NoVs characterized, 313 were genogroup II and four were genogroup I. The GII.4 variants Den Haag-2006b and New Orleans-2009 predominated in 2009 and 2010-2011, respectively. In 2012, the New Orleans-2009 variant was partially replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant (GII.Pe/GII.4) and New Orleans-2009/Sydney-2012 recombinant strains. The predominant capsid genotype in all age groups was GII.4, which was the only genotype detected in outbreaks. The second most frequent genotype was GII.3 (including the recently described recombination GII.P16/GII.3), which was detected almost exclusively in children. Conclusion: Nine different genotypes of NoV genogroup II were detected; among these, intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part, highlighting the role of recombination in the evolution of NoVs. Detection of new NoV strains, not only GII.4 strains, shortly after their first detection in other parts of the world shows that many NoV strains can spread rapidly.

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mtDNA genotypes of six domestic horses (three adult short horses whose heights are under 1 m and three common domestic horses) from a small region of 15 km(2) in Malipo county of Yunnan province of China were investigated by the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with restriction endonucleases which recognize 6-bp sequences. An average of fragments for an individual was obtained. Unlike other domestic animals, this population of horses exhibits high mtDNA genetic diversity. Each of the six horses has a specific mtDNA genotype showing a pattern of multiple maternal origins, as suggested by fossil and literature records. We think the population of horses is an amazing seed-resource pool of horses and hence deserves to be paid more attention from the view of conservation genetics. However it is also remarkable that we did not find any typical mtDNA genetic markers which would discriminate between short horses and common domestic horses.