1000 resultados para genotypes


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The partial gene sequencing of the matrix (M) protein from seven clinical isolates of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3), and the complete sequencing of a representative isolate (Q5592) was completed in this study. Nucleotide sequence analysis was initiated because of the failure of in-house BPIV-3 RT-PCR methods to yield expected products for four of the isolates. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the nucleotide sequences for the M-protein and the entire genome, using all of the available BPIV-3 nucleotide sequences, demonstrated that there were two distinct BPIV-3 genotypes (BPIV-3a and BPIV-3b). These newly identified genotypes have implications for the development of BPIV-3 molecular detection methods and may also impact on BPIV-3 vaccine formulations.

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The ability to predict phenology and canopy development is critical in crop models used for simulating likely consequences of alternative crop management and cultivar choice strategies. Here we quantify and contrast the temperature and photoperiod responses for phenology and canopy development of a diverse range of elite Indian and Australian sorghum genotypes (hybrid and landrace). Detailed field experiments were undertaken in Australia and India using a range of genotypes, sowing dates, and photoperiod extension treatments. Measurements of timing of developmental stages and leaf appearance were taken. The generality of photo-thermal approaches to modelling phenological and canopy development was tested. Environmental and genotypic effects on rate of progression from emergence to floral initiation (E-FI) were explained well using a multiplicative model, which combined the intrinsic development rate (Ropt), with responses to temperature and photoperiod. Differences in Ropt and extent of the photoperiod response explained most genotypic effects. Average leaf initiation rate (LIR), leaf appearance rate and duration of the phase from anthesis to physiological maturity differed among genotypes. The association of total leaf number (TLN) with photoperiod found for all genotypes could not be fully explained by effects on development and LIRs. While a putative effect of photoperiod on LIR would explain the observations, other possible confounding factors, such as air-soil temperature differential and the nature of model structure were considered and discussed. This study found a generally robust predictive capacity of photo-thermal development models across diverse ranges of both genotypes and environments. Hence, they remain the most appropriate models for simulation analysis of genotype-by-management scenarios in environments varying broadly in temperature and photoperiod.

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The genetics of heifer performance in tropical 'wet' and 'dry' seasons, and relationships with steer performance, were studied in Brahman (BRAH) and Tropical Composite (TCOMP) (50% Bos indicus, African Sanga or other tropically adapted Bos taurus; 50% non-tropically adapted Bos taurus) cattle of northern Australia. Data were from 2159 heifers (1027 BRAH, 1132 TCOMP), representing 54 BRAH and 51 TCOMP sires. Heifers were assessed after post-weaning 'wet' (ENDWET) and 'dry' (ENDDRY) seasons. Steers were assessed post-weaning, at feedlot entry, over a 70-day feed test, and after similar to 120-day finishing. Measures studied in both heifers and steers were liveweight (LWT), scanned rump fat, rib fat and M. longissimus area (SEMA), body condition score (CS), hip height (HH), serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I), and average daily gains (ADG). Additional steer measures were scanned intra-muscular fat%, flight time, and daily (DFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Uni- and bivariate analyses were conducted for combined genotypes and for individual genotypes. Genotype means were predicted for a subset of data involving 34 BRAH and 26 TCOMP sires. A meta-analysis of genetic correlation estimates examined how these were related to the difference between measurement environments for specific traits. There were genotype differences at the level of means, variances and genetic correlations. BRAH heifers were significantly (P < 0.05) faster-growing in the 'wet' season, slower-growing in the 'dry' season, lighter at ENDDRY, and taller and fatter with greater CS and IGF-I at both ENDWET and ENDDRY. Heritabilities were generally in the 20 to 60% range for both genotypes. Phenotypic and genetic variances, and genetic correlations, were commonly lower for BRAH. Differences were often explained by the long period of tropical adaptation of B. indicus. Genetic correlations were high between corresponding measures at ENDWET and ENDDRY, positive between fat and muscle measures in TCOMP but negative in BRAH (mean of 13 estimates 0.50 and -0.19, respectively), and approximately zero between steer feedlot ADG and heifer ADG in BRAH. Numerous genetic correlations between heifers and steers differed substantially from unity, especially in BRAH, suggesting there may be scope to select differently in the sexes where that would aid the differing roles of heifers and steers in production. Genetic correlations declined as measurement environments became more different, the rates of decline (environment sensitivity) sometimes differing with genotype. Similar measures (LWT, HH and ADG; IGF-I at ENDWET in TCOMP) were genetically correlated with steer DFI in heifers as in steers. Heifer SEMA was genetically correlated with steer feedlot RFI in BRAH (0.75 +/- 0.27 at ENDWET, 0.66 +/- 0.24 at ENDDRY). Selection to reduce steer RFI would reduce SEMA in BRAH heifers but otherwise have only small effects on heifers before their first joining.

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A total of 2115 heifers from two tropical genotypes (1007 Brahman and 1108 Tropical Composite) raised in four locations in northern Australia were ovarian-scanned every 4-6 weeks to determine the age at the first-observed corpus luteum (CL) and this was used to de. ne the age at puberty for each heifer. Other traits recorded at each time of ovarian scanning were liveweight, fat depths and body condition score. Reproductive tract size was measured close to the start of the first joining period. Results showed significant effects of location and birth month on the age at first CL and associated puberty traits. Genotypes did not differ significantly for the age or weight at first CL; however, Brahman were fatter at first CL and had a small reproductive tract size compared with that of Tropical Composite. Genetic analyses estimated the age at first CL to be moderately to highly heritable for Brahman (0.57) and Tropical Composite (0.52). The associated traits were also moderately heritable, except for reproductive tract size in Brahmans (0.03) and for Tropical Composite, the presence of an observed CL on the scanning day closest to the start of joining (0.07). Genetic correlations among puberty traits were mostly moderate to high and generally larger in magnitude for Brahman than for Tropical Composite. Genetic correlations between the age at CL and heifer- and steer-production traits showed important genotype differences. For Tropical Composite, the age at CL was negatively correlated with the heifer growth rate in their first postweaning wet season (-0.40) and carcass marbling score (-0.49), but was positively correlated with carcass P8 fat depth (0.43). For Brahman, the age at CL was moderately negatively genetically correlated with heifer measures of bodyweight, fatness, body condition score and IGF-I, in both their first postweaning wet and second dry seasons, but was positively correlated with the dry-season growth rate. For Brahman, genetic correlations between the age at CL and steer traits showed possible antagonisms with feedlot residual feed intake (-0.60) and meat colour (0.73). Selection can be used to change the heifer age at puberty in both genotypes, with few major antagonisms with steer- and heifer- production traits.

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Consider an organism in which the genetic fitness of an individual depends to a large extent on its social interactions. Assuming the genotypes to differ only in the choice of strategies they adopt in social interactions, and equating the variation in genetic fitness to the mean payoff to an individual averaged over all possible encounters, we develop a dynamical model for the evolution of genotypic frequencies in such a population. Such a system is characterised by frequency dependent selection, and depending on the initial composition, the population evolves towards one of several possible compositions. We term as evolutionarily stable compositions (ESC) any such composition towards which a population can evolve and which is stable against small fluctuations in the frequencies of existing genotypes as well as to invasions by any other postulated genotype. We state the necessary and sufficient conditions for the identification of all possible ESC's for any number of interacting genotypes. Our results conform to those derived earlier in connection with the concept of evolutionarily stable strategies only in the case of two interacting genotypes; when more than two genotypes interact the conditions under which various ESC's exist become far richer. We consider interactions with mixed strategists and show that in a conflict with pure strategists the optimal mixed strategist will be the only one to ultimately survive. We illustrate our approach by considering the specific case of a primitively social wasp.

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Salinity is an increasingly important issue in both rural and urban areas throughout much of Australia. The use of recycled/reclaimed water and other sources of poorer quality water to irrigate turf is also increasing. Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davey), together with the parent species C. dactylon, are amongst the most widely used warm-season turf grass groups. Twelve hybrid Bermudagrass genotypes and one accession each of Bermudagrass (C. dactylon), African Bermudagrass (C. transvaalensis) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) were grown in a glasshouse experiment with six different salinity treatments applied hydroponically through the irrigation water (ECW = <0.1, 6, 12, 18, 24 or 30 dSm-1) in a flood-and-drain system. Each pot was clipped progressively at 2-weekly intervals over the 12-week experimental period to determine dry matter production; leaf firing was rated visually on 3 occasions during the last 6 weeks of salinity treatment. At the end of the experiment, dry weights of roots and crowns below clipping height were also determined. Clipping yields declined sharply after about the first 6 weeks of salinity treatment, but then remained stable at substantially lower levels of dry matter production from weeks 8 to 12. Growth data over this final 4-week experimental period is therefore a more accurate guide to the relative salinity tolerance of the 15 entries than data from the preceding 8 weeks. Based on these data, the 12 hybrid Bermudagrass genotypes showed moderate salinity tolerance, with FloraDwarfM, 'Champion Dwarf', NovotekM and 'TifEagle' ranking as the most salt tolerant and 'Patriot', 'Santa Ana', 'Tifgreen' and TifSport M the least tolerant within the hybrid group. Nevertheless, Santa Ana, for example, maintained relatively strong root growth as salinity increased, and so may show better salt tolerance in practice than predicted from the growth data alone. The 12 hybrid Bermudagrasses and the single African Bermudagrass genotype were all ranked above FloraTeXM Bermudagrass in terms of salt tolerance. However, seashore paspalum, which is widely acknowledged as a halophytic species showing high salt tolerance, ranked well above all 14 Cynodon genotypes in terms of salinity tolerance.

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Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze, known as "St Augustinegrass" in the USA and "buffalo grass" in Australia, is a widely used turfgrass species in subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Throughout its range, S. secundatum encompasses a great deal of genetic diversity, which can be exploited in future breeding programs. To understand better the range of genetic variation in Australia, morphological-agronomic classification and DNA profiling were used to characterize and group 17 commercial cultivars and 18 naturalized genotypes collected from across Australia. Historically, there have been two main sources of S. secundatum in Austalia: one a reputedly sterile triploid race (the so-called Cape deme) from South Africa now represented by the Australian Common group naturalized in all Australian states; and the other a "normal" fertile diploid race naturalized north from Sydney along the NSW coast, which is referred to here as the Australian Commercial group because it has been the source of most of the new cultivars recently developed in Australia. Over the past 30 years, some US cultivars have also been introduced and commercialized; these are again "normal" fertile diploids, but from a group distinclty different from the Australian Commercial genotypes as shown by both DNA analysis and grouping based on 28 morphological-agronomic characteristics. The implications for future breeding within S. secundatum in Australia are discussed.

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Biodiversity of sharks in the tropical Indo-Pacific is high, but species-specific information to assist sustainable resource exploitation is scarce. The null hypothesis of population genetic homogeneity was tested for scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini, n=244) and the milkshark (Rhizoprionodon acutus, n=209) from northern and eastern Australia, using nuclear (S. lewini, eight microsatellite loci; R. acutus, six loci) and mitochondrial gene markers (873 base pairs of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4). We were unable to reject genetic homogeneity for S. lewini, which was as expected based on previous studies of this species. Less expected were similar results for R. acutus, which is more benthic and less vagile than S. lewini. These features are probably driving the genetic break found between Australian and central Indonesian R. acutus (F-statistics; mtDNA, 0.751 to 0.903; microsatellite loci, 0.038 to 0.047). Our results support the spatially-homogeneous management plan for shark species in Queensland, but caution is advised for species yet to be studied.

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Scomberomorus semifasciatus is an Australian endemic found in tropical, coastal waters from eastern to western Australia. Commercial and recreational exploitation is common and regulated by state-based authorities. This study used mitochondrial DNA sequence and microsatellite markers to elucidate the population structure of Scomberomorus semifasciatus collected from twelve, equidistant sampling locations. Samples (n=544) were genotyped with nine microsatellite loci, and 353 were sequenced for d-loop (384 bp) and ATP (800bp) mitochondrial DNA gene regions. Combined interpretation of microsatellite and mtDNA data identified four genetic stocks of S. semifasciatus: Western Australia, northwest coast of the Northern Territory, Gulf of Carpentaria and the east coast of Queensland. Connectivity among stocks across northern Australia from the Northern Territory to the east coast of Queensland was high, but in contrast, there was a clear genetic break between populations in Western Australia compared to the rest of northern Australia. This indicates a restriction to gene flow possibly associated with suboptimal habitat along the Kimberley coast (northwestern Australia). The appropriate scale of management for this species corresponds to the jurisdictions of the three Australian states, except that the Gulf of Carpentaria stock should be co-managed by authorities in Queensland and Northern Territory.

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An understanding of whether Campylobacter are linked to particular companies and/or particular regional areas. An improved industry ability to respond to food-borne outbreaks associated with Campylobacter.

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Post head-emergence frost causes substantial losses for Australian barley producers. Varieties with improved resistance would have a significant positive impact on Australian cropping enterprises. Five barley genotypes previously tested for reproductive frost resistance in southern Australia were tested, post head-emergence, in the northern grain region of Australia and compared with the typical northern control cultivars, Gilbert and Kaputar. All tested genotypes suffered severe damage to whole heads and stems at plant minimum temperatures less than -8degreesC. In 2003, 2004 and 2005, frost events reaching a plant minimum temperature of ~-6.5degreesC did not result in the complete loss of grain yield. Rather, partial seed set was observed. The control genotype, Gilbert, exhibited seed set that was greater than or equal to that of any genotype in each year, as did Kaputar when tested in 2005. Thus, Gilbert and Kaputar were at least as resistant as any tested genotype. This contrasts with trial results from the southern grain region where Gilbert was reported to be less resistant than Franklin, Amagi Nijo and Haruna Nijo. Hence, rankings for post head-emergence frost damage in the northern grain region differ from those previously reported. These results indicate that Franklin, Amagi Nijo and Haruna Nijo are not likely to provide useful sources of frost resistance or markers to develop improved varieties for the northern grain region of Australia.

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Despite international protection of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), important conservation parameters such as abundance, population structure and genetic diversity are largely unknown. The tissue of 97 predominately juvenile white sharks sampled from spatially distant eastern and southwestern Australian coastlines was sequenced for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and genotyped with six nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci. MtDNA population structure was found between the eastern and southwestern coasts (FST = 0.142, p < 0.001), implying female natal philopatry. This concords with recent satellite and acoustic tracking findings which suggest the sustained presence of discrete east coast nursery areas. Furthermore, population subdivision was found between the same regions with biparentally inherited microsatellite markers (FST = 0.009, p <0.05), suggesting that males may also exhibit some degree of reproductive philopatry. Five sharks captured along the east coast had mtDNA haplotypes that resembled western Indian Ocean sharks more closely than Australian/New Zealand sharks, suggesting that transoceanic dispersal or migration resulting in breeding may occur sporadically. Our most robust estimate of contemporary genetic effective population size was low and below the threshold at which adaptive potential may be lost. For a variety of reasons, these contemporary estimates were at least one, possibly two orders of magnitude below our historical effective size estimates. Further population decline could expose these genetically isolated populations to detrimental genetic effects. Regional Australian white shark conservation management units should be implemented until genetic population structure, size and diversity can be investigated in more detail. Reference: Blower, D. C., Pandolfi, J. M., Gomez-Cabrera, M. del C., Bruce, B. D. & Ovenden, J. R. (In press - April 2012). Population genetics of Australian white sharks reveals fine-scale spatial structure, transoceanic dispersal events and low effective population sizes. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

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In wheat, tillering and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the stem are potential traits for adaptation to different environments and are of interest as targets for selective breeding. This study investigated the observation that a high stem WSC concentration (WSCc) is often related to low tillering. The proposition tested was that stem WSC accumulation is plant density dependent and could be an emergent property of tillering, whether driven by genotype or by environment. A small subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) contrasting for tillering was grown at different plant densities or on different sowing dates in multiple field experiments. Both tillering and WSCc were highly influenced by the environment, with a smaller, distinct genotypic component; the genotypeenvironment range covered 350750 stems m(2) and 25210mg g(1) WSCc. Stem WSCc was inversely related to stem number m(2), but genotypic rankings for stem WSCc persisted when RILs were compared at similar stem density. Low tilleringhigh WSCc RILs had similar leaf area index, larger individual leaves, and stems with larger internode cross-section and wall area when compared with high tilleringlow WSCc RILs. The maximum number of stems per plant was positively associated with growth and relative growth rate per plant, tillering rate and duration, and also, in some treatments, with leaf appearance rate and final leaf number. A common threshold of the red:far red ratio (0.390.44; standard error of the difference0.055) coincided with the maximum stem number per plant across genotypes and plant densities, and could be effectively used in crop simulation modelling as a ocut-off' rule for tillering. The relationship between tillering, WSCc, and their component traits, as well as the possible implications for crop simulation and breeding, is discussed.