1000 resultados para genotypes


Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

PURPOSE: To determine if participants with normal visual acuity, no ophthalmoscopically signs of age-related maculopathy (ARM) in both eyes and who are carriers of the CFH, LOC387715 and HRTA1 high-risk genotypes (“gene-positive”) have impaired rod- and cone-mediated mesopic visual function compared to persons who do not carry the risk genotypes (“gene-negative”).---------- METHODS: Fifty-three Caucasian study participants (mean 55.8 ± 6.1) were genotyped for CFH, LOC387715/ARMS2 and HRTA1 polymorphisms. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFH (rs380390), LOC387715/ARMS2 (rs10490924) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) genes using Applied Biosystems optimised TaqMan assays. We determined the critical fusion frequency (CFF) mediated by cones alone (Long, Middle and Short wavelength sensitive cones; LMS) and by the combined activities of cones and rods (LMSR). The stimuli were generated using a 4-primary photostimulator that provides independent control of the photoreceptor excitation under mesopic light levels. Visual function was further assessed using standard clinical tests, flicker perimetry and microperimetry.---------- RESULTS: The mesopic CFF mediated by rods and cones (LMSR) was significantly reduced in gene-positive compared to gene-negative participants after correction for age (p=0.03). Cone-mediated CFF (LMS) was not significantly different between gene-positive and -negative participants. There were no significant associations between flicker perimetry and microperimetry and genotype.---------- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to relate ARM risk genotypes with mesopic visual function in clinically normal persons. These preliminary results could become of clinical importance as mesopic vision may be used to document sub-clinical retinal changes in persons with risk genotypes and to determine whether those persons progress into manifest disease.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Although numerous genetic and acquired factors are appreciated as risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) [1,2], only recently have male gender [3,4], dyslipoproteinemia [5], and silent atherosclerotic vascular disease [6] been linked to VTE. We recently found that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency is a key feature of a pattern of dyslipoproteinemia that is associated with VTE in males, and we found that the common TaqI B1 variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is significantly linked to VTE [5]. However, the TaqI B1/B2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) itself is unlikely to affect directly CETP activity, but it is linked to nonsynonymous CETP SNPs Ala373Pro and Arg451Gln [7–9]. Here, we demonstrate that these two CETP variations are associated with VTE and low plasma HDL levels in males.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The World Health Organization recommends that the majority of water monitoring laboratories in the world should test for E. coli daily since thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli are key indicators for risk assessment of recreational waters. Recently, we developed a new SNP method for typing E. coli strains, by which human-specific genotypes were identified. Here, we report the presence of these previously described specific SNP profiles in environmental water, sourced from the Coomera River, located on South East Queensland, Australia, over a period of two years. This study tested for the presence of human-specific E. coli to ascertain whether hydrologic and anthropogenic activity plays a key role in the pollution of the investigated watershed or whether the pollution is from other sources. We found six human-specific SNP profiles and one animal-specific SNP profile consistently across sampling sites and times. We have demonstrated that our SNP genotyping method is able to rapidly identify and characterise human- and animal-specific E. coli isolates in water sources.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

AIMS: As recent conflicting reports describe a genetic association between both the C- and the T-alleles of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism (rs6277) in alcohol-dependent subjects, our aim was to examine this polymorphism and TaqIA (rs1800497) in Australian alcohol-dependent subjects. METHODS: The C957T polymorphism was genotyped in 228 patients with alcohol dependence (72 females and 156 males) and 228 healthy controls. RESULTS: The C-allele and C/C genotype of C957T was associated with alcohol dependence, whereas the TaqIA polymorphism was not. When analysed separately for C957T, males showed an even stronger association with the C-allele and females showed no association. The C957T and TaqIA haplotyping revealed a strong association with alcohol dependence and a double-genotype analysis (combining C957T and TaqIA genotypes) revealed that the relative risk of different genotypes varied by up to 27-fold with the TT/A1A2 having an 8.5-fold lower risk of alcohol dependence than other genotypes. CONCLUSION: Decreased DRD2 binding associated with the C-allele of the DRD2 C957T polymorphism is likely to be important in the underlying pathophysiology of at least some forms of alcohol dependence, and this effect appears to be limited to males only.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Purpose: To determine whether there is a difference in neuroretinal function and in macular pigment optical density between persons with high- and low-risk gene variants for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and no ophthalmoscopic signs of AMD, and to compare the results on neuroretinal function to patients with manifest early AMD. Methods and Participants: Neuroretinal function was assessed with the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) for 32 participants (22 healthy persons with no AMD and 10 early AMD patients). The 22 healthy participants with no AMD had high- or low-risk genotypes for either CFH (rs380390) and/or ARMS2 (rs10490924). Trough-to-peak response densities and peak-implicit times were analyzed in 5 concentric rings. Macular pigment optical densitometry was assessed by customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results: Trough-to-peak response densities for concentric rings 1 to 3 were, on average, significantly greater in participants with high-risk genotypes than in participants with low-risk genotypes and in persons with early AMD after correction for age and smoking (p<0.05). The group peak- implicit times for ring 1 were, on average, delayed in the patients with early AMD compared with the participants with high- or low-risk genotypes, although these differences were not significant. There was no significant correlation between genotypes and macular pigment optical density. Conclusion: Increased neuroretinal activity in persons who carry high-risk AMD genotypes may be due to genetically determined subclinical inflammatory and/or histological changes in the retina. Neuroretinal function in healthy persons genetically susceptible to AMD may be a useful additional early biomarker (in combination with genetics) before there is clinical manifestation.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), caused by Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is the most significant infectious disease in psittacines. PBFD is thought to have originated in Australia but is now found worldwide; in Africa, it threatens the survival of the indigenous endangered Cape parrot and the vulnerable black-cheeked lovebird. We investigated the genetic diversity of putative BFDVs from southern Africa. Feathers and heparinized blood samples were collected from 27 birds representing 9 psittacine species, all showing clinical signs of PBFD. DNA extracted from these samples was used for PCR amplification of the putative BFDV coat protein (CP) gene. The nucleotide sequences of the CP genes of 19 unique BFDV isolates were determined and compared with the 24 previously described sequences of BFDV isolates from Australasia and America. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight BFDV lineages, with the southern African isolates representing at least three distinctly unique genotypes; 10 complete genome sequences were determined, representing at least one of every distinct lineage. The nucleotide diversity of the southern African isolates was calculated to be 6.4% and is comparable to that found in Australia and New Zealand. BFDVs in southern Africa have, however, diverged substantially from viruses found in other parts of the world, as the average distance between the southern African isolates and BFDV isolates from Australia ranged from 8.3 to 10.8%. In addition to point mutations, recombination was found to contribute substantially to the level of genetic variation among BFDVs, with evidence of recombination in all but one of the genomes analyzed.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Rationale Although the advent of atypical, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has resulted in reduced likelihood of akathisia, this adverse effect remains a problem. Extrapyramidal adverse effects are associated with increased drug occupancy of dopamine 2 receptors (DRD2). The A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1,rs1800497, is associated with decreased striatal DRD2 density. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify whether the A1(T) allele of the DRD2/ANKK1 was associated with akathisia (measured with the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale) in a clinical sample of 234 patients treated with antipsychotics. Results Definite akathisia (a score≥ 2 for the global clinical assessment of akathisia) was significantly less common in subjects prescribed SGAs (16.8 %) than those prescribed FGAs (47.6%), p<0.0001. Overall, 24.1% of A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) patients treated with SGAs had akathisia compared to 10.8% of A1- (A2A2) patients. A1+ (A1A2/A1A1) patients administered SGAs also had higher global clinical assessment of akathisia scores than A1- subjects (p=0.01). SGAs maintained their advantage over FGAs regarding akathisia even in A1+ patients treated with SGAs. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that A1+ variants of the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A allele confer risk for akathisia in patients treated with SGAs and may explain inconsistencies across prior studies comparing FGAs and SGAs.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Purpose: To determine whether neuroretinal function differs in healthy persons with and without common risk gene variants for age- related macular degeneration (AMD) and no ophthalmoscopic signs of AMD, and to compare those findings in persons with manifest early AMD. Methods and Participants: Neuroretinal function was assessed with the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) (VERIS, Redwood City, CA,) in 32 participants (22 healthy persons with no clinical signs of AMD and 10 early AMD patients). The 22 healthy participants with no AMD were risk genotypes for either the CFH (rs380390) and/or ARMS2 (rs10490920). We used a slow flash mfERG paradigm (3 inserted frames) and a 103 hexagon stimulus array. Recordings were made with DTL electrodes; fixation and eye movements were monitored online. Trough N1 to peak P1 (N1P1) response densities and P1-implicit times (IT) were analysed in 5 concentric rings. Results: N1P1 response densities (mean ± SD) for concentric rings 1-3 were on average significantly higher in at-risk genotypes (ring 1: 17.97 nV/deg2 ± 1.9, ring 2: 11.7 nV/deg2 ±1.3, ring 3: 8.7 nV/deg2 ± 0.7) compared to those without risk (ring 1: 13.7 nV/deg2 ± 1.9, ring 2: 9.2 nV/deg2 ±0.8, ring 3: 7.3 nV/deg2 ± 1.1) and compared to persons with early AMD (ring 1: 15.3 nV/deg2 ± 4.8, ring 2: 9.1 nV/deg2 ±2.3, ring 3 nV/deg2: 7.3± 1.3) (p<0.5). The group implicit times, P1-ITs for ring 1 were on average delayed in the early AMD patients (36.4 ms ± 1.0) compared to healthy participants with (35.1 ms ± 1.1) or without risk genotypes (34.8 ms ±1.3), although these differences were not significant. Conclusion: Neuroretinal function in persons with normal fundi can be differentiated into subgroups based on their genetics. Increased neuroretinal activity in persons who carry AMD risk genotypes may be due to genetically determined subclinical inflammatory and/or histological changes in the retina. Assessment of neuroretinal function in healthy persons genetically susceptible to AMD may be a useful early biomarker before there is clinical manifestation of AMD.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a chronic disabling neurovascular condition that may in part be caused by endothelial and cerebrovascular disruption induced by hyperhomocysteinaemia. We have previously provided evidence indicating that reduction of homocysteine by vitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of migraine in women. The current study examined the genotypic effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene variants on the occurrence of migraine in response to vitamin supplementation. METHODS: This was a 6-month randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of daily vitamin B supplementation (B(6), B(9) and B(12)) on reduction of homocysteine and of the occurrence of migraine in 206 female patients diagnosed with migraine with aura. RESULTS: Vitamin supplementation significantly reduced homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of headache in migraine (P=0.017) and high migraine disability (P=0.022) in migraineurs compared with the placebo effect (P>0.1). When the vitamin-treated group was stratified by genotype, the C allele carriers of the MTHFR C677T variant showed a higher reduction in homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of pain in migraine (P=0.01) and percentage of high migraine disability (P=0.009) compared with those with the TT genotypes. Similarly, the A allele carriers of the MTRR A66G variants showed a higher level of reduction in homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of pain in migraine (P=0.002) and percentage of high migraine disability (P=0.006) compared with those with the GG genotypes. Genotypic analysis for both genes combined indicated that the treatment effect modification of the MTRR variant was independent of the MTHFR variant. CONCLUSION: This provided further evidence that vitamin supplementation is effective in reducing migraine and also that both MTHFR and MTRR gene variants are acting independently to influence treatment response in female migraineurs.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome caused by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide mutation A3243G. It affects various organs including the eye with external ophthalmoparesis, ptosis, and bilateral macular pattern dystrophy.1, 2 The prevalence of retinal involvement in MIDD is high, with 50% to 85% of patients exhibiting some macular changes.1 Those changes, however, can vary between patients and within families dramatically based on the percentage of retinal mtDNA mutations, making it difficult to give predictions on an individual’s visual prognosis...

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Genotype distributions for GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were determined in 91 patients with prostatic carcinoma and 135 patients with bladder carcinoma and compared with those in 127 abdominal surgery patients without malignancies. None of the genotypes differed significantly with respect to age or sex among controls or cancer patients. In the group of prostatic carcinoma patients, GSTT1 null allele homozygotes were more prevalent (25% in carcinoma patients vs 13% in controls, Fisher P=0.02, χ2 P = 0.02, OR = 2.31, CI = 1.17-4.59) and the combined M1-/T1-null genotype was also more frequent (9% vs 3%, χ2 P= 0.02, Fisher P = 0.03). Homozygosity for the GSTM1 null allele was more frequent among bladder carcinoma patients (59% in bladder carcinoma patients vs 45% in controls, Fisher P = 0.03, χ2 P = 0.02, OR = 1.76, CI = 1.08-2.88). In contrast to a previous report, no significant increase in the frequency of the GSTP1b allele was found in the tumor patients. Except for the combined GSTM1-/T1-null genotype in prostatic carcinoma, none of the combined genotypes showed a significant association with either of the cancers. These findings suggest that specific single polymorphic GST genes, that is GSTM1 in the case of bladder cancer and GSTT1 in the case of prostatic carcinoma, are most relevant for the development of these urological malignancies among the general population in Central Europe.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

We read with great interest the paper by Laivoranta-Nyman et al.1 They studied Finnish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls, and suggested that there exist susceptibility, neutral and protective HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes that do not match the predictions of current hypotheses for the mechanism of association of the HLA class II region and RA...

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Scrotal circumference (SC) is a simple, non-invasive measurement commonly used to evaluate bull breeding potential although its validity as a predictor of fertility is questionable (Holroyd, 1998). SC is highly heritable but varies with breed and animal factors such as condition, live weight and age. As an indicator of fertility, recommended SC values range broadly from 30cm to 38cm (Miller, 1992). It is assumed that SC accurately reflects testes mass (TM) which may be related to direct measures of fertility such as spermatogenesis (Entwistle, 1992). The SC measurements made here test the assumption that SC, used to estimate testes volume (TV), is directly related to TM. Miller (1992) reported a value of 261mm as the SC threshold for puberty. We have studied serial SC measurements so as to devise a more accurate means of using SC to determine puberty.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were collected from infected lentil plants from 2 agro-ecological zones of Syria and used to study their comparative growth on culture media and pathogenicity on different lentil genotypes. The growth studies were carried out on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) growth media under laboratory conditions. Mycelial radial growth and sclerotial production were the parameters used to compare the isolates. Pathogenicity studies were carried out with selected isolates on 10 lentil genotypes, infected as detached shoots and as whole potted-plants in the plastic house. The isolates showed considerable variation in cultural characteristics through mycelial growth, mycelial pigmentation and sclerotial production in the media plates. There were significant differences in the growth and sclerotial production of most of the isolates, but no apparent correlation between mycelial growth and sclerotial production among the isolates. Genotype by isolate interactions was significant for the isolates tested for pathogenicity. These interactions, however, appeared to be caused by differences in virulence of the isolates and did not suggest the occurrence of distinct pathogenic races of the pathogen isolates.