198 resultados para gastroenteritis


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Objective: To explore relationships between malnutrition and pancreatic damage in hospitalised aboriginal children. Methods: Immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) concentrations were measured in two populations of hospitalised aboriginal children in Australia; 472 children aged 0-3 years, in Alice Springs (Northern Territory); and 187 children aged 0-16 years in Mount Isa (Queensland). Correlation of whole blood IRT with height and weight z-scores, four-site skinfold thickness and upper arm circumference was sought. Results: In Mount Isa, the geometric mean IRT concentration rose with decreasing weight z-score. The IRT concentration was otherwise unrelated to nutritional indices. Sixty percent of the 39 Mount Isa patients with gastroenteritis and 24.5% of the 358 Alice Springs patients with gastroenteritis had an IRT concentration in the upper quartile for their population, compared with 16% for patients with other diagnoses in both populations. Conclusions: A high IRT concentration in patients with low weight z-scores is a confounding effect of gastroenteritis, and may result from subclinical pancreatic disease in gastroenteritis.

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A prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) with glucose ORS in infants and children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhoea and mild to moderate dehydration (<10%). One hundred children presenting to a large metropolitan teaching hospital were eligible for entry to the study and were randomized to receive rice ORS or glucose ORS. Outcome measures were stool output (SO), duration of illness (DD) and recovery time to introduction of other fluids (RTF) and diet (RTD). Significant differences were found for all outcome measures in favour of the rice ORS group. Mean SO was lower (160 vs 213 mt; P<0.02), mean DD was reduced (17.3 vs 24.3 h; P = 0.03) and median RTF was decreased (12.7 vs 18.1 h; P< 0.001) in the rice ORS group compared with the glucose ORS group. The median rime to introduction of diet and mean length of hospital stay showed similar significant reductions. Our study has shown rice ORS to be an acceptable alternative to glucose ORS in young children and have shown that it is significantly more effective in reducing the course of diarrhoeal illness and the time taken to return to normal drinking and eating habits.

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An open-label inpatient study is in progress to compare the efficacy and safety of two oral rehydration solutions in children and infants with acute diarrhea and mild to moderate dehydration. One solution (ORS-60) contains 60 mmol/L of sodium and 1.8% glucose, with a total osmolatity of 240 mosm/kg; the other (ORS-26) contains 26 mmol/L of sodium, 2.7% glucose, and 3.6% sucrose, with a total osmolality of 340 mosm/kg. An outcome analysis of 28 children with gastroenteritis indicated that ORS-60 (n = 13) reduced stool volume during the first eight hours after admission to a significantly greater (P < 0.05) extent than did ORS-26 (n = 15). Diarrhea had ceased by 24 hours in 64% of ORS-60 patients but in only 31% of ORS-26 patients, and the patients' clinical conidition was improved at eight hours in 84% of ORS-60 patients versus 60% of ORS-26 patients. Differences between treatments in degree of dehydration at each follow-up point, total duration of diarrhea, and duration of hospital stay were not detected. No adverse drug reactions occurred. Four patients received intravenous rehydration therapy, but none was considered a treatment failure. We conclude that the lower osmolar solution, ORS-60, conferred earlier recovey and reduced continuing fluid losses in the management of gastroenteritis.

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The replicase polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, of porcine Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been predicted to be cleaved by viral proteases into 16 non-structural proteins (nsp). Here, enzymic activities residing in the amino-proximal region of nsp3, the largest TGEV replicase processing product, were characterized. It was shown, by in vitro translation experiments and protein sequencing, that the papain-like protease 1, PL1pro, but not a mutant derivative containing a substitution of the presumed active-site nucleophile, Cys1093, cleaves the nsp2|nsp3 site at 879Gly|Gly880. By using an antiserum raised against the pp1a/pp1ab residues 526–713, the upstream processing product, nsp2, was identified as an 85 kDa protein in TGEV-infected cells. Furthermore, PL1pro was confirmed to be flanked at its C terminus by a domain (called X) that mediates ADP-ribose 1''-phosphatase activity. Expression and characterization of a range of bacterially expressed forms of this enzyme suggest that the active X domain comprises pp1a/pp1ab residues Asp1320–Ser1486.

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There is a need to provide rapid, sensitive, and often high throughput detection of pathogens in diagnostic virology. Viral gastroenteritis is a serious health issue often leading to hospitalization in the young, the immunocompromised and the elderly. The common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, norovirus (genogroups I and II), astrovirus, and group F adenoviruses (serotypes 40 and 41). This article describes the work-up of two internally controlled multiplex, probe-based PCR assays and reports on the clinical validation over a 3-year period, March 2007 to February 2010. Multiplex assays were developed using a combination of TaqMan™ and minor groove binder (MGB™) hydrolysis probes. The assays were validated using a panel of 137 specimens, previously positive via a nested gel-based assay. The assays had improved sensitivity for adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus (97.3% vs. 86.1%, 100% vs. 87.8%, and 95.1% vs. 79.5%, respectively) and also more specific for targets adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus (99% vs. 95.2%, 100% vs. 93.6%, and 97.9% vs. 92.3%, respectively). For the specimens tested, both assays had equal sensitivity and specificity for astrovirus (100%). Overall the probe-based assays detected 16 more positive specimens than the nested gel-based assay. Post-introduction to the routine diagnostic service, a total of 9,846 specimens were processed with multiplex 1 and 2 (7,053 pediatric, 2,793 adult) over the 3-year study period. This clinically validated, probe-based multiplex testing algorithm allows highly sensitive and timely diagnosis of the four most prominent causes of viral gastroenteritis.

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Rotavirus is the most common etiological cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, yet its role in the adult population is less well understood. We have recently identified rotavirus as the causative agent of severe diarrhea in adults, specifically in two gastroenteritis outbreaks in separate care for the elderly homes. Strain typing has shown the continued presence of P[8]G1, the emergence of P[8]G9, and the reemergence of P[8]G4. A total of 26 community cases and 6 outbreak cases of rotavirus infection, positive via a molecular screening assay, were subsequently amplified using VP4 and VP7 specific primers (Con2/Con3 and 1A/1B primer sets, respectively). The age range of patients investigated was from

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Norovirus infection is the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Histoblood group antigens (HBGAs) are host susceptibility determinants for Norwalk virus (NV) infection. We hypothesized that antibodies that block NV-HBGA binding are associated with protection from clinical illness following NV exposure.

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While the influence of temperature and moisture on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes have been described in detail, and evidence for global climate change is mounting, there have been only a few attempts to relate altered incidence or seasonal patterns of disease to climate change. Studies of this type have been completed for England Scotland and Wales, but not for Northern Ireland (NI). Here we present an analysis of veterinary diagnostic data that relates three categories of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep to historical meteorological data for NI. The infections are: trichostrongylosis/teladorsagiosis (Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus), strongyloidosis and nematodirosis. This study aims to provide a baseline for future climate change analyses and to provide basic information for the development of nematode control programmes. After identifying and evaluating possible sources of bias, climate change was found to be the most likely explanation for the observed patterns of change in parasite epidemiology, although other hypotheses could not be refuted. Seasonal rates of diagnosis showed a uniform year-round distribution for Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus infections, suggesting consistent levels of larval survival throughout the year and extension of the traditionally expected seasonal transmission windows. Nematodirosis showed a higher level of autumn than Spring infection, suggesting that suitable conditions for egg and larval development occurred after the Spring infection period. Differences between regions within the Province were shown for strongyloidosis, with peaks of infection falling in the period September-November. For all three-infection categories (trichostrongylosis/teladorsagiosis, strongyloidosis and nematodirosis), significant differences in the rates of diagnosis, and in the seasonality of disease, were identified between regions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias con Especialidad en Inmunobiología) U.A.N.L.