1000 resultados para drug delivery


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Alginate microspheres are considered a promising material as a drug carrier in bone repair due to excellent biocompatibility, but their main disadvantage is low drug entrapment efficiency and non-controllable release. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating mesoporous bioglass (MBG), non-mesoporous bioglass (BG) or hydroxyapatite (HAp) into alginate microspheres on their drug-loading and release properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) were used to analyse the composition, structure and dissolution of bioactive inorganic materials and their microspheres. Dexamethasone (DEX)-loading and release ability of four microspheres were tested in phosphate buffered saline with varying pHs. Results showed that the drug-loading capacity was enhanced with the incorporation of bioactive inorganic materials into alginate microspheres. The MBG/Alginate microspheres had the highest drug loading ability. DEX release from alginate microspheres correlated to the dissolution of MBG, BG and HAp in PBS, and that the pH was an efficient factor in controlling the DEX release; a high pH resulted in greater DEX release, whereas a low pH delayed DEX release. In addition, MBG/alginate, BG/alginate and HAp/alginate microspheres had varying apatite-formation and dissolution abilities, which indicate that the composites would behave differently with respect to bioactivity. The study suggests that microspheres made of a composite of bioactive inorganic materials and alginate have a bioactivity and degradation profile which greatly improves their drug delivery capacity, thus enhancing their potential applications as bioactive filler materials for bone tissue regeneration.

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This study investigated a novel drug delivery system (DDS), consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) or polycaprolactone 20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) biodegradable scaffolds, fibrin Tisseel sealant and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for bone regeneration. PCL and PCL-TCP-fibrin composites displayed a loading efficiency of 70% and 43%, respectively. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed sparse clumps of rhBMP-2 particles, non-uniformly distributed on the rods’ surface of PCL-fibrin composites. In contrast, individual rhBMP-2 particles were evident and uniformly distributed on the rods’ surface of the PCL-TCP-fibrin composites. PCL-fibrin composites loaded with 10 and 20 μg/ml rhBMP-2 demonstrated a triphasic release profile as quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This consisted of burst releases at 2 h, and days 7 and 16. A biphasic release profile was observed for PCL-TCP-fibrin composites loaded with 10 μg/ml rhBMP-2, consisting of burst releases at 2 h and day 14. PCL-TCP-fibrin composites loaded with 20 μg/ml rhBMP-2 showed a tri-phasic release profile, consisting of burst releases at 2 h, and days 10 and 21. We conclude that the addition of TCP caused a delay in rhBMP-2 release. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and alkaline phosphatase assay verified the stability and bioactivity of eluted rhBMP-2 at all time points

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Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) beads have been widely studied as a potential drug/protein carrier. The main shortcomings of PLGA beads are that they lack bioactivity and controllable drug-delivery ability, and their acidic degradation by-products can lead to pH decrease in the vicinity of the implants. Akermanite (AK) (Ca(2) MgSi(2) O(7) ) is a novel bioactive ceramic which has shown excellent bioactivity and degradation in vivo. This study aimed to incorporate AK to PLGA beads to improve the physiochemical, drug-delivery, and biological properties of PLGA beads. The microstructure of beads was characterized by SEM. The effect of AK incorporating into PLGA beads on the mechanical strength, apatite-formation ability, the loading and release of BSA, and the proliferation, and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated. The results showed that the incorporation of AK into PLGA beads altered the anisotropic microporous structure into homogenous one and improved their compressive strength and apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluids (SBF). AK neutralized the acidic products from PLGA beads, leading to stable pH value of 7.4 in biological environment. AK led to a sustainable and controllable release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PLGA beads. The incorporation of AK into PLGA beads enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of BMSCs. This study implies that the incorporation of AK into PLGA beads is a promising method to enhance their physiochemical and biological property. AK/PLGA composite beads are a potential bioactive drug-delivery system for bone tissue repair.

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The use of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) for drug delivery and bone tissue regeneration has grown significantly over the past 5 years. In this review, we highlight the recent advances made in the preparation of MBG particles, spheres, fibers and scaffolds. The advantages of MBG for drug delivery and bone scaffold applications are related to this material’s well-ordered mesopore channel structure, superior bioactivity, and the application for the delivery of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. A brief forward-looking perspective on the potential clinical applications of MBG in regenerative medicine is also discussed.

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Porous SiO2 scaffolds with mesopore structure (named as MS scaffolds) have been proposed as suitable for bone tissue engineering due to their excellent drug-delivery ability; however, the mineralization and cytocompatibility of MS scaffolds are far from optimal for bone tissue engineering, and it is also unclear how the delivery of drugs from MS scaffolds affects osteoblastic cells. The aims of the present study were to improve the mineralization and cytocompatibility of MS scaffolds by coating mussel-inspired polydopamine on the pore walls of scaffolds. The effects of polydopamine modification on MS scaffolds was investigated with respect to apatite mineralization and the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), as was the release profile of the drug dexamethasone (DEX). Our results show that polydopamine can readily coat the pore walls of MS scaffolds and that polydopamine-modified MS scaffolds have a significantly improved apatite-mineralization ability as well as better attachment and proliferation of BMSCs in the scaffolds, compared to controls. Polydopamine modification did not alter the release profile of DEX from MS scaffolds but the sustained delivery of DEX significantly improved alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of BMSCs in the scaffolds. These results suggest that polydopamine modification is a viable option to enhance the bioactivity of bone tissue engineering scaffolds and, further, that DEX-loaded polydopamine MS scaffolds have potential uses as a release system to enhance the osteogenic properties of bone tissue engineering applications.

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Nicotine addiction remains the leading cause of death and disease in developed and developing nations and a major cause of mortality around the world. Currently, nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), bupropion, and varenicline are approved by the regulatory agencies as first-line treatments for nicotine addiction. Emerging evidence indicates that varenicline and bupropion have some therapeutic limitations for treating nicotine addiction with oral route of administration. Thus, continued investigation of innovative drug delivery for nicotine addiction remains a critical priority. This review will discuss some novel strategies and future directions for pulmonary drug delivery, an emerging route of administration for smoking cessation. It is anticipated that the advancement of knowledge on pulmonary drug delivery will provide better management for nicotine addiction and other addictive disorders.

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Pulmonary drug delivery is the focus of much research and development because of its great potential to produce maximum therapeutic benefit. Among the available options the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is the preferred device for the treatment of an increasingly diverse number of diseases. However, as drug delivery from a DPI involves a complicated set of physical processes and the integration of drug formulations, device design and patient usage, the engineering development of this medical technology is proving to be a great challenge. Currently there is large range of devices that are either available on the market or under development, however, none exhibit superior clinical efficacy. A major concern is the inter- and intra-patient variability of the drug dosage delivered to the deep lungs. The extent of variability depends on the drug formulation, the device design and the patient’s inhalation profile. This article reviews recent advances in DPI technology and presents the key factors which motivate and constrain the successful engineering of a universal, patient-independent DPI that is capable of efficient, reliable and repeatable drug delivery. A strong emphasis is placed on the physical processes of drug powder aerosolisation, deagglomeration, and dispersion and on the engineering of formulations and inhalers that can optimise these processes.

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Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically

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Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three dimensional polymers that imbibe large quantities of water while remaining insoluble in aqueous solutions due to chemical or physical cross-linking. The polymers swell in water or biological fluids, immobilizing the bioactive agent, leading to drug release in a well-defined specific manner. Thus the hydrogels’ elastic properties, swellability and biocompatibility make them excellent formulations for drug delivery. Currently, many drug potencies and therapeutic effects are limited or otherwise reduced because of the partial degradation that occurs before the administered drug reaches the desired site of action. On the other hand, sustained release medications release drugs continually, rather than providing relief of symptoms and protection solely when necessary. In fact, it would be much better if drugs could be administered in a manner that precisely matches physiological needs at desired times and at the desired site (site specific targeting). There is therefore an unmet need to develop controlled drug delivery systems especially for delivery of peptide and protein bound drugs. The purpose of this project is to produce hydrogels for structural drug delivery and time-dependent sustained release of drugs (bioactive agents). We use an innovative polymerisation strategy based on native chemical ligation (NCL) to covalently cross-link polymers to form hydrogels. When mixed in aqueous solution, four armed (polyethylene glycol) amine (PEG-4A) end functionalised with thioester and four branched Nterminal cysteine peptide dendrimers spontaneously conjugated to produce biomimetic hydrogels. These hydrogels showed superior resistance to shear stress compared to an equivalent PEG macromonomer system and were shown to be proteolytically degradable with concomitant release of a model payload molecule. This is the first report of a peptide dendrimers/PEG macromonomer approach to hydrogel production and opens up the prospect of facile hydrogel synthesis together with tailored payload release.

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Bioceramics play an important role in repairing and regenerating bone defects. Annually, more than 500,000 bone graft procedures are performed in the United states and approximately 2.2 million are conducted worldwide. The estimated cost of these procedures approaches $2.5billion per year. Around 60% of the bone graft substitutes available on the market involve bioceramics. It is reported that bioceramics in the world market increase by 9% per year. For this reason, the research of bioceramics has been one of the most active areas during, the past several years. Considering the significant importance of bioceramics, our goal was to compile this book to review the latest research advances in the field of bioceramics. The text also summarizes our work during the past 10 years in an effort to share innovative concepts, design of bioceramisc, and methods for material synthesis and drug delivery. We anticipate that this text will provide some useful information and guidance in the bioceramics field for biomedical engineering researchers and material scientists. Information on novel mesoporous bioactive glasses and silicate-based ceramics for bone regeneration and drug delivery are presented. Mesoporous bioactive glasses have shown multifunctional characteristics of bone regeneration and drug delivery due to their special mesopore structures,whereas silicated-based bioceramics, as typical third-generation biomaterials,possess significant osteostimulation properties. Silica nanospheres with a core-shell structure and specific properties for controllable drug delivery have been carefully reviewed-a variety of advanced synthetic strategies have been developed to construct functional mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure, including hollow, magnetic, or luminescent, and other multifunctional core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles. In addition, multifunctional drug delivery systems based on these nanoparticles have been designed and optimized to deliver the drugs into the targeted organs or cells,with a controllable release fashioned by virtue of various internal and external triggers. The novel 3D-printing technique to prepare advanced bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications has been highlighted, including the preparation, mechanical strength, and biological properties of 3D-printed porous scaffolds of calcium phosphate cement and silicate bioceramics. Three-dimensional printing techniques offer improved large-pore structure and mechanical strength. In addition , biomimetic preparation and controllable crystal growth as well as biomineralization of bioceramics are summarized, showing the latest research progress in this area. Finally, inorganic and organic composite materials are reviewed for bone regeneration and gene delivery. Bioactive inorganic and organic composite materials offer unique biological, electrical, and mechanical properties for designing excellent bone regeneration or gene delivery systems. It is our sincere hope that this book will updated the reader as to the research progress of bioceramics and their applications in bone repair and regeneration. It will be the best reward to all the contributors of this book if their efforts herein in some way help reader in any part of their study, research, and career development.