239 resultados para Zoonoses


Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Nearly 75% of all emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that impact or threaten human health are zoonotic. The majority have spilled from wildlife reservoirs, either directly to humans or via domestic animals. The emergence of many can be attributed to predisposing factors such as global travel, trade, agricultural expansion, deforestation habitat fragmentation, and urbanization; such factors increase the interface and or the rate of contact between human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations, thereby creating increased opportunities for spillover events to occur. Infectious disease emergence can be regarded as primarily an ecological process. The epidemiological investigation of EIDs associated with wildlife requires a trans-disciplinary approach that includes an understanding of the ecology of the wildlife species, and an understanding of human behaviours that increase risk of exposure. Investigations of the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China in 2003 provide useful case studies. The emergence of Nipah virus was associated with the increased size and density of commercial pig farms and their encroachment into forested areas. The movement of pigs for sale and slaughter in turn led to the rapid spread of infection to southern peninsular Malaysia, where the high-density, largely urban pig populations facilitated transmission to humans. Identifying the factors associated with the emergence of SARS in southern China requires an understanding of the ecology of infection both in the natural reservoir and in secondary market reservoir species. A necessary extension of understanding the ecology of the reservoir is an understanding of the trade, and of the social and cultural context of wildlife consumption. Emerging infectious diseases originating from wildlife populations will continue to threaten public health. Mitigating and managing the risk requires an appreciation of the connectedness between human, livestock and wildlife health, and of the factors and processes that disrupt the balance.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The highly lethal Hendra and Nipah viruses have been described for little more than a decade, yet within that time have been aetiologically associated with major livestock and human health impacts, albeit on a limited scale. Do these emerging pathogens pose a broader threat, or are they inconsequential 'viral chatter'. Given their lethality, and the evident multi-generational human-to-human transmission associated with Nipah virus in Bangladesh, it seems prudent to apply the precautionary principle. While much is known of their clinical, pathogenic and epidemiologic features in livestock species and humans, a number of fundamental questions regarding the relationship between the viruses, their natural fruit-bat host and the environment remain unanswered. In this paper, we pose and probe these questions in context, and offer perspectives based primarily on our experience with Hendra virus in Australia, augmented with Nipah virus parallels.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia cams vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Tick-borne zoonoses (TBZ) are emerging diseases worldwide. A large amount of information (e.g. case reports, results of epidemiological surveillance, etc.) is dispersed through various reference sources (ISI and non-ISI journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, etc.). An integrated database-derived from the ICTTD-3 project (http://www.icttd.nl)-was developed in order to gather TBZ records in the (sub-)tropics, collected both by the authors and collaborators worldwide. A dedicated website (http://www.tickbornezoonoses.org) was created to promote collaboration and circulate information. Data collected are made freely available to researchers for analysis by spatial methods, integrating mapped ecological factors for predicting TBZ risk. The authors present the assembly process of the TBZ database: the compilation of an updated list of TBZ relevant for (sub-)tropics, the database design and its structure, the method of bibliographic search, the assessment of spatial precision of geo-referenced records. At the time of writing, 725 records extracted from 337 publications related to 59 countries in the (sub-)tropics, have been entered in the database. TBZ distribution maps were also produced. Imported cases have been also accounted for. The most important datasets with geo-referenced records were those on Spotted Fever Group rickettsiosis in Latin-America and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Africa. The authors stress the need for international collaboration in data collection to update and improve the database. Supervision of data entered remains always necessary. Means to foster collaboration are discussed. The paper is also intended to describe the challenges encountered to assemble spatial data from various sources and to help develop similar data collections.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Objective Determining conditions regarding possible zoonosis transmission risk based on Ilha Solteira-São Paulo citizens' habits aimed at establishing concrete recommendations for the corresponding local authorities to reduce some risk factors. Methods100 focalized interviews were held on Ilha Solteira's urban perimeter during April 2008. The people interviewed were adults who lived or worked in houses in the study area. Results This research found a significant number of cat and/or dog owners who allowed their pets to stay in internal areas of their houses. They did not define a specific place for animals to defecate and/or urinate or did not arrange appropriate final disposal of such waste. Conclusion Local authorities must make greater efforts at educating Ilha Solteira pets' owners and providing them with information and encouraging greater citizen commitment and awareness to improve habits related to caring for pets/animal sand reducing zoonosis transmission risk factors.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Pós-graduação em Medicina Veterinária - FCAV

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Pós-graduação em Medicina Veterinária - FCAV

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

In Alaska, as in arctic and subarctic Eurasia, important natural-focal zoonoses are rabies, brucellosis, tularemia, trichinosis, alveolar hydatid disease, cystic hydatid disease, and diphyllobothriasis. Most frequently affected are aboriginal peoples in villages within biocenoses that include the natural parasite-host assemblages. Pathogens are transmitted to man from wild animals and from dogs, which are important as synanthropic hosts. The prevalence and rate of transmission of certain pathogens in natural foci are related to the numerical density of small mammals, especially rodents, which may themselves be involved as hosts, and on which the numbers of their predators ultimately depend, such as is evident in the natural cycles of Echinococcus multilocularis and of rabies virus. Some pathogens in northern regions exhibit biological Characteristics that separate them from morphologically indistinguishable strains at lower latitudes (e.g., Trichinella spiralis and E. granulosus). Host-parasite relationships may also differ, as in the Arctic where rabies virus is maintained in populations of foxes, without significant involvement of mammals of other groups. Faunal interchanges during and after the Pleistocene period have influenced the distribution of parasite-host assemblages in Alaska.