141 resultados para Triatoma


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Background: Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, non-enveloped, +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests. Little is known about the dicistrovirus replication mechanism or gene function, and any knowledge on these subjects comes mainly from comparisons with mammalian viruses from the Picornaviridae family. Due to its peculiar genome organization and characteristics of the per os viral transmission route, dicistroviruses make good candidates for use as biopesticides. Triatoma virus (TrV) is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of the human trypanosomiasis disease called Chagas disease. TrV was postulated as a potential control agent against Chagas' vectors. Although there is no evidence that TrV nor other dicistroviruses replicate in species outside the Insecta class, the innocuousness of these viruses in humans and animals needs to be ascertained. Methods: In this study, RT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect the infectivity of this virus in Mus musculus BALB/c mice. Results: In this study we have observed that there is no significant difference in the ratio IgG2a/IgG1 in sera from animals inoculated with TrV when compared with non-inoculated animals or mice inoculated only with non-infective TrV protein capsids. Conclusions: We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, TrV is unable to replicate inmice. This study constitutes the first test to evaluate the infectivity of a dicistrovirus in a vertebrate animal model.

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Triatoma virus (TrV) es un virus patógeno de Triatoma infestans y otros insectos hematófagos , que son los vectores principales de la enfermedad del Chagas (tripanosomiasis americana) . Esta enfermedad es un grave problema sanitario en muchos países de Latinoamérica , do nde es endé mic a y afecta alrededor de 8 millones de personas. El agente causante de dicha enfermedad es el protozoo parásito Tripanosoma cruzi , que infecta al insecto vector y este a su vez , infecta hospedadores vertebrados cuando se alimenta de su sangre [Rassi et al ., 2010] . Al aumentar el movimiento migracional de las personas , la enfermedad ha logrado exte nde rse a otras regiones y convertirse en un problema de salud en z o nas originariamen te no endémicas [ Gascon et a l ., 2010 ] . Debido a esto se ha propuesto el uso de TrV como agente de control biológico frente a los vectores de la enfermedad del Chagas

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Background: Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, and humans acquire the parasite by exposure to contaminated feces from hematophagous insect vectors known as triatomines. Triatoma virus (TrV) is the sole viral pathogen of triatomines, and is transmitted among insects through the fecal-oral route and, as it happens with T. cruzi, the infected insects release the virus when defecating during or after blood uptake. Methods: In this work, we analysed the occurrence of anti-TrV antibodies in human sera from Chagas disease endemic and non-endemic countries, and developed a mathematical model to estimate the transmission probability of TrV from insects to man, which ranged between 0.00053 and 0.0015. Results: Our results confirm that people with Chagas disease living in Bolivia, Argentina and Mexico have been exposed to TrV, and that TrV is unable to replicate in human hosts. Conclusions: We presented the first experimental evidence of antibodies against TrV structural proteins in human sera.

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Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias con Especialidad en Entomología Médica) U.A.N.L.

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Triatoma arthurneivai Lent & Martins and Triatoma wygodzinskyi Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are two Brazilian species found in the sylvatic environment. Several authors may have misidentified T. arthurneivai and consequently published erroneous information. This work reports the use of geometric morphometric analysis on wings in order to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and thus to detect possible misidentifications. Triatomines collected from the field in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, and from laboratory colonies, were used. Analyses show a clear differentiation between specimens of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. This indicates that T. arthurneivai populations from Sao Paulo state were misidentified and should be considered as T. wygodzinskyi. This study also suggests that T. arthurneivai is an endemic species from Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais state.

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Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease, has nearly been eliminated from Brazil. Nevertheless, other triatominae species are involved in the domiciliation process, including Triatoma rubrovaria in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS). Previous studies showed that 1.6% of the T rubrovaria specimens collected at the rural district of Quarai, RS, were naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this study, five T. cruzi isolates obtained from infected triatomines were characterized molecularly and biologically. Genotyping of the T cruzi isolates showed that they belong to lineage IIc of T cruzi (TCIIc). Biological characterization showed miotropism and myositis during acute and chronic phases of infection, respectively. Virulence and mortality rates were variable among isolates. To our knowledge, this study corresponds to the first characterization of T cruzi isolates from T rubrovaria and the first description of TCIIc in the sylvatic cycle of T cruzi from the southern region of Brazil.

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Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect that transmits the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas` disease. Its saliva contains trialysin, a protein that forms pores in membranes. Peptides based on the N-terminus of trialysin lyse cells and fold into alpha-helical amphipathic segments resembling antimicrobial peptides. Using a specific antiserum against trialysin, we show here that trialysin is synthesized as a precursor that is less active than the protein released after saliva secretion. A synthetic peptide flanked by a fluorophore and a quencher including the acidic proregion and the lytic N-terminus of the protein is also less active against cells and liposomes, increasing activity upon proteolysis. Activation changes the peptide conformation as observed by fluorescence increase and CD spectroscopy. This mechanism of activation could provide a way to impair the toxic effects of trialysin inside the salivary glands, thus restricting damaging lytic activity to the bite site.

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Triatoma baratai Carcavallo & Jurberg, 2000, a species similar to Triatoma williami Galvao, Souza & Lima, 1967 and belonging to the T. matogrossensis subcomplex, was described based on a male specimen collected in a sylvatic environment, near a cave, in Bonito county, Bodoquena mountain range, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the present work we describe the female of T. baratai, captured in a chicken house, in Nioaque county, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Furthermore, we recorded the occurrence of T. baratai in domiciles and peridomestic environment in another four municipalities (Bodoquena, Bela Vista, Corumba, and Miranda), extending its geographical distribution. Finally, we present a key to the species of the Triatoma matogrossensis subcomplex.

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Morphological structures of the head of 1st and 5th instar nymphs of Triatoma circummaculata and Triatoma rubrovaria were revealed by analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences between Ist and 5th instar nymphs of these two species were observed in the postocular callosity, the number of ommatidia and tapered hair, the small segment between antennal segments, the rostrum third segment and slit lines. These slit lines were different only in the 5th instar. Similarities observed were the presence of tapered hairs in the joints, and the type of sensilla in the antennal segments. Only the Ist instar shows anteclypeus and gena sensilla. The antennal segments comprise the following types of sensilla: basiconica, bristles type I, bristles type II, bristles type III, campaniformia, coeloconica, chemosensilla, placodea, trichobothria and trichoidea. We describe here for the first time six (3+3) sensilla basiconica on the dorsal portion of the first segment of the rostrum. (C) 2000 Elsevier B.V. Ltd. All rights reserved.