1000 resultados para Therapeutics


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The field of plant-made therapeutics in South Africa is well established in the form of exploitation of the country's considerable natural plant diversity, both in the use of native plants in traditional herbal medicines over many centuries, and in the more modern extraction of pharmacologically-active compounds from plants, including those known to traditional healers. In recent years, this has been added to by the use of plants for the stable or transient expression of pharmaceutically-important compounds, largely protein-based biologics and vaccines. South Africa has a well-developed plant biotechnology community, as well as a comprehensive legislative framework for the regulation of the exploitation of local botanic resources, and of genetically-modified organisms. The review explores the investigation of both conventional and recombinant plants for pharmaceutical use in South Africa, as well as describing the relevant legislative and regulatory frameworks. Potential opportunities for national projects, as well as factors limiting biopharming in South Africa are discussed. © 2011.

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A novel strategy is reported to produce biodegradable microfiber-scaffolds layered with high densities of microparticles encapsulating a model protein. Direct electrospraying on highly porous melt electrospun scaffolds provides a reproducible scaffold coating throughout the entire architecture. The burst release of protein is significantly reduced due to the immobilization of microparticles on the surface of the scaffold and release mechanisms are dependent on protein-polymer interactions. The composite scaffolds have a positive biological effect in contact with precursor osteoblast cells up to 18 days in culture. The scaffold design achieved with the techniques presented here endorses these new composite scaffolds as promising templates for growth factor delivery.

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The most integrated approach toward understanding the multiple molecular events and mechanisms by which cancer may develop is the application of gene expression profiling using microarray technologies. As molecular alterations in breast cancer are complex and involve cross-talk between multiple cellular signalling pathways, microarray technology provides a means of capturing and comparing the expression patterns of the entire genome across multiple samples in a high throughput manner. Since the development of microarray technologies, together with the advances in RNA extraction methodologies, gene expression studies have revolutionised the means by which genes suitable as targets for drug development and individualised cancer treatment can be identified. As of the mid-1990s, expression microarrays have been extensively applied to the study of cancer and no cancer type has seen as much genomic attention as breast cancer. The most abundant area of breast cancer genomics has been the clarification and interpretation of gene expression patterns that unite both biological and clinical aspects of tumours. It is hoped that one day molecular profiling will transform diagnosis and therapeutic selection in human breast cancer toward more individualised regimes. Here, we review a number of prominent microarray profiling studies focussed on human breast cancer and examine their strengths, their limitations, clinical implications including prognostic relevance and gene signature significance along with potential improvements for the next generation of microarray studies.

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With the ever-increasing emphasis on ocular disease recognition in the practice of optometry and especially anterior eye disease management and therapeutics, any book addressing such issues is bound to have a captive audience. This second edition of Anterior Eye Disease and Therapeutics A–Z provides a succinct yet comprehensive coverage of this topic.

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Nucleic acid molecules are championing a new generation of reverse engineered biopharmaceuticals. In terms of potential application in gene medicine, plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectors have exceptional therapeutic and immunological profiles as they are free from safety concerns associated with viral vectors, display non-toxicity and are simpler to develop. This review addresses the potential applications of pDNA molecules in vaccine design/development and gene therapy via recombinant DNA technology as well as a staged delivery mechanism for the introduction of plasmid-borne gene to target cells via the nasal route.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid molecules are heralding a new generation of reverse - engineered biopharmaceuticals. In terms of potential application in gene medicine, plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectors have exceptional therapeutic and immunological profiles as they are free from safety concerns associated with viral vectors, display non-toxicity and are simpler to develop. This presentation will discuss the potential applications of pDNA molecules in vaccine development and gene therapy, pilot-scale production of pDNA-based biopharmaceuticals and the controlled delivery of therapeutic sequences in biodegradable polymers to different target cells via the nasal route.

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Introduction Chronic wounds are an area of major concern. The on-going and in-direct costs are substantial, reaching far beyond the costs of the hospitalization and associated care. As a result, pharmacological therapies have been developed to address treatment insufficiencies, however, the availability of drugs capable of promoting the wound repair process still remain limited. The wound healing properties of various herbal plants is well recognised amongst indigenous Australians. Hence, based on traditional accounts, we evaluated the wound healing potential of two Australian native plants. Methods Bioactive compounds were methanol extracted from dried plant leaves that were commercially sourced. Primary keratinocyte (Kc) and fibroblast (Fib) cells (denoted as Kc269, Kc274, Kc275, Kc276 and Fib274) obtained from surgical discarded tissue were cultured in 48-well plates and incubated (37⁰C, 5% CO2) overnight. The growth media was discarded and replaced with fresh growth media plus various concentrations (15.12 µg/mL, 31.25 µg/mL, 62.5 µg/mL, 125 µg/mL, 250 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL) of the plant extracts. Cellular responses were measured using the alamarBlue® assay and the CyQUANT® assay. Plant extracts in the aqueous phase were prepared by boiling whole leaves in water and taking aqueous phase samples at various (1, 2 , 5 minutes boiling) time points. Plant leaves were either added before the water was boiled (cold boiled) or after the water was boiled (hot boiled). The final concentrations of the aqueous plant extracts were 3.3 ng/mL (± 0.3 ng/mL) per sample. The antimicrobial properties of the plant extracts were tested using the well diffusion assay method against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae and methicillin resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus. Results Assay results from the almarBlue® and CYQUANT® assays indicated that extracts from both native plants at various time points (0, 24 and 48 hours) and concentrations (31.25 mg/mL, 62.5 mg/mL, and 125 mg/mL) were significantly higher (n=3, p=0.03 for Kc269, p=0.04 for Kc274, p=0.02 for Fib274, p=0.04 for Kc275 and p=0.001 for Kc276) compared with the untreated controls. Neither plant extract demonstrated cytotoxic effects. Significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (p=0.0009 for hot boiled plant A, n=2, p=0.034 for cold boiled plant A, n=2) K. pnuemoniae (p=0.0009 for hot boiled plant A, n=2, p=0.002 for cold boiled plant A, n=2) and B. cereus (p=0.0009 for hot boiled plant A, n=2, p=0.003 for cold boiled plant A, n=2) was observed at concentrations of 3.2 ng/mL for plant A and 3.4 ng/mL for plant B. Conclusion Both native plants contain bioactive compounds that increase cellular metabolic rates and total nucleic acid content. Neither plant was shown to be cytotoxic. Furthermore, both exhibited significant antimicrobial activity.

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Cancer is fundamentally a genomic disease caused by mutations or rearrangements in the DNA or epigenetic machinery of a patient. An emerging field in cancer treatment targets key aberrations arising from the mutational landscape of an individual patient’s disease rather than employing a cancer-wide cytotoxic therapy approach. In prostate cancer in particular, where there is an observed variation in response to standard treatments between patients with disease of a similar pathological stage and grade, mutationdirected treatment may grow to be a viable tool for clinicians to tailor more effective treatments. This review will describe a number of mutations across multiple forms of cancer that have been successfully antagonised by targeted therapeutics including their identification, the development of targeted compounds to combat them and the development of resistance to these therapies. This review will continue to examine these same mutations in the treatment and management of prostate cancer; the prevalence of targetable mutations in prostate cancer, recent clinical trials of targeted-agents and the potential or limitations for their use.

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Proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), are associated to the progression of several cancers. They degrade extracellular components, which helps tumors to expand and cancer cells to escape from the primary site. Of all MMPs, gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9) and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), in particular, are often associated to more aggressive types of head and neck carcinomas as well as to a poorer outcome in patient survival. Although therapies during the last decades have advanced, the mortality of the disease is still rather high and adjuvant therapies are searched for continuously. MMP-9 and MT1-MMP are also involved in neo-angiogenesis, which is necessary for tumor expansion. For this reason, we have identified synthetic peptides-targeting gelatinases and MT1-MMP, and have also evaluated their anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Antigelatinolytic peptides effectively inhibited tongue-carcinoma cell invasion and reduced the growth of xenografted tumors. In tumor samples of mice that were treated with antigelatinolytic peptides, the micro-vessel density was significantly reduced. We also identified a novel MT1-MMP targeting peptide and demonstrated that it exerted anticancer effects against several malignant cell lines in vitro. The effects of MT1-MMP inhibition on tongue-squamous cell carcinomas were evaluated by using xenograft tumors, which it effectively inhibited. Tranexamic acid was also demonstrated to inhibit tongue-squamous cell carcinoma invasion, most probably due to its ability to prevent the plasmin-mediated activation of proMMP-9. Leukocyte β2 integrins are another interesting option when evaluating targets for the therapeutic intervention of inflammatory conditions or malignancies of hematopoietic origin, since β2 integrins are expressed mainly by leukocytes. We identified a novel technique for screening small-molecule libraries against β2 integrins, and by using this technique we identified a novel αMβ2 integrin-binding chemical (IMB-10). IMB-10 significantly enhances leukocyte adhesion and inhibits their motility. We also demonstrated that IMB-10 can be used to inhibit inflammation and lymphoma growth in vivo. Interestingly, IMB-10 also reduced leukocyte tumor infiltration and inhibited tumor invasion.

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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most dreaded mosquito-borne viral encephalitis known to afflict humans. The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that affects the CNS, causing extensive damage that may lead to fatality in about one third of bpatients. Half of the survivors suffer from severe neuropshychiatric sequelae. With nearly 3 billion people living under the current JE-endemic region, recurring incidents of epidemic are being reported at regular intervals. With no established antiviral therapies against JE available, vaccination has been the only way of preventing JE. Two types of JE vaccines are currently in vogue although the safety of administering them is questionable, in certain individuals. Thus, there is a need to develop a safe, affordable and potent JE vaccine and this review addresses the current efforts in this direction. This review also focuses on the pathophysiology of JE and efforts towards a possible breakthrough in anti-JEV therapy.

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This article describes recent developments in the design and implementation of various strategies towards the development of novel therapeutics using first principles from biology and chemistry. Strategies for multi-target therapeutics and network analysis with a focus on cancer and HIV are discussed. Methods for gene and siRNA delivery are presented along with challenges and opportunities for siRNA therapeutics. Advances in protein design methodology and screening are described, with a focus on their application to the design of antibody based therapeutics. Future advances in this area relevant to vaccine design are also mentioned.

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Type II diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that can lead to serious cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, and retinal complications. While several drugs are currently prescribed to treat type II diabetes, their efficacy is limited by mechanism-related side effects (weight gain, hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal distress), inadequate efficacy for use as monotherapy, and the development of tolerance to the agents. Consequently, combination therapies are frequently employed to effectively regulate blood glucose levels. We have focused on the mitochondrial sodium-calcium exchanger (mNCE) as a novel target for diabetes drug discovery. We have proposed that inhibition of the mNCE can be used to regulate calcium flux across the mitochondrial membrane, thereby enhancing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, which in turn enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the pancreatic beta-cell. In this paper, we report the facile synthesis of benzothiazepines and derivatives by S-alkylation using 2-aminobenzhydrols. The syntheses of other bicyclic analogues based on benzothiazepine, benzothiazecine, benzodiazecine, and benzodiazepine templates are also described. These compounds have been evaluated for their inhibition of mNCE activity, and the results from the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies are discussed.