1000 resultados para Sequencing


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In the field of music technology there is a distinct focus on networking between spatially disparate locales to improve teaching and learning through real-time communication. This article proposes a new delivery model for learner support based on a review of technical and learning services, pilot research using remote desktops to teach music-sequencing software, and recent education research regarding professional development. A 24/7 delivery model using remote desktops, mobile devices and shared calendars offers a flexible real-time addition to the learner support services already on offer. Treating every user of the service as a potential expert, the model aims to deliver universal support situated in a personalized context, which will serve the technical and education requirements of teachers and learners.

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Train scheduling is a complex and time consuming task of vital importance. To schedule trains more accurately and efficiently than permitted by current techniques a novel hybrid job shop approach has been proposed and implemented. Unique characteristics of train scheduling are first incorporated into a disjunctive graph model of train operations. A constructive algorithm that utilises this model is then developed. The constructive algorithm is a general procedure that constructs a schedule using insertion, backtracking and dynamic route selection mechanisms. It provides a significant search capability and is valid for any objective criteria. Simulated Annealing and Local Search meta-heuristic improvement algorithms are also adapted and extended. An important feature of these approaches is a new compound perturbation operator that consists of many unitary moves that allows trains to be shifted feasibly and more easily within the solution. A numerical investigation and case study is provided and demonstrates that high quality solutions are obtainable on real sized applications.

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Background Invasive species pose a significant threat to global economies, agriculture and biodiversity. Despite progress towards understanding the ecological factors associated with plant invasions, limited genomic resources have made it difficult to elucidate the evolutionary and genetic factors responsible for invasiveness. This study presents the first expressed sequence tag (EST) collection for Senecio madagascariensis, a globally invasive plant species. Methods We used pyrosequencing of one normalized and two subtractive libraries, derived from one native and one invasive population, to generate an EST collection. ESTs were assembled into contigs, annotated by BLAST comparison with the NCBI non-redundant protein database and assigned gene ontology (GO) terms from the Plant GO Slim ontologies. Key Results Assembly of the 221 746 sequence reads resulted in 12 442 contigs. Over 50 % (6183) of 12 442 contigs showed significant homology to proteins in the NCBI database, representing approx. 4800 independent transcripts. The molecular transducer GO term was significantly over-represented in the native (South African) subtractive library compared with the invasive (Australian) library. Based on NCBI BLAST hits and literature searches, 40 % of the molecular transducer genes identified in the South African subtractive library are likely to be involved in response to biotic stimuli, such as fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens. Conclusions This EST collection is the first representation of the S. madagascariensis transcriptome and provides an important resource for the discovery of candidate genes associated with plant invasiveness. The over-representation of molecular transducer genes associated with defence responses in the native subtractive library provides preliminary support for aspects of the enemy release and evolution of increased competitive ability hypotheses in this successful invasive. This study highlights the contribution of next-generation sequencing to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying ecological hypotheses that are important in successful plant invasions.

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Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high. HIV positive (+) women are often infected with multiple, rare and undetermined HPV types. Data on HPV incidence and genotype distribution are based on commercial HPV detection kits, but these kits may not detect all HPV types in HIV + women. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify the HPV types not detected by commercial genotyping kits present in a cervical specimen from an HIV positive South African woman using next generation sequencing, and (ii) determine if these types were prevalent in a cohort of HIV-infected South African women. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 109 cervical specimens from South African HIV + women. A specimen within this cohort representing a complex multiple HPV infection, with 12 HPV genotypes detected by the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping (LA) kit, was selected for next generation sequencing analysis. All HPV types present in this cervical specimen were identified by Illumina sequencing of the extracted DNA following rolling circle amplification. The prevalence of the HPV types identified by sequencing, but not included in the Roche LA, was then determined in the 109 HIV positive South African women by type-specific PCR. Results Illumina sequencing identified a total of 16 HPV genotypes in the selected specimen, with four genotypes (HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90) not included in the commercial kit. The prevalence's of HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90 in 109 HIV positive South African women were found to be 14.6 %, 12.8 %, 4.6 % and 8.3 % respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are HPV types, with substantial prevalence, in HIV positive women not being detected in molecular epidemiology studies using commercial kits. The significance of these types in relation to cervical disease remains to be investigated.

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miRDeep and its varieties are widely used to quantify known and novel micro RNA (miRNA) from small RNA sequencing (RNAseq). This article describes miRDeep*, our integrated miRNA identification tool, which is modeled off miRDeep, but the precision of detecting novel miRNAs is improved by introducing new strategies to identify precursor miRNAs. miRDeep* has a user-friendly graphic interface and accepts raw data in FastQ and Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) or the binary equivalent (BAM) format. Known and novel miRNA expression levels, as measured by the number of reads, are displayed in an interface, which shows each RNAseq read relative to the pre-miRNA hairpin. The secondary pre-miRNA structure and read locations for each predicted miRNA are shown and kept in a separate figure file. Moreover, the target genes of known and novel miRNAs are predicted using the TargetScan algorithm, and the targets are ranked according to the confidence score. miRDeep* is an integrated standalone application where sequence alignment, pre-miRNA secondary structure calculation and graphical display are purely Java coded. This application tool can be executed using a normal personal computer with 1.5 GB of memory. Further, we show that miRDeep* outperformed existing miRNA prediction tools using our LNCaP and other small RNAseq datasets. miRDeep* is freely available online at http://www.australianprostatecentre.org/research/software/mirdeep-star

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This item provides supplementary materials for the paper mentioned in the title, specifically a range of organisms used in the study. The full abstract for the main paper is as follows: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionised molecular biology, allowing clinical sequencing to become a matter of routine. NGS data sets consist of short sequence reads obtained from the machine, given context and meaning through downstream assembly and annotation. For these techniques to operate successfully, the collected reads must be consistent with the assumed species or species group, and not corrupted in some way. The common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus may cause severe and life-threatening infections in humans,with some strains exhibiting antibiotic resistance. In this paper, we apply an SVM classifier to the important problem of distinguishing S. aureus sequencing projects from alternative pathogens, including closely related Staphylococci. Using a sequence k-mer representation, we achieve precision and recall above 95%, implicating features with important functional associations.

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Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised molec- ular biology, allowing routine clinical sequencing. NGS data consists of short sequence reads, given context through downstream assembly and annotation, a process requiring reads consistent with the assumed species or species group. The common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus may cause severe and life-threatening infections in humans, with some strains exhibiting antibiotic resistance. Here we apply an SVM classifier to the important problem of distinguishing S. aureus sequencing projects from other pathogens, including closely related Staphylococci. Using a sequence k-mer representation, we achieve precision and recall above 95%, implicating features with important functional associations.

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We isolated and characterized 21 microsatellite loci in the vulnerable and iconic Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Loci were screened across eight individuals from the Burnett River and 40 individuals from the Pine River. Genetic diversity was low with between one and six alleles per locus within populations and a maximum expected heterozygosity of 0.774. These loci will now be available to assess effective population sizes and genetic structure in N. forsteri across its natural range in South East Queensland, Australia.

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The high risk of metabolic disease traits in Polynesians may be partly explained by elevated prevalence of genetic variants involved in energy metabolism. The genetics of Polynesian populations has been shaped by island hoping migration events which have possibly favoured thrifty genes. The aim of this study was to sequence the mitochondrial genome in a group of Maoris in an effort to characterise genome variation in this Polynesian population for use in future disease association studies. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 20 non-admixed Maori subjects using Affymetrix technology. DNA diversity analyses showed the Maori group exhibited reduced mitochondrial genome diversity compared to other worldwide populations, which is consistent with historical bottleneck and founder effects. Global phylogenetic analysis positioned these Maori subjects specifically within mitochondrial haplogroup - B4a1a1. Interestingly, we identified several novel variants that collectively form new and unique Maori motifs – B4a1a1c, B4a1a1a3 and B4a1a1a5. Compared to ancestral populations we observed an increased frequency of non-synonymous coding variants of several mitochondrial genes in the Maori group, which may be a result of positive selection and/or genetic drift effects. In conclusion, this study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence data for a Maori population. Overall, these new data reveal novel mitochondrial genome signatures in this Polynesian population and enhance the phylogenetic picture of maternal ancestry in Oceania. The increased frequency of several mitochondrial coding variants makes them good candidates for future studies aimed at assessment of metabolic disease risk in Polynesian populations.

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We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1P29S) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1P29S showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

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Melanoma has historically been refractive to traditional therapeutic approaches. As such, the development of novel drug strategies has been needed to improve rates of overall survival in patients with melanoma, particularly those with late stage or disseminated disease. Recent success with molecularly based targeted drugs, such as Vemurafenib in BRAF-mutant melanomas, has now made “personalized medicine” a reality within some oncology clinics. In this sense, tailored drugs can be administered to patients according to their tumor “mutation profiles.” The success of these drug strategies, in part, can be attributed to the identification of the genetic mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of metastatic melanoma. Recently, the advances in sequencing technology have allowed for comprehensive mutation analysis of tumors and have led to the identification of a number of genes involved in the etiology of metastatic melanoma. As the methodology and costs associated with next-generation sequencing continue to improve, this technology will be rapidly adopted into routine clinical oncology practices and will significantly impact on personalized therapy. This review summarizes current and emerging molecular targets in metastatic melanoma, discusses the potential application of next-generation sequencing within the paradigm of personalized medicine, and describes the current limitations for the adoption of this technology within the clinic.

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Forward genetic screens have identified numerous genes involved in development and metabolism, and remain a cornerstone of biological research. However, to locate a causal mutation, the practice of crossing to a polymorphic background to generate a mapping population can be problematic if the mutant phenotype is difficult to recognize in the hybrid F2 progeny, or dependent on parental specific traits. Here in a screen for leaf hyponasty mutants, we have performed a single backcross of an Ethane Methyl Sulphonate (EMS) generated hyponastic mutant to its parent. Whole genome deep sequencing of a bulked homozygous F2 population and analysis via the Next Generation EMS mutation mapping pipeline (NGM) unambiguously determined the causal mutation to be a single nucleotide polymorphisim (SNP) residing in HASTY, a previously characterized gene involved in microRNA biogenesis. We have evaluated the feasibility of this backcross approach using three additional SNP mapping pipelines; SHOREmap, the GATK pipeline, and the samtools pipeline. Although there was variance in the identification of EMS SNPs, all returned the same outcome in clearly identifying the causal mutation in HASTY. The simplicity of performing a single parental backcross and genome sequencing a small pool of segregating mutants has great promise for identifying mutations that may be difficult to map using conventional approaches.

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Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that generates subgenomic RNAs (sgRNA) for expression of 3' proximal genes. Small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and mapping of the PLRV-derived sRNAs revealed coverage of the entire viral genome with the exception of four distinctive gaps. Remarkably, these gaps mapped to areas of PLRV genome with extensive secondary structures, such as the internal ribosome entry site and 5' transcriptional start site of sgRNA1 and sgRNA2. The last gap mapped to ~500. nt from the 3' terminus of PLRV genome and suggested the possible presence of an additional sgRNA for PLRV. Quantitative real-time PCR and northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of sgRNA3 and subsequent analyses placed its 5' transcriptional start site at position 5347 of PLRV genome. A regulatory role is proposed for the PLRV sgRNA3 as it encodes for an RNA-binding protein with specificity to the 5' of PLRV genomic RNA. © 2013.