982 resultados para Saliva


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As of June 2009, 361 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) had been referenced by the HuGE database. GWAS require DNA from many thousands of individuals, relying on suitable DNA collections. We recently performed a multiple sclerosis (MS) GWAS where a substantial component of the cases (24%) had DNA derived from saliva. Genotyping was done on the Illumina genotyping platform using the Infinium Hap370CNV DUO microarray. Additionally, we genotyped 10 individuals in duplicate using both saliva- and blood-derived DNA. The performance of blood- versus saliva-derived DNA was compared using genotyping call rate, which reflects both the quantity and quality of genotyping per sample and the “GCScore,” an Illumina genotyping quality score, which is a measure of DNA quality. We also compared genotype calls and GCScores for the 10 sample pairs. Call rates were assessed for each sample individually. For the GWAS samples, we compared data according to source of DNA and center of origin. We observed high concordance in genotyping quality and quantity between the paired samples and minimal loss of quality and quantity of DNA in the saliva samples in the large GWAS sample, with the blood samples showing greater variation between centers of origin. This large data set highlights the usefulness of saliva DNA for genotyping, especially in high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray studies such as GWAS.

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Many alternative therapies are used as first aid treatment for burns, despite limited evidence supporting their use. In this study, Aloe vera, saliva and a tea tree oil impregnated dressing (Burnaid) were applied as first aid to a porcine deep dermal contact burn, compared to a control of nothing. After burn creation, the treatments were applied for 20 min and the wounds observed at weekly dressing changes for 6 weeks. Results showed that the alternative treatments did significantly decrease subdermal temperature within the skin during the treatment period. However, they did not decrease the microflora or improve re-epithelialisation, scar strength, scar depth or cosmetic appearance of the scar and cannot be recommended for the first aid treatment of partial thickness burns.

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BACKGROUND: Over the past 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid has gained attention and has become a translational research success story. Some of the current nanotechnologies have been demonstrated to have the analytical sensitivity required for the use of saliva as a diagnostic medium to detect and predict disease progression. However, these technologies have not yet been integrated into current clinical practice and work flow. CONTENT: As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers advantages over serum because it can be collected noninvasively by individuals with modest training, and it offers a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can also be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. There is minimal risk of contracting infections during saliva collection, and saliva can be used in clinically challenging situations, such as obtaining samples from children or handicapped or anxious patients, in whom blood sampling could be a difficult act to perform. In this review we highlight the production of and secretion of saliva, the salivary proteome, transportation of biomolecules from blood capillaries to salivary glands, and the diagnostic potential of saliva for use in detection of cardiovascular disease and oral and breast cancers. We also highlight the barriers to application of saliva testing and its advancement in clinical settings. SUMMARY: Saliva has the potential to become a first-line diagnostic sample of choice owing to the advancements in detection technologies coupled with combinations of biomolecules with clinical relevance. (C) 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

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Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. Human C-reactive protein (CRP) has been used in the risk assessment of coronary events. Human saliva mirrors the body's health and well-being and is non-invasive, easy to collect and ideal for third world countries as well as for large patient screening. The aim was to establish a saliva CRP reference range and to demonstrate the clinical utility of salivary CRP levels in assessing the coronary events in a primary health care setting. Methods: We have used a homogeneous bead based assay to detect CRP levels in human saliva. We have developed a rapid 15 min (vs 90 min), sequential, one-step assay to detect CRP in saliva. Saliva was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 55, ages 20-70 years) as well as from cardiac patients (n = 28, ages 43-86 years). Results: The assay incubation time was optimised from 90 min to 15 mm and generated a positive correlation (n = 29, range 10-2189 pg/mL, r2 = 0.94; Passing Bablok slope 0.885. Intercept 0, p>0.10), meaning we could decrease the incubation time and produce equivalent results with confidence. The mean CRP level in the saliva of healthy human volunteers was 285 pg/mL and in cardiac patients was 1680 pg/mL (p<0.01). Analysis of CRP concentrations in paired serum and saliva samples from cardiac patients gave a positive correlation (r2 = 0.84, p<0.001) and the salivary CRP concentration capable of distinguishing healthy from diseased patients. Conclusions: The results suggest that this minimally invasive, rapid and sensitive assay will be useful in large patient screening studies for risk assessment of coronary events. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Background: Current blood based diagnostic assays to detect heart failure (HF) have large intra-individual and inter-individual variations which have made it difficult to determine whether the changes in the analyte levels reflect an actual change in disease activity. Human saliva mirrors the body's health and well being and similar to 20% of proteins that are present in blood are also found in saliva. Saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic fluid which allows for a non-invasive, simple, and safe sample collection. The aim of our study was to develop an immunoassay to detect NT-proBNP in saliva and to determine if there is a correlation with blood levels. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n = 40) who had no underlying heart conditions and HF patients (n = 45) at rest. Samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. A customised homogeneous sandwich AlphaLISA((R)) immunoassay was used to quantify NT-proBNP levels in saliva. Results: Our NT-proBNP immunoassay was validated against a commercial Roche assay on plasma samples collected from HF patients (n = 37) and the correlation was r(2) = 0.78 (p<0.01, y = 1.705 x +1910.8). The median salivary NT-proBNP levels in the healthy and HF participants were <16 pg/mL and 76.8 pg/mL, respectively. The salivary NT-proBNP immunoassay showed a clinical sensitivity of 82.2% and specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3%, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. Conclusion: We have firstly demonstrated that NT-proBNP can be detected in saliva and that the levels were higher in heart failure patients compared with healthy control subjects. Further studies will be needed to demonstrate the clinical relevance of salivary NT-proBNP in unselected, previously undiagnosed populations.

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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for a bulk of the oral and laryngeal cancers, the majority (70%) of which are associated with smoking and excessive drinking, major known risk factors for the development of HNSCC. In contrast to reports that suggest an inverse relationship between smoking and global DNA CpG methylation, hypermethylation of promoters of a number of genes was detected in saliva collected from patients with HNSCC. Using a sensitive methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay to determine specific methylation events in the promoters of RASSF1A, DAPK1, and p16 genes, we demonstrate that we can detect tumor presence with an overall accuracy of 81% in the DNA isolated from saliva of patients with HNSCC (n = 143) when compared with the DNA isolated from the saliva of healthy nonsmoker controls (n = 31). The specificity for this MSP panel was 87% and the sensitivity was 80%(with a Fisher exact test P < .0001). In addition, the test panel performed extremely well in the detection of the early stages of HNSCCs, with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 87%, and a high. concordance value of 0.8, indicating an excellent overall agreement between the presence of HNSCC and a positive MSP panel result. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the promoter methylation of RASSF1A, DAPK1, and p16 MSP panel is useful in detecting hypermethylation events in a noninvasive manner in patients with HNSCC.

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Over the past 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid has gained attention and has become a translational research success story. Some of the current nanotechnologies have been demonstrated to have the analytical sensitivity required for the use of saliva as a diagnostic medium to detect and predict disease progression. However, these technologies have not yet been integrated into current clinical practice and work flow. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers advantages over serum because it can be collected noninvasively by individuals with modest training, and it offers a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can also be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major salivary glands. There is minimal risk of contracting infections during saliva collection, and saliva can be used in clinically challenging situations, such as obtaining samples from children or handicapped or anxious patients, in whom blood sampling could be a difficult act to perform. In this review we highlight the production of and secretion of saliva, the salivary proteome, transportation of biomolecules from blood capillaries to salivary glands, and the diagnostic potential of saliva for use in detection of cardiovascular disease and oral and breast cancers. We also highlight the barriers to application of saliva testing and its advancement in clinical settings. Saliva has the potential to become a first-line diagnostic sample of choice owing to the advancements in detection technologies coupled with combinations of biomolecules with clinical relevance.

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Human saliva mirrors body’s health and well-being and many of the biomolecules present in blood or urine can also be found in salivary secretions. However, biomolecular concentrations in saliva are usually one tenth to one thousandth of the levels in blood (Pfaffe et al., 2011). Sensitive detection technology platforms are therefore required to detect biomolecules in saliva. Another road block to the advancement of salivary diagnostics is the lack of information related to healthy state saliva vs. a diseased saliva, baseline levels and reference ranges and diurnal variations. Saliva has numerous advantages over blood or urine as a diagnostic fluid: (a) the non-invasive nature of sample collection and the simple, safe, painless and cost-effective methods to collect it; (b) unskilled personnel can collect saliva samples at multiple time points; and (c) the total protein concentration is approximately a quarter of that is present in plasma, which makes it easier to investigate low abundance proteins (Pfaffe et al., 2011). Currently, saliva assays are routinely used to determine, diseases such as HIV, drugs and substances of abuse to provide information on exposure and give qualitative information on the type of illicit drug used (Kintz et al., 2009), cortisol levels for diagnosing Cushing’s syndrome (Doi et al., 2008), and use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals (Caporossi et al., 2010) to measure hormones (Gröschl, 2009)....

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Background: Human saliva mirrors the body's health and can be collected non-invasively, does not require specialized skills and is suitable for large population based screening programs. The aims were twofold: to evaluate the suitability of commercially available saliva collection devices for quantifying proteins present in saliva and to provide levels for C-reactive protein (CRP), myoglobin, and immunoglobin E (IgE) in saliva of healthy individuals as a baseline for future studies. Methods: Saliva was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 17, ages 18-33 years). The following collection methods were evaluated: drool; Salimetrics (R) Oral Swab (SOS); Salivette (R) Cotton and Synthetic (Sarstedt) and Greiner Bio-One Saliva Collection System (GBO SCS (R)). We used AlphaLISA (R) assays to measure CRP, IgE and myoglobin levels in human saliva. Results: Significant (p<0.05) differences in the salivary flow rates were observed based on the method of collection, Le. salivary flow rates were significantly lower (p<0.05) in unstimulated saliva (Le. drool and SOS), when compared with mechanically stimulated methods (p<0.05) (Salivette (R) Cotton and Synthetic) and acid stimulated method (p<0.05) (SCS (R)). Saliva collected using SOS yielded significantly (p<0.05) lower concentrations of myoglobin and CRP, whilst, saliva collected using the Salivette (R) Cotton and Synthetic swab yielded significantly (p<0.05) lower myoglobin and IgE concentrations respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated significantly relevant differences in analyte levels based on the collection method. Significant differences in the salivary flow rates were also observed depending on the saliva collection method. The data provide preliminary baseline values for salivary CRP, myoglobin, and IgE levels in healthy participants and based on the collection method. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Saliva contains a number of biochemical components which may be useful for diagnosis/monitoring of metabolic disorders, and as markers of cancer or heart disease. Saliva collection is attractive as a non-invasive sampling method for infants and elderly patients. We present a method suitable for saliva collection from neonates. We have applied this technique for the determination of salivary nucleotide metabolites. Saliva was collected from 10 healthy neonates using washed cotton swabs, and directly from 10 adults. Two methods for saliva extraction from oral swabs were evaluated. The analytes were then separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limits of detection for 14 purine/pyrimidine metabolites were variable, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 mu M. Recovery of hydrophobic purine/pyrimidine metabolites from cotton tips was consistently high using water/acetonitrile extraction (92.7-111%) compared with water extraction alone. The concentrations of these metabolites were significantly higher in neonatal saliva than in adults. Preliminary ranges for nucleotide metabolites in neonatal and adult saliva are reported. Hypoxanthine and xanthine were grossly raised in neonates (49.3 +/- 25.4; 30.9 +/- 19.5 mu M respectively) compared to adults (4.3 +/- 3.3; 4.6 +/- 4.5 mu M); nucleosides were also markedly raised in neonates. This study focuses on three essential details: contamination of oral swabs during manufacturing and how to overcome this; weighing swabs to accurately measure small saliva volumes; and methods for extracting saliva metabolites of interest from cotton swabs. A method is described for determining nucleotide metabolites using HPLC with photo-diode array or MS/MS. The advantages of utilising saliva are highlighted. Nucleotide metabolites were not simply in equilibrium with plasma, but may be actively secreted into saliva, and this process is more active in neonates than adults. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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BACKGROUND: The use of salivary diagnostics is increasing because of its noninvasiveness, ease of sampling, and the relatively low risk of contracting infectious organisms. Saliva has been used as a biological fluid to identify and validate RNA targets in head and neck cancer patients. The goal of this study was to develop a robust, easy, and cost-effective method for isolating high yields of total RNA from saliva for downstream expression studies. METHODS: Oral whole saliva (200 mu L) was collected from healthy controls (n = 6) and from patients with head and neck cancer (n = 8). The method developed in-house used QIAzol lysis reagent (Qiagen) to extract RNA from saliva (both cell-free supernatants and cell pellets), followed by isopropyl alcohol precipitation, cDNA synthesis, and real-time PCR analyses for the genes encoding beta-actin ("housekeeping" gene) and histatin (a salivary gland-specific gene). RESULTS: The in-house QIAzol lysis reagent produced a high yield of total RNA (0.89 -7.1 mu g) from saliva (cell-free saliva and cell pellet) after DNase treatment. The ratio of the absorbance measured at 260 nm to that at 280 nm ranged from 1.6 to 1.9. The commercial kit produced a 10-fold lower RNA yield. Using our method with the QIAzol lysis reagent, we were also able to isolate RNA from archived saliva samples that had been stored without RNase inhibitors at -80 degrees C for >2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our in-house QIAzol method is robust, is simple, provides RNA at high yields, and can be implemented to allow saliva transcriptomic studies to be translated into a clinical setting.

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Saliva as a biological fluid is gaining wider acceptance for diagnosing diseases. The growing interest in saliva as a biological fluid is due to its noninvasiveness, ease of use, cost-effectiveness, and multiple sample collection possibilities as well as minimal risk to health care professionals of contracting infectious organisms such as HIV and Hep B. However, the clinical translation of saliva is hampered by our lack of understanding of the biomolecular transportation from blood into saliva, the diurnal variations of biomolecules present in saliva, and relatively low levels of analytes (100th to a 1000th fold less than in blood). We provide information on the current status of salivary research, salivary diagnostics empowered by nanotechnology, and future prospects in this emerging field of saliva diagnostics.

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Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages.

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Background: Plasma D-dimer tests are currently used to exclude deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Human saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic sample. The aims of our study were to develop a reliable immunoassay to detect D-dimer levels in saliva, and to determine the correlation between salivary and blood D-dimer levels. Results/methodology: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 40 healthy volunteers. We developed a AlphaLISA((R)) immunoassay with acceptable analytical performances to quantify D-dimer levels in the samples. The median salivary D-dimer levels were 138.1 ng/ml (morning) and 140.7 ng/ml (afternoon), and the plasma levels were 75.0 ng/ml. Salivary D-dimer levels did not correlate with plasma levels (p = 0.61). Conclusion: For the first time, we have quantified D-dimer levels and found twofold increase in saliva (p < 0.05) than in plasma. Further studies are required to demonstrate the clinical relevance/utility of salivary D-dimer in patients with confirmed deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism.

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Background: Dysregulation of salivary immunoglobulins has been implicated in illnesses ranging from periodontal disease to HIV aids and malignant cancers. Despite these advances there is a lack of agreement among studies with regard to the salivary immunoglobulin levels in healthy controls. Methodology: Resting and mechanically stimulated saliva samples and matching serum samples were collected from healthy individuals (n = 33; 40-55 years of age; gender: 23 female, 10 male). A matrix-matched AlphaLISA((R)) assay was developed to determine the concentrations of IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and saliva samples. Conclusion: Clear relationships were observed in the flow rate and concentration of each immunoglobulin in the two types of saliva. This study affirms the need to establish and standardize collection methods before salivary IgGs are used for diagnostic purposes.