1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. S. pneumoniae is responsible for significant mortality both in children and in the elderly. In recent years, the whole genome sequencing of various S. pneumoniae strains have increased manifold and there is an urgent need to provide organism specific annotations to the scientific community. This prompted us to develop the Streptococcus pneumoniae Genome Database (SPGDB) to integrate and analyze the completely sequenced and available S. pneumoniae genome sequences. Further, links to several tools are provided to compare the pool of gene and protein sequences, and proteins structure across different strains of S. pneumoniae. SPGDB aids in the analysis of phenotypic variations as well as to perform extensive genomics and evolutionary studies with reference to S. pneumoniae. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Este estudo tem como propósito analisar a eficácia de diferentes formulações de antissépticos bucais presentes no mercado brasileiro sobre um monobiofilme de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). O experimento foi realizado expondo as amostras às formulações por 1 minuto. Os biofilmes foram desenvolvidos semeando as cepas em tubos de ensaio contendo meio de cultura TSB acrescido de 1% de sacarose por 7 dias, com trocas de meio a cada 48 horas. A amostra foi dividida em grupos: monobiofilme tratado com solução contendo clorexidina (controle positivo); monobiofilme tratado com solução contendo óleos essenciais; monobiofilme tratado com solução contendo triclosan; biofilme tratado com solução contendo triclosan acrescido de cloreto de zinco; monobiofilme tratado com solução contendo cloreto de cetilpiridínio; monobiofilme tratado com solução salina fisiológica estéril (controle negativo). Para a análise do efeito pós antibiotico, as cepas foram removidas e plaqueadas imediatamente após a exposição e após 2 horas de crescimento em meio TSB. A média do crescimento bacteriano foi convertida em unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC) para análise. Para analizar a capacidade de recolonização as cepas foram inoculadas em TSB acrescido de sacarose por 48hs. os valores submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste t-student e ANOVA com modificação de Tukey e Dunnett. Os resultados nos permitem concluir que: todos os grupos tratados com antissépticos apresentaram redução das concentrações de microrganismos viáveis em relação ao controle negativo, nos dois tempos analizados. As formulações contendo triclosan e óleos essenciais não apresentaram diferença nem relação ao controle positivo e nem entre eles mesmos, também nos dois tempos. As formulações de antissépticos, contendo clorexidina, óleos essenciais, triclosan podem alterar a capacidade de recolonização do monobiofilme, neste modelo.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae é um importante agente etiológico de infecções invasivas e não invasivas, incluindo meningite, pneumonia e otite média. A cápsula polissacarídica é o principal fator de virulência desse microrganismo, sendo também considerada um importante marcador em estudos epidemiológicos. Dentre os mais de 90 tipos capsulares conhecidos, o sorotipo 14 se destaca pela prevalência elevada em várias regiões, inclusive no Brasil. A avaliação da diversidade genética desse microrganismo também inclui a aplicação de métodos moleculares, como PFGE e MLST. Entretanto, essas metodologias são relativamente onerosas, consomem muito tempo e os resultados obtidos com a técnica de PFGE são de difícil comparação entre diferentes laboratórios. A técnica de análise do polimorfismo numérico de segmentos repetitivos em múltiplos loci [MLVA, do inglês Multiple Loci VTNR (Variable-Number Tandem Repeat) Analysis] se apresenta como uma alternativa, embora ainda necessite de padronização e avaliação mais ampla para a espécie em questão. No presente estudo, 60 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae pertencentes ao sorotipo 14, isoladas de diversas fontes clínicas, em diferentes locais e períodos de tempo, foram caracterizadas pelas técnicas de MLVA (baseada na análise de 18 loci distintos), MLST, PFGE e tipagem do gene pspA. O gene pspA2 predominou entre as amostras analisadas, seguido pelo gene pspA1. Os tipos de MLVA, perfis de PFGE, e STs encontrados apresentaram resultados, em geral, concordantes, indicando o elevado poder discriminatório da versão da técnica de MLVA empregada. Cinco complexos clonais (CC) de MLVA e cinco singletons puderam ser definidos. O CC de MLVA denominado de L7 foi o predominante, compreendendo 36,7% da amostragem estudada. O CC L7 mostrou-se relacionado com genes pspA da família 2, com o CC1 de MLST, com o CC Pen14-H de PFGE, e com a não susceptibilidade à penicilina, Entre os complexos clonais de MLST, o CC1 foi o prevalente e incluiu predominantemente o ST156, pertencente ao clone internacional Spain9V-3. O CC L3 e o singleton L17 de MLVA apresentaram-se associados ao CC de PFGE Eri14-A, a família 1 de PspA e ao CC2 de MLST, que por sua vez também estava relacionado com o clone internacional England14-9. O CC L15 de MLVA esteve associado ao CC de PFGE Pen14-A, ao gene pspA2, aos CC3 e CC4 de MLST e ao clone internacional do PMEN Tennessee14-18. A técnica de MLVA revelou-se significativamente mais discriminatória que as técnicas de PFGE e MLST, conforme exemplificado pela detecção de 21 perfis de MLVA, 13 perfis de PFGE e cinco STs, entre as 22 amostras pertencentes ao CC de MLVA L7. Uma versão de MLVA, compreendendo um painel com os oito loci de maior poder discriminatório, pôde ser proposta a partir da análise dos resultados obtidos. Estes aspectos, aliados ao menor tempo e custo de execução, indicam que a técnica de MLVA constitui uma alternativa importante e satisfatória para uso em estudos sobre a diversidade genética de S. pneumoniae.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6E has recently been described, but its long-term epidemiology is not well known. From 1981-2013, 704 serogroup 6 clinical isolates were obtained in Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. All invasive and one in four non-invasive isolates were included. Overall, 75, 97, 51 and 45 serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C and 6E isolates, respectively, were detected. No serotype 6D isolates were identified. The prevalence of serotypes 6E and 6B, but not that of serotypes 6A and 6C, declined after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 6E isolates showed the highest resistance rate. Most serotype 6E isolates were ST90.

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Fish are an important part of a healthy diet since they contain high quality protein, but typically present a low fat percent when compared to other meats. Fish is an extremely perishable food commodity. On the other hand, food borne diseases are still a major problem in the world, even in well-developed countries. The increasing incidence of food borne diseases coupled with the resultant social and economic implications means there is a constant striving to produce safer food and to develop new antimicrobial agents concerns over the safety of some chemical preservatives and negative consumer reactions to preservatives they perceive as chemical and artificial, have prompted on increased interest in more ‘‘naturalgreen’’ alternatives for the maintenance or extension of product shelf-life. Particular interest has focused on the potential applications of plant essential oils. However, to establish the usefulness of natural antimicrobial preservatives, they must be evaluated alone and in combination with other preservation factors to determine whether there are synergistic effects and multiple hurdles can be devised. In this study, were evaluated the effects of different concentrations of Rosmarinus officinalis and nisin and storage time (15 days) on growth of Streptococcus iniae GQ850377 in a lab conditions and a food model system (fillets of rainbow trout) in 4 and 8 °C. In addition, we also studied multi factorial effects of four different concentration of rosemary, three different concentrations of nisin, two different levels of pH in 3 temperature 4,15 and 37 °C on log% of S.iniae during 43 days in BHI broth. The results on growth of S. iniae were evaluated using SPSS 20.0 statistical software and analyzed the logarithm of total count of the bacterial by Tukey Test. Results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05. MIC and MBC values of rosemary and nisin were 0.03, 0.075 % and 5, 40 μg/mL, respectively. The growth of S. iniae was effected significantly (P<0.05) by rosemary and nisin and also combination of rosemary and nisin in 4 and 8 °C. Samples treated with 0.135 and 0.405 % of rosemary showed a significant decrease on the growth of the bacteria compared with control sample(P<0.05). The most ١٤٦ inhibitory effects were seen in samples treated with 0.135 and 0.405% of rosemary until 9 days after storage. Also, the synergism effects of rosemary and nisin on the growth rate of bacteria was significant (P<0.05) compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the rosemary or nisin, only. Synergistic effects was observed at concentration of 0.405% rosemary and 0.75 μg/mL nisin in both temprature. Results of this study showed that different concentration of rosemary a significant inhibitory effect (P<0.05) on log% of S. iniae, in BHI broth in pH 5.5 and 7 in 4,15 and 37 °C during 43 days. In concentration of 0% rosemary (control) in pH 5.5 and 7 and 37°C, log% were 1.099 and 3.15, whereas in concentration of 0.015% rosemary were -4/241 and 1.454, respectively. The use of essential oils may improve food safety and overall microbial quality. If essential oils were to be more widely applied as antibacterials in foods, the organoleptic impact would be important. In addition, it is recommended to apply essential oils or their compounds as part of a hurdle system and to use it as an antimicrobial component along with other preservation techniques. Thus essential of R. officinalis with high antibacterial activity selected in this study could be a potential source for inhibitory substances against some food-borne pathogens and they may be candidates for using in foods or food-processing systems.

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Streptococcosis became an increasingly significant health problem in intensive aquaculture in China. Fifteen strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus were isolated from moribund Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, fanned with high density in central China. The coccoid microorganism was identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae by means of physiological. biochemical properties and molecular analysis; furthermore, this coccus was confirmed as pathogen of sturgeon by challenge experiments and its infection potential on the cyprinid was also evaluated. To our knowledge, this was the first report of S. dysgalactiae linked to diseased A. schrenckii. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Streptococcus iniae is a severe aquaculture pathogen that can also infect humans and animal. A putative secretory antigen, Slat 0, was identified from a pathogenic S. iniae strain by in vivo-induced antigen technology. Using turbot as an animal model, the immunoprotective effect of Sia10 was examined as a DNA vaccine in the form of plasmid pSia10, which expresses sia10 under the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. In fish vaccinated with pSia10, transcription of sia10 was detected in muscle, liver, spleen, and kidney at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days post-vaccination. In addition, production of Sia10 protein was also detected in the muscle tissues of pSia10-vaccinated fish. Fish vaccinated with pSia10 exhibited a relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.9% and 92.3%, respectively, when challenged with high and low doses (producing a cumulative mortality of 92% and 52%, respectively, in the control groups) of S. iniae. Immunological and transcriptional analyses showed that vaccination with pSia10(i) induced much stronger chemiluminescence response and significantly higher levels of nitric oxide production and acid phosphatase activity in head kidney macrophages; (ii) caused the production of specific serum antibodies, which afforded apparent immunoprotection when transferred passively into naive fish; and (iii) upregulated the expression of the genes encoding proteins that are possibly involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Taken together, these results indicated that pSia10 is an effective vaccine candidate and may be used in the control of S. iniae infection in aquaculture. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Freshly expectorated sputa (n=58) from 45 adult CF patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 190 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 12 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis. The most frequently VGS organism isolated was S. salivarius (47/190; 24.7%), followed by S. mitts (36/190; 19%), S. sanguinis (25/190; 13.2%), S. oralis (20/190; 11.0%), S. pneumoniae (19/190; 10.0%), S. parasanguinis (16/190; 8.4%), S. infantis (11/190; 5.8%), S. gordonii (7/190; 3.7%), S. anginosus (4/190; 2.1%), S. cristatus (2/190; 1.1%), S. australis (1/190; 0.5%), S. mutans (1/190; 0.5%) and S. agalactiae (1/190; 0.5%). All, but four, patients harboured at least one VGS species, which ranged from one to five streptococcal species, with a mean of 2.85 species per patient. There was no clonality at the subspecies level employing ERIC RAPD PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing against penicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Overall, resistance to penicillin with all VGS was 73/190 (38.4%) and 167/190 (87.9%) for erythromycin. With regard to ciprofloxacin, 27/190 (14.2%) were fully resistant, whilst a further 21/190 (11.1%) showed intermediate resistance, which equated to approximately three quarters (74.7%) of isolates being fully sensitive to this agent. In addition, as a comparator control population, we examined antibiotic susceptibility, as above, in a non-CF population comprising 12 individuals (50 VGS isolates), who were not receiving chronic antibiotics. In comparison, 8% and 38% of VGS isolates from non-CF individuals were resistant by disk susceptibility testing to penicillin and erythromycin, respectively. None of the non-CF VGS organisms were resistant to ciprofloxacin, but 42% showed intermediate resistance. (C) 2010 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinaemia and antibody deficiency to both T dependent and independent antigens. Patients suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, but also gastrointestinal or autoimmune symptoms. Their response to vaccination is poor or absent. In this study we investigated B cell activation induced by the TLR9 specific ligand (CpG-ODN) and bacterial extracts from S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae known to stimulate several TLR. We found that B cells from CVID patients express lower levels of CD86 after stimulation with CpG-ODN, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae extracts in combination with anti-IgM antibody and also display a lower proliferative index when stimulated with bacterial extracts. Our results point to a broad TLR signalling defect in B lymphocytes from CVID patients that may be related to the hypogammaglobulinaemia and poor response to vaccination characteristic of these patients.

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Introduction: Streptococcus bovis can lead to bacteraemia, septicaemia, and ultimately endocarditis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term implications of S. bovis endocarditis on cardiac morbidity and mortality. 

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed between January 2000 and March 2009 to assess all patients diagnosed with S. bovis bacteraemia from the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust. The primary end-point for cardiac investigations was the presence of endocarditis. Secondary end-points included referral for cardiac surgery and overall mortality. 

Results: Sixty-one positive S. bovis blood cultures from 43 patients were included. Following echocardiography, seven patients were diagnosed with infective endocarditis (16.3 % of total patients); four patients (9.3 %) had native valve involvement while three (7.0 %) had prosthetic valve infection. Five of these seven patients had more than one positive S. bovis culture (71.4 %). Three had significant valve dysfunction that warranted surgical repair/replacement, one of whom was unfit for surgery. There was a 100 % recurrence rate amongst the valve replacement patients (n = 2) and six patients with endocarditis had colorectal pathology. Patients with endocarditis had similar long-term survival as those with non-endocarditic bacteraemia (57.1 % alive vs. 50 % of non-endocarditis patients, p = 0.73). 

Conclusion: Streptococcus bovis endocarditis patients tended to have pre-existing valvular heart disease and those with prosthetic heart valves had higher surgical intervention and relapse rates. These patients experienced a higher rate of co-existing colorectal pathology but currently have reasonable long-term outcomes. This may suggest that they represent a patient population that merits consideration for an early surgical strategy to maximise long-term results, however, further evaluation is warranted. © 2013 The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery.