1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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Background. The factors behind the reemergence of severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) diseases are unclear, but it could be caused by altered genetic endowment in these organisms. However, data from previous studies assessing the association between single genetic factors and invasive disease are often conflicting, suggesting that other, as-yet unidentified factors are necessary for the development of this class of disease. Methods. In this study, we used a targeted GAS virulence microarray containing 226 GAS genes to determine the virulence gene repertoires of 68 GAS isolates (42 associated with invasive disease and 28 associated with noninvasive disease) collected in a defined geographic location during a contiguous time period. We then employed 3 advanced machine learning methods (genetic algorithm neural network, support vector machines, and classification trees) to identify genes with an increased association with invasive disease. Results. Virulence gene profiles of individual GAS isolates varied extensively among these geographically and temporally related strains. Using genetic algorithm neural network analysis, we identified 3 genes with a marginal overrepresentation in invasive disease isolates. Significantly, 2 of these genes, ssa and mf4, encoded superantigens but were only present in a restricted set of GAS M-types. The third gene, spa, was found in variable distributions in all M-types in the study. Conclusions. Our comprehensive analysis of GAS virulence profiles provides strong evidence for the incongruent relationships among any of the 226 genes represented on the array and the overall propensity of GAS to cause invasive disease, underscoring the pathogenic complexity of these diseases, as well as the importance of multiple bacteria and/ or host factors.

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Mucosal and serum antibody responses were studied in sibling barramundi (Lates calcarifer) acclimated in either seawater or freshwater following vaccination by intraperitoneal injection or direct immersion in an inactivated Streptococcus iniae vaccine. As expected, route of vaccination had a marked effect on immune response, with direct immersion resulting in low serum antibody levels against S. iniae by ELISA detected 21 days post vaccination at 26 degrees C, whilst a significant response was detected in mucus. A strong specific antibody response was detected in both mucus and serum 21 days following intraperitoneal injection. Fish acclimated in seawater prior to vaccination showed a markedly higher specific mucosal antibody response than sibling fish acclimated in freshwater, regardless of the route of vaccination, whilst the serum antibody response was not affected by salinity. Both mucosal and serum antibodies from fish in seawater and freshwater were capable of binding antigen at salinities similar to full strength seawater in a modified ELISA assay. These results indicate that this euryhaline fish species is riot only able to mount significant specific antibody response in cutaneous mucus, but that these antibodies will function in the marine environment. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for causing many clinical complications including the relatively benign streptococcal pharyngitis and impetigo. However. if left untreated. these conditions may lead to more severe diseases such as rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). These diseases exhibit high morbidity and mortality, Particularly in developing countries and in indigenous populations of affluent countries. Only ever occur following GAS infection, a vaccine offers Promise for their Prevention. As stich, we have investigated the Use of the lipid-core peptide (LCP) system for the development of multi-valent Prophylactic GAS vaccines. The current study has investigated the capacity of this system to adjuvant LIP to four different GAS peptide epitopes. Presented are the synthesis and immunological assessment of tetra-valent and tri-valent GAS LCP systems. We demonstrated their capacity to elicit systemic IgG antibody responses in B10.BR mice to all GAS peptide epitopes. The data also showed that the LCP systems Were self-adjuvanting. These findings are particularly encouraging for the development of multi-valent LCP-based GAS vaccines.

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Survival of the microencapsulated probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus 547, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 1994, and Lactobacillus casei 01, in stirred yoghurt from UHT- and conventionally treated milk during low temperature storage was investigated. The probiotic cells both as free cells and microencapsulated cells (in alginate beads coated with chitosan) were added into 20 g/100 g total solids stirred yoghurt from UHT-treated milk and 16 g/100 g total solids yoghurt from conventionally treated milk after 3.5 h of fermentation. The products were kept at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. The survival of encapsulated probiotic bacteria was higher than free cells by approximately 1 log cycle. The number of probiotic bacteria was maintained above the recommended therapeutic minimum (10(7) cfu g(-1)) throughout the storage except for R bifidum. The viabilities of probiotic bacteria in yoghurts from both UHT- and conventionally treated milks were not significantly (P > 0.05) different. (c) 2004 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Purified B-cells fail to proliferate in response to the strong thymus-independent (TI) antigen Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence of macrophages (Corbel and Melchers, 1983). The fact that macrophages, or factors derived from them are required is supported by the inability of marginal zone B-cells in infants to respond to highly virulent strains of bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Timens, 1989). This may be due to the lack of CD21 expression on B-cells in infants which could associate with its co-receptor (C3d) on adjacent macrophages. It is not clear whether cell surface contacts and/or soluble products are involved in lymphocyte-macrophage interactions in response to certain antigens. This thesis describes the importance of the macrophage in lymphocyte responses to T-dependent (TD) and TI antigens. The major findings of this thesis were as follows: (1). Macrophages were essential for a full proliferative response to a range of T - and B-cell mitogens and TI-1 and TI-2 antigens, including Concanavalin A, LPS, Pokeweed mitogen (PWM), Dextran sulphate, Phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and Poly[I][C]. (2). A ratio of 1 macrophage to 1000 lymphocytes was sufficient for the mitogens to exert their effects. (3). The optimal conditions were established for the activation of an oxidative burst in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage as measured by luminometry. The order of ability was OpZ >PMA/lonomycin >f-MLP >Con A >DS >PHA >Poly[I][C] >LPS >PWM. Responses were only substantial and protracted with OpZ and PMA. Peritoneal macrophages were the most responsive cells, whereas splenic and alveolar macrophages were significantly less active and no response could be elicited with Kupffer cells, thus demonstrating heterogeneity between macrophages. (4). Activated macrophages that were then fixed with paraformaldehyde were unable to restore mitogenic responsiveness, even with a ratio of 1 macrophage to 5 lymphocytes. (5). Although highly purified T- and B-cells could respond to mitogen provided live macrophages were present, maximum activation was only observed when all 3 cell types were present. (6). Supernatants from purified macrophage cultures treated with a range of activators were able to partially restore lymphocyte responses to mitogen in macrophage-depleted splenocyte cultures, and purified T - and B-cell cultures. In fact supernatants from macrophages treated with LPS for only 30 minutes could restore responsiveness. Supernatants from OpZ treated macrophages were without effect. (7). Macrophage supernatants could not induce proliferation in the absence of mitogen. They therefore provide a co-mitogenic signal required by lymphocytes in order to respond to mitogen. (8). Macrophage product profiles revealed that LPS and Con A-treated macrophage supernatants showed elevated levels of IL-1β, TNF -α L TB4 and TXB2. These products were therefore good candidates as the co-mitogenic factor. The possible inhibitory factors secreted by OpZ-treated macrophages were PGE2, IL-10 and NO. (9). The removal of cytokines, eicosanoids and TNF-α from LPS-treated macrophage supernatants using Cycloheximide, Dexamethasone and an MMPI respectively, resulted in the inability of these supernatants to restore macrophage-depleted lymphocyte responses to mitogen. (10). rIL-1β and rTNF-α are co-mitogenic factors, as macrophage-depleted lymphocytes incubated with rIL-1β and rTNF-α can respond to mitogen.

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Statins are a class of drug that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis, and are used to treat patients with high serum cholesterol levels. They exert this function by competitively binding to the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeA reductase (HMGR), which catalyses the formation of mevalonate, a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, statins have what are called “pleiotropic effects”, which include the reduction of inflammation, immunomodulation, and antimicrobial effects. Statins can also improve survival of patients with sepsis and pneumonia. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common recessive inherited disease in the Caucasian population, which is characterised by factors including, but not limited to, excessive lung inflammation and increased susceptibility to infection. Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to examine the effects of statins on CFassociated bacterial pathogens and the host response. In this work, the prevalence of HMGR was examined in respiratory pathogens, and several CF-associated pathogens were found to possess homologues of this enzyme. HMGR homology was analysed in Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the HMGR of B. cenocepacia was found to have significant conservation to that of Pseudomonas mevalonii, which is the most widely-characterised bacterial HMGR. However, in silico analysis revealed that, unlike S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, B. cenocepacia did not possess homologues of other mevalonate pathway proteins, and that the HMGR of B. cenocepacia appeared to be involved in an alternative metabolic pathway. The effect of simvastatin was subsequently tested on the growth and virulence of S. aureus, B. cenocepacia and S. pneumoniae. Simvastatin inhibited the growth of all 3 species in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, statin treatment also attenuated biofilm formation of all 3 species, and reduced in vitro motility of S. aureus. Interestingly, simvastatin also increased the potency of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin against B. cenocepacia. The impact of statins was subsequently tested on the predominant CF-associated pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which does not possess a HMGR homologue. Mevastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin did not influence the growth of this species. However, sub-inhibitory statin concentrations reduced the swarming motility and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. The influence of statins was also examined on Type 3 toxin secretion, quorum sensing and chemotaxis, and no statin effect was observed on any of these phenotypes. Statins did not appear to have a characteristic effect on the P. aeruginosa transcriptome. However, a mutant library screen revealed that the effect of statins on P. aeruginosa biofilm was mediated through the PvrR regulator and the Cup fimbrial biosynthesis genes. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated that 6 proteins were reproducibly induced by simvastatin in the P. aeruginosa swarming cells. The effect of statins on the regulation of the host-P. aeruginosa immune response was also investigated. Statin treatment increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and CCL20 in lung epithelial cells, but did not attenuate P. aeruginosa-mediated inflammatory gene induction. In fact, simvastatin and P. aeruginosa caused a synergistic effect on CCL20 expression. The expression of the transcriptional regulators KLF2 and KLF6 was also increased by statins and P. aeruginosa, with the induction of KLF6 by simvastatin proving to be a novel effect. Interestingly, both statins and P. aeruginosa were capable of inducing alternative splicing of KLF6. P. aeruginosa was found to induce KLF6 alternative splicing by way of the type 3 secreted toxin ExoS. In addition, a mechanistic role was elucidated for KLF6 in the lung, as it was determined that statin-mediated induction of this protein was responsible for the induction of the host response genes CCL20 and iNOS. Moreover, statin treatment caused a slight increase in infection-related cytotoxicity, and increased bacterial adhesion to cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that statins can reduce the virulence of CFassociated bacterial pathogens and alter host response effectors. Furthermore, novel statin effectors were identified in both bacterial and host cells.

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Fibronectin (FN) is a large extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is made up of

type I (FNI), type II (FNII), & type III (FNIII) domains. It assembles into an insoluble

supra-­‐‑molecular structure: the fibrillar FN matrix. FN fibrillogenesis is a cell‐‑mediated process, which is initiated when FN binds to integrins on the cell surface. The FN matrix plays an important role in cell migration, proliferation, signaling & adhesion. Despite decades of research, the FN matrix is one of the least understood supra-­‐‑molecular protein assemblies. There have been several attempts to elucidate the exact mechanism of matrix assembly resulting in significant progress in the field but it is still unclear as to what are FN-­‐‑FN interactions, the nature of these interactions and the domains of FN that

are in contact with each other. FN matrix fibrils are elastic in nature. Two models have been proposed to explain the elasticity of the fibrils. The first model: the ‘domain unfolding’ model postulates that the unraveling of FNIII domains under tension explains fibril elasticity.

The second model relies on the conformational change of FN from compact to extended to explain fibril elasticity. FN contain 15 FNIII domains, each a 7-­‐‑strand beta sandwich. Earlier work from our lab used the technique of labeling a buried Cys to study the ‘domain unfolding’ model. They used mutant FNs containing a buried Cys in a single FNIII domain and found that 6 of the 15 FNIII domains label in matrix fibrils. Domain unfolding due to tension, matrix associated conformational changes or spontaneous folding and unfolding are all possible explanation for labeling of the buried Cys. The present study also uses the technique of labeling a buried Cys to address whether it is spontaneous folding and unfolding that labels FNIII domains in cell culture. We used thiol reactive DTNB to measure the kinetics of labeling of buried Cys in eleven FN III domains over a wide range of urea concentrations (0-­‐‑9M). The kinetics data were globally fit using Mathematica. The results are equivalent to those of H-­‐‑D exchange, and

provide a comprehensive analysis of stability and unfolding/folding kinetics of each

domain. For two of the six domains spontaneous folding and unfolding is possibly the reason for labeling in cell culture. For the rest of the four domains it is probably matrix associated conformational changes or tension induced unfolding.

A long-­‐‑standing debate in the protein-­‐‑folding field is whether unfolding rate

constants or folding rate constants correlate to the stability of a protein. FNIII domains all have the same ß sandwich structure but very different stabilities and amino acid sequences. Our study analyzed the kinetics of unfolding and folding and stabilities of eleven FNIII domains and our results show that folding rate constants for FNIII domains are relatively similar and the unfolding rates vary widely and correlate to stability. FN forms a fibrillar matrix and the FN-­‐‑FN interactions during matrix fibril formation are not known. FNI 1-­‐‑9 or the N-­‐‑ terminal region is indispensible for matrix formation and its major binding partner has been shown to be FNIII 2. Earlier work from our lab, using FRET analysis showed that the interaction of FNI 1-­‐‑9 with a destabilized FNIII 2 (missing the G strand, FNIII 2ΔG) reduces the FRET efficiency. This efficiency is restored in the presence of FUD (bacterial adhesion from S. pyogenes) that has been known to interact with FNI 1-­‐‑9 via a tandem ß zipper. In the present study we

use FRET analysis and a series of deletion mutants of FNIII 2ΔG to study the shortest fragment of FNIII 2ΔG that is required to bind FNI 1-­‐‑9. Our results presented here are qualitative and show that FNIII 2ΔC’EFG is the shortest fragment required to bind FNI 1-­‐‑9. Deletion of one more strand abolishes the interaction with FNI 1-­‐‑9.

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The bacteriocin class of antimicrobial peptides have emerged as a viable alternative to at least partially fill the void created by the end of the golden age of antibiotic discovery. Along with this potential use in a clinical setting, bacteriocins also play an important role as bio-preservatives in the food industry. This thesis focuses on a specific bacteriocin group, the lantibiotics (Lanthionine-containing antibiotics). Their numerous methods of appliance in a food setting and how their gene-encoded nature can be modified to improve on overall bioactivity and functionality are explored here. The use of a lantibiotic (lacticin 3147) producing starter culture to control the Crohn’s disease-linked pathogen Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was assessed in a raw milk cheese. Although lacticin 3147 production did not effectively control the pathogen, the study provided an impetus to employ a variety of PCR-based mutagenesis techniques with a view to the creation of enhanced lantibiotic derivatives. Through the use of these techniques, a number of enhanced derivatives were generated from the ‘hinge’ region of the nisin peptide. Furthermore, a derivative in which the three hinge amino acids were replaced with three alanines represents the first enhanced derivative of nisin to have been designed through a rational process. This derivative also formed the backbone for the creation of an active, trypsin resistant, variant. Through the employment of further mutagenesis methods a derivative was created with potential use as an oral anti-bacterial in the future. Finally a number of lead nisin derivatives were investigated to assess their anti- Streptococcus agalactiae ability, a mastitis associated pathogen. Also a system was developed to facilitate the large scale production of these candidates, or other nisin derivatives, from dairy substrates.

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Introdução: A doença cárie é uma das mais comum em crianças de idade pré-escolar, e desenvolve-se logo após a erupção dentária. Na literatura está descrito que para o aparecimento e desenvolvimento desta lesão é necessário a presença de um hospedeiro susceptível, microflora cariogénica, a dieta e o tempo. No entanto, a Cárie Precoce da Infância Grave não é uma lesão de progressão normal, e sim rompante e afecta crianças, até aos três anos de idade. Os hábitos que a família tem, em especial a mãe, são responsáveis pela transmissão de bactérias que podem influenciar o aparecimento de lesões de cáries nas crianças. Simples actos como o testar a temperatura da comida antes de dar à criança, limpar a chupeta com a boca e a partilha de utensílios podem aumentar o risco de Cárie Precoce da Infância. Através de uma revisão de literatura, pretende-se explorar a influência parental no aparecimento desta doença e saber se existe fundamentos para preocupação e assim efectuar uma mais adequada prevenção junto dos pais ou encarregados de educação. Metodologia: Nesta revisão narrativa de literatura fez-se a pesquisa nas bases de dados electrónicas PubMed e SciELO; recorreu-se aos repositórios bibliográficos das universidades; páginas institucionais e referências bibliográficas de artigos; livros de Medicina Dentária Preventiva e de Odontopediatria. Discussão: Os hábitos parentais como o provar ou testar a comida das crianças antes da alimentação e a partilha de talheres durante as refeições são considerados factores de risco para o aumento dos níveis de bactérias, como o Streptococcus mutans. Em relação aos hábitos como limpar a chupeta com a boca, o contacto físico intrafamiliar e dos pais beijarem os filhos há pouca evidência científica e é necessário fazer estudos mais conclusivos nestas áreas. Conclusão: Com esta revisão de literatura foi possível identificar quais os hábitos parentais que aumentam o risco dos filhos desenvolverem Cárie Precoce da Infância Grave.

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El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la utilización de la solución hipertónica (agua de mar) en el tratamiento de la mastitis bovina en la finca “Las Cañas” del Municipio de la Trinidad, departamento de Estelí, ubica a una latitud norte de 14° 30.71", longitud oeste de 58° 51.79" a 517 msnm, temperatura media anual de 25°C, clima tropical seco con poca precipitación pluvial . Se trabajó con 18 hembras bovina con dos y tres meses de lactación, positivas a mastitis sub - clínicas, mediante la pru eba de Mastitis California Test (MCT) . Los tratamientos evaluados fueron Tratamiento 1 A gua de mar 10 ml; T ratamiento dos 2 químico Cloxacilina - Ampicilina ( Masticen Pomada ® ) 10 ml . Durante tod o el muestreo el cuarto más afectado fue el cuarto anterior izquierdo (CAI) con (35.25%). Según el examen bacteriológico realizado a las muestras enviadas al laborator io, los microorganismos identificados de la mastitis en la finca, fueron: Streptococcus spp, Staphilococcus aureus , y Pseudomonas spp, E . coli ). Los dos tratamientos presentaron buenos resultados en el control de la mastitis bovina, donde el tratamiento TI (agua de mar 10ml) alcanzó s u mayor efecto a la quinta semana con un (34.3%) con respecto a mastitis subclínica y con un (11.4%) Con respecto a mastitis clínica - crónica y el Tratamiento TII (Masticen Pomada 10ml) alcanzó su mayor ef ecto a la quinta semana con un (33.3%) con respecto a mastitis sub clínica y con un (8.3%) con respec to a mastitis clínica - crónica

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O presente trabalho avaliou, na etapa experimental, um processo simultâneo de catálise e fermentação láctica visando obter um iogurte com potenciais características nutracêuticas e, na sua etapa teórica, estabeleceu uma interlocução entre a vivência experimentalista e a teoria da cinética enzimática, no que se refere à conversão da lactose e à síntese de galactooligossacarídeos (GOS). Na abordagem experimental, para um substrato específico, avaliouse biocatálise conduzida simultaneamente à fermentação, defasando a adição da enzima em relação ao início do processo fermentativo. A fermentação foi realizada a partir de cultura láctica liofilizada comercial contendo dois micro-organismos probióticos, Bifidobacterium animalis e Lactobacillus acidophilus, associados aos micro-organismos característicos do iogurte, Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. Foi utilizado um preparado enzimático contendo -galactosidases obtidas de duas origens distintas: Kluyveromyces lactis e Aspergillus niger. Foram avaliados os efeitos da concentração da enzima e do tempo de adição da enzima em um planejamento experimental 2 2 . As respostas foram às concentrações, ao final do processo, de lactose, de GOS, de glicose e de galactose e a hidrólise dos galactooligossacarídeos ao longo do tempo. No que se refere à abordagem teórica, o presente trabalho considerou modelos matemáticos de hidrólise de dissacarídeos e conversão da lactose, em que a inibição foi representada a partir do incremento da concentração dos produtos da reação. No que se refere à conversão da lactose e síntese de GOS, o presente trabalho buscou estabelecer um modelo matemático em que a inibição ocorreu por efeito do incremento das concentrações de glicose e de galactose, comparando-o com os modelos conhecidos na literatura. Verificou-se que o desempenho do modelo obtido no presente trabalho foi robusto em relação às premissas estabelecidas. Na comparação com resultados experimentais de conversão enzimática, o modelo mostrou-se capaz de minimizar o erro e de ajustar-se aos dados experimentais.

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New antibacterial compounds, preferentially exploiting novel cellular targets, are urgently needed to fight the increasing resistance of pathogens against conventional antibiotics. Here we demonstrate that Carolacton, a myxobacterial secondary metabolite previously shown to damage Streptococcus mutans biofilms, inhibits planktonic growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of serotype 19A at nanomolar concentrations. A Carolacton diastereomer is inactive in both streptococci, indicating a highly specific interaction with a conserved cellular target. S. mutans requires the eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase PknB and the cysteine metabolism regulator CysR for susceptibility to Carolacton, whereas their homologues are not needed in S. pneumoniae, suggesting a specific function for S. mutans biofilms only. A bactericidal effect of Carolacton was observed for S. pneumoniae TIGR4, with a reduction of cell numbers by 3 log units. The clinical pneumonia isolate Sp49 showed immediate growth arrest and cell lysis, suggesting a bacteriolytic effect of Carolacton. Carolacton treatment caused a reduction in membrane potential, but not membrane integrity, and transcriptome analysis revealed compensatory reactions of the cell. Our data show that Carolacton might have potential for treating pneumococcal infections.

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La amigdalitis es una de las infecciones más comunes generalmente acusada por el estreptococo bata hemofílico del grupo A y con menor frecuencia debido a infecciones víricas. La amigdalitis recidivante es desde hace muchos años, la indicación más frecuente para practicar amigdalotomía aunque esta intervención tiene escasa complicaciones, su utilidad en la prevención de las recidivas no ha sido demostrada prospectivamente hasta estudios actuales en el que se compara la eficacia del tratamiento quirúrgico con una pauta antibiótica clásica la penicilina. Varios son los estudios en cuales se ha puesto en evidencia la incapacidad de la penicilina para acabar con el estado de portador del estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A. Entre las posibles explicaciones de esta aparente pérdida de eficacia de la penicilina, la más aceptada supone que la administración repetida del antibiótico selecciona flora productora de beta lactamasa. Los objetivos del tratamiento de la amigdalitis recidivante incluyen tanto la resolución de los signos clínicos y los síntomas de infección y la erradicación del agente causal de la cavidad oro faríngeo, por otro lado será importante evitar las complicaciones supurativas y no suporativas. La penicilina G es el agente antimicrobiano más efectivo para el tratamiento de la amigdalitis y debe emplearse almenos que el paciente sea alérgico lo que evita en lo posterior complicaciones

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La caries dental es la principal enfermedad oral que padece la población a nivel mundial. Su prevención se basa en educación sobre higiene oral, además del uso complementario de agentes antimicrobianos. Entre las alternativas de prevención una área prometedora incluye el empleo de extractos de plantas como agentes antimicrobianos incorporados en nanopartículas poliméricas (NP), las cuales, puedan funcionar como vehículos de liberación de extractos, mejorando el desempeño de estos agentes activos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener extractos de plantas de Ocimum basilicum (Albahaca) Calendula officinalis (Cálendula) y aceites esenciales de Syzigium aromaticum (Clavo) y Thymus vulgaris (Tomillo). Se realizó su caracterización fitoquímica y se evaluó su actividad antimicrobiana mediante dilución en tubo contra células plantónicas de Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans y Candida albicans (ATCC), determinando la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI). El extracto con mayor actividad fue incorporado en NP mediante el método de nanoprecipitación (NP) y las nanopartículas se caracterizaron en base a su tamaño e índice de polidispersidad por espectroscopia de relación fotónica; el porcentaje y la eficiencia de encapsulación y mecanismo de liberación del eugenol contenido en el aceite encapsulado, se realizó mediante cromatografía de gases acoplado a espectrometría de masas (GSMC). En la presente investigación, se determinó que el aceite esencial de clavo mostró la mayor actividad antimicrobiana con respecto a los demás extractos evaluados. Por medio de GSMC se identificó al eugenol como el componente principal del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación. Se obtuvieron NP esféricas con tamaño alrededor de 157 nm, el porcentaje y la eficiencia de encapsulación de eugenol presente en el aceite encapsulado fue de 73.16 % y 47 % respectivamente; además de mostrar una liberación in vitro de eugenol del 50 % a las 24 horas. Finalmente, la CMI del aceite de clavo sin encapsular e incorporado en NP, correspondió a 125 y 75 μg/mL respectivamente. En base a los resultados obtenidos, es factible incorporar extractos vegetales en NP para su liberación sostenida, siendo una terapia antimicrobiana prometedora dentro del área odontológica.

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Despite advances in antibiotic therapy, bacterial meningitis (BM) remains with high mortality and morbidity rates in worldwide. One important mechanism associated to sequels during disease is the intense inflammatory response which promotes an oxidative burst and release of reactive oxygen species, consequently leading to cell death. Activation of DNA repair enzymes during oxidative stress has been demonstrated in several neurological disorders. APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA repair and plays a redox function on transcription factors such as NFkB and AP-1.The aim of this study was assess the role of APE1/Ref-1 on inflammatory response and the possibility of its modulation to reduce the sequels of the disease. Firstly it was performed an assay to measure cytokine in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with BM due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseriae meningitides. Further, a cellular model of inflammation was used to observe the effect of the inhibition of the endonuclease and redox activity of APE1/Ref-1 on cytokine levels. Additionally, APE1/Ref-1 expression in cortex and hippocampus of rat with MB after vitamin B6 treatment was evaluated. Altogether, results showed a similar profile of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients from both pathogens, although IFNy showed higher expression in patients with BM caused by S. pneumoniae. On the other hand, inhibitors of APE1/Ref-1 reduced cytokine levels, mainly TNF-α. Reduction of oxidative stress markers was also observed after introduction of inhibitors in the LPS-stimulated cell. In the animal model, BM increased the expression of the protein APE1/Ref-1, while vitamin B6 promoted reduction. Thereby, this data rise important factors to be considered in pathogenesis of BM, e.g., IFNy can be used as prognostic factor during corticosteroid therapy, APE1/Ref-1 can be an important target to modulate the level of inflammation and VIII oxidative stress, and vitamin B6 seems modulates several proteins related to cell death. So, this study highlights a new understanding on the role of APE1/Ref-1 on the inflammation and the oxidative stress during inflammation condition