1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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Genital tract carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) is prevalent among adult women; however, the dynamics of chronic GBS genital tract carriage, including how GBS persists in this immunologically active host niche long term, are not well defined. To our knowledge, in this study, we report the first animal model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization using female mice synchronized into estrus by delivery of 17β-estradiol prior to intravaginal challenge with wild-type GBS 874391. Cervicovaginal swabs, which were used to measure bacterial persistence, showed that GBS colonized the vaginal mucosa of mice at high numbers (106–107 CFU/swab) for at least 90 d. Cellular and histological analyses showed that chronic GBS colonization of the murine genital tract caused significant lymphocyte and PMN cell infiltrates, which were localized to the vaginal mucosal surface. Long-term colonization was independent of regular hormone cycling. Immunological analyses of 23 soluble proteins related to chemotaxis and inflammation showed that the host response to GBS in the genital tract comprised markers of innate immune activation including cytokines such as GM-CSF and TNF-α. A nonhemolytic isogenic mutant of GBS 874391, Δcyle9, was impaired for colonization and was associated with amplified local PMN responses. Induction of DNA neutrophil extracellular traps, which was observed in GBS-infected human PMNs in vitro in a hemolysin-dependent manner, appeared to be part of this response. Overall, this study defines key infection dynamics in a novel murine model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization and establishes previously unknown cellular and soluble defense responses to GBS in the female genital tract.

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Aims: To examine the prevalence of bacteriocin production in Streptococcus bovis isolates from Australian ruminants and the feasibility of industrial production of bacteriocin. Methods and Results: Streptococcus bovis strains were tested for production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) by antagonism assay against Lactococcus lactis. BLIS production was associated with source animal location (i.e. proximity of other bacteriocin-positive source animals) rather than ruminant species/breed or diet. One bacteriocin showing strong inhibitory activity (Sb15) was isolated and examined. Protein sequence, stability and activity spectrum of this bovicin were very similar to bovicin HC5. Production could be increased through serial culturing, and increased productivity could be partially maintained during cold storage of cultures. Conclusions: BLIS production is geographically widely distributed in Eastern Australia, and it appears that the bacteriocin+ trait is maintained in animals at the same location. The HC5-like bacteriocin, originally identified in North America, is also found in Australia. Production of bacteriocin can be increased through serial culturing. Significance and Impact of the Study: The HC5-like bacteriocins appear to have a broad global distribution. Serial culturing may provide a route towards commercial manufacturing for use in industrial applications, and purified bacteriocin from S. bovis Sb15 could potentially be used to prevent food spoilage or as a feed additive to promote growth in ruminant species.

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The most common causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs) are Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli; however, Gram-positive organisms including Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), also cause UTI. In GBS infection, UTI progresses to cystitis once the bacteria colonize bladder, but the host responses triggered in the bladder immediately following infection are largely unknown. Here, we used genome-wide expression profiling to map the bladder transcriptome of GBS UTI in mice infected transurethrally with uropathogenic GBS that was cultured from a 35 year-old women with cystitis. RNA from bladders was applied to Affymetrix Gene-1.0ST microarrays; qRT-PCR was used to analyze selected gene responses identified in array datasets. A surprisingly small significant gene list of 172 genes was identified at 24h; this compared to 2507 genes identified in a side-by-side comparison with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). No genes exhibited significantly altered expression at 2h in GBS-infected mice according to arrays despite high bladder bacterial loads at this early time point. The absence of a marked early host response to GBS juxtaposed with broad-based bladder responses activated by UPEC at 2h. Bioinformatics analyses including integrative systems-level network mapping revealed multiple activated biological pathways in the GBS cystitis transcriptome that regulate leukocyte activation, inflammation, apoptosis, and cytokine-chemokine biosynthesis. These findings define a novel, minimalistic type of bladder host response triggered by GBS UTI, which comprises collective antimicrobial pathways that differ dramatically from those activated by UPEC. Overall, this study emphasizes the unique nature of bladder immune activation mechanisms triggered by distinct uropathogens.

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Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Ruppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S.agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S.agalactiae; genotyping of selected S.agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S.agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia.

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Opsonin-independent phagocytosis of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is important in defense against neonatal GBS infections. A recent study indicated a role for GBS pilus in macrophage phagocytosis (Maisey et al Faseb J 22 2008 1715-24). We studied 163 isolates from different phylogenetic backgrounds and those possessing or lacking the gene encoding the pilus backbone protein, Spb1 (SAN1518, PI-2b) and spb1-deficient mutants of wild-type (WT) serotype III-3 GBS 874391 in non-opsonic phagocytosis assays using J774A.1 macrophages. Numbers of GBS phagocytosed differed up to 23-fold depending on phylogenetic background; isolates possessing spb1 were phagocytosed more than isolates lacking spb1. Comparing WT GBS and isogenic spb1-deficient mutants showed WT was phagocytosed better compared to mutants; Spb1 also enhanced intracellular survival as mutants were killed more efficiently. Complementation of mutants restored phagocytosis and resistance to killing in J774A.1 macrophages. Spb1 antiserum revealed surface expression in WT GBS and spatial distribution relative to capsular polysaccharide. spb1 did not affect macrophage nitric oxide and TNF-alpha responses; differences in phagocytosis did not correlate with N-acetyl d-glucosamine (from GBS cell-wall) according to enzyme-linked lectin-sorbent assay. Together, these findings support a role for phylogenetic lineage and Spb1 in opsonin-independent phagocytosis and intracellular survival of GBS in J774A.1 macrophages.

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S. milleri -ryhmän bakteerit ovat osa ihmisen suun, nielun, suoliston ja genitaalialueen normaaliflooran bakteeristoa. Kommensaalien lisäksi ryhmään kuuluu myös merkittäviä patogeenejä, jotka esiintyvät varsin runsaina löydöksinä monenlaisissa märkivissä infektioissa. Ryhmään kuuluu kolme lajia: S. anginosus, S. constellatus ja S. intermedius. Lajit ovat varsin samankaltaisia ja raportoidaankin usein vain ryhmänimellä. Lajit ovat kuitenkin erotettavissa, sillä ne eroavat toisistaan tuottamiensa entsyymien suhteen ja esiintyvyydessään kehon eri osissa. Työn tarkoituksena oli tunnistaa erityyppisistä kliinisistä infektioista otetuista näytteistä eristettyjä S. milleri -ryhmään luokiteltuja kantoja lajitasolle ja selvittää niiden esiintymisyleisyyttä näissä infektioissa. Näytteenottopaikat jaettiin viiteen ryhmään: naisten urogenitaalialue (15 kantaa), miesten urogenitaalialue (8 kantaa), oraaliset (28 kantaa), umpisuoli (34 kantaa) ja "muut" (12 kantaa). Lajitunnistuksen lisäksi selvitettiin kantojen hemolyyttisyys ja mahdollinen Lancefield-seroryhmä (A, C, F, G). Lajien erottelu perustuu eroihin bakteerien kyvyissä hajottaa tiettyjä substraatteja (entsyymiprofilointi), hemolyyttisyys määritettiin verimaljalla ja seroryhmitys tehtiin kaupallisella vasta-aine-sakkautumistestillä (Streptex latex Z1- 50). Työssä testattiin käytössä olevia ja kehiteltiin uusia, lähinnä ennalta muodostuneiden entsyymien tunnistamiseen perustuvia erottelumenetelmiä. Vertailtavina oli kolme entsyymiprofiliontimenetelmää, joista yksi on fluorogeeninen (4-Metyyli-umbelliferyyli-subtraatit) ja kaksi kromogeenistä (Weetabs ja RoscoDiagnostic tablets). Kannoilta määritettiin seuraavat aktiivisuudet: ?-fukosidaasi, (?-glukosidaasi, glukosidaasi, ?-galaktosidaaasi, ?-N-asetyyli-galaktosaminidaasi, ?-N-asetyyli-glukosaminidaasi, sialidaasi ja hyaluronidaasi. Työhön sisältyy myös erilaisten kasvatusalustojen sekä pH:n vaikutusten arviointia bakteerienentsyymiaktiivisuuksiin ja testituloksiin. Lisäksi työssä testattiin kromatografisensoluseinärasvahappoanalyysin soveltuvuutta lajien erotteluun. Menetelmiä tarkasteltiin herkkyyden sekäkäytännön suorittamisen ja aiheutuvien kustannusten kannalta. Asetetut tavoitteet saavutettiin. Kaikki käytetyt menetelmät osoittautuivat toimiviksi. Entsyymitestien tuloksetkorreloivat keskenään ja kirjallisuuden kanssa hyvin. Kannat karakterisoitiin, tunnistettiin lajitasolle ja lajiensiintyvyyttä kehon eri osissa voitiin vertailla. Mikään entsyymitesti ei osoittautunut ylivoimaisesti parhaaksi tai huonoimmaksi, vaikkakin yksittäistensubstraattien kohdalla eri testien herkkyydet vaihtelivatkin huomattavasti. Rasvahappoanalyysi ei erotellutkantoja toivotulla tavalla, joten sen käytöstä luovuttiin työn melko varhaisessa vaiheessa. Tutkituista 97 S. milleri -kannasta tunnistettiin 58 S. anginosus-kantaa, 29 S. constellatus-kantaa ja 10 S.ntermedius-kantaa. Eri lajit noudattivat entsyymiprofiiliaan muutamaa poikkeusta lukuunottamatta hyvinkinsäännöllisesti. Lajien sisäinen variaatio hemolyysiominaisuuksissa oli merkittävää ja S. inilleri -ryhmän erilajien sekä hemolyysisltään ja seroryhmältään erilaisten kantojen esiintyvyydessä kehon eri osissa havaittiinselkeitä eroja. Avainsanat: entsyymiprofilointi, fluorogeeniset ja kromogeeniset substraatit, seroryhmä, hemolyysi, esiintyvyys

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Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

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Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

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Background & objectives: Group A Streptococcus, causative agent of several clinical manifestations codes for multiple protein invasins which help the bacterium to enter non-phagocytic cells. C5a peptidase (SCPA) is a surface protein conserved among different serotypes of M1 strain. The present study was taken up to study SCPA promoted fibronectin independent entry of GAS into epithelial cells. Methods: An isogenic 90226 emm1DeltaAB (M1(-)) mutant was constructed, with thermosensitive pGhost vector. This isogenic M1(-) mutant expressed SCPA on the surface as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Results: On preincubation with anti-SCPA serum, the isogenic M1(-) strain exhibited 54 per cent decreased invasion as compared to the bacteria incubated with control serum. Also, purified recombinant SCPA proteins blocked internalization of M1(-) streptococci into HEp-2 cells. The M1(-) strain invaded at the same efficiency in the presence or absence of fibronectin. Interpretation & conclusion: These results suggested that SCPA acted as a potential invasin of group A streptococcus and promoted invasion independent of fibronectin.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a normal inhabitant of the human nasopharynx. Symptoms occur in only a small proportion of those who become carriers, but the ubiquity of the organism in the human population results in a large burden of disease. S. pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis worldwide, causing the death of a million children each year. Middle-ear infection is the most common clinical manifestation of mucosal pneumococcal infections. In invasive disease, S. pneumoniae gains access to the bloodstream and spreads to normally sterile parts of the body. The progression from asymptomatic colonization to disease depends on factors characteristic of specific pneumococcal strains as well as the status of host defenses. The polysaccharide capsule surrounding the bacterium is considered to be the most important factor affecting the virulence of pneumococci. It protects pneumococci from phagocytosis and also may determine its affinity to the respiratory epithelium. S. pneumoniae as a species comprises more than 90 different capsular serotypes, but not all of them are equally prevalent in human diseases. Invasive serotypes are rarely isolated from healthy carriers, but relatively often cause invasive disease. Serotypes that are carried asymptomatically for a long time behave like opportunistic pathogens, causing disease in patients who have impaired immune defenses. The complement system is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins that act as a major primary defense against invading microbes. Phagocytic cells with receptors for complement proteins can engulf and destroy pneumococcal cells opsonized with these proteins. S. pneumoniae has evolved a number of ways to subvert mechanisms of innate immunity, and this is likely to contribute to its pathogenicity. The capsular serotype, proteins essential for virulence, as well the genotype, may all influence the ability of pneumococcus to resist complement and its potential to cause disease. Immunization with conjugate vaccines produces opsonic antibodies, which enhance complement deposition and clearance of the bacteria. The pneumococcal vaccine included in the Finnish national immunization program in 2010 contains the most common serotypes causing invasive disease. Clinical data suggest that protection from middle-ear infection and possibly also from invasive disease depends largely on the capsular serotype, for reasons hitherto unknown. The general aim of this thesis is to assess the relative roles of the pneumococcal capsule and virulence proteins in complement evasion and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. The main question is whether differences between serotypes to resist complement explain the different abilities of serotypes to cause disease. The importance of particular virulence factors to the complement resistance of a strain may vary depending on its genotype. Prior studies have evaluated the effect of the capsule and virulence proteins on complement resistance of S. pneumoniae by comparing only a few strains. In this thesis, the role of pneumococcal virulence factors in the complement resistance of the bacterium was studied in several genotypically different strains. The ability of pneumococci to inhibit deposition of the complement protein C3 on the bacterial surface was found to depend on the capsular serotype as well as on other features of the bacteria. The results suggest that pneumococcal histidine triad (Pht) proteins may play a role in complement inhibition, but their contribution depends on the bacterial genotype. The capsular serotype was found to influence complement resistance more than the bacterial genotype. A higher concentration of anticapsular antibodies was required for the opsonophagocytic killing of serotypes resistant to C3 deposition. The invasive serotypes were more resistant to C3 deposition than the opportunistic serotypes, suggesting that the former are better adapted to resist immune mechanisms controlling the development of invasive disease. The different susceptibilities of serotypes to complement deposition, opsonophagocytosis, and resultant antibody-mediated protection should be taken into account when guidelines for serological correlates for vaccine efficacy evaluations are made. The results of this thesis suggest that antibodies in higher quantity or quality are needed for efficient protection against the invasive serotypes.

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Streptococcus agalactiae –juverinflammation var tidigare ett stort problem i många länder, inklusive Finland. I och med förbättrad mjölkningshygien och antibiotikabehandlingar har bakterien så gott som eradikerats från mjölkbesättningarna. Nu verkar bakterien i viss mån ha kommit tillbaka till våra stora mjölkgårdar. Avhandlingens experimentella del utfördes på en mjölkgård, med ca 180 mjölkande och tre mjölkningsrobotar, som haft problem med Str. agalactiae. Man hoppades utreda hur stort problemet på gården var samt möjliga smittovägar. Man undersökte också möjligheten att använda mjölkningsrobotens automatiska provtagningsutrustning för provtagning av bakteriella prov. PCRmetoden jämfördes med konventionell odling vid diagnostik av juverinflammationer orsakade av Str. agalactiae. På gården gick man igenom anteckningar samt hälso- och seminkort för att få en bild över situationen. Man gjorde en uppföljning av mjölkningen för tolv kor vid den ena mjölkningsroboten. Man tog 47 stycken kospecifika mjölkprov samt ett prov från mjölktanken. Mjölkprov i tre serier både mjölkade för hand och direkt från mjölkuppsamlaren på mjölkningsroboten togs. Man tog sammanlagt 23 renlighetsprov från mjölkningsroboten, tre från den automatiska provtagningsutrustningen samt två från djurskötarnas händer. Från den automatiska provtagningsutrustningen togs även ett genomsköljningsprov. Av mjölkprov som tidigare tagits på gården hade man hittat Str. agalactiae i ca 17%. I denna studie hittades Str. agalactiae i tre kospecifika mjölkprov, vilket motsvarar en prevalens på ca 2%. Vid uppföljningen av mjölkningarna upptäcktes inget alarmerande, men spenarnas hälsa samt tommjölkningar är något som bör följas upp. Av renlighetsproven hittades Str. agalactiae i ett prov taget från borsthållaren. Svaren från mjölkproven tagna i serier tyder på att den automatiska provtagningsutrustningen inte går att använda till bakteriella prov, eftersom mjölken från en Str. agalactiae –infekterad ko verkar påverka resultatet också hos följande kor. Resultatet är väntat, eftersom mjölkprov alltid skall tas aseptiskt och det går inte med den automatiska provtagningsutrustningen så som den i dagsläget är utvecklad. Från sju av nio mjölkprov, där man hittat Str. agalactiae med PCR-metoden, hittades bakterien också med konventionell odling. Från tankmjölksprovet kunde man inte hitta Str. agalactiae med konventionell odling. PCR-metoden verkar enligt den här studien vara mer känslig att upptäcka Str. agalactiae jämfört med konventionell odling.

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major health problems worldwide, both found in symptomless carriage but also causing even life-threatening infections. The aim of this thesis was to characterise MRSA and S. pneumoniae in detail by using several molecular typing methods for various epidemiological purposes: clonality analysis, epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigation, and virulence factor analysis. The characteristics of MRSA isolates from the strain collection of the Finnish National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) and pneumococcal isolates collected from military recruits and children with acute otitis media (AOM) were analysed using various typing techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and the detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were performed for MRSA isolates. Pneumococcal isolates were analysed using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping, MLST, and by detecting pilus islet 1 (PI-1) and 2 (PI-2) genes. Several international community- and hospital-associated MRSA clones were recognised in Finland. The genetic diversity among MRSA FIN-4 isolates and among FIN-16 isolates was low. Overall, MRSA blood isolates from 1997 to 2006 were genetically diverse. spa typing was found to be a highly discriminatory, rapid and accurate typing method and it also qualifies as the primary typing method in countries with a long history of PFGE-based MRSA strain nomenclature. However, additional typing by another method, e.g. PFGE, is needed in certain situations to be able to provide adequate discrimination for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigation. An outbreak of pneumonia was associated with one pneumococcal strain among military recruits, previously healthy young men living in a crowded setting. The pneumococcal carriage rate after the outbreak was found to be exceptionally high. PI-1 genes were detected at a rather low prevalence among pneumococcal isolates from children with AOM. However, the study demonstrated that PI-1 has existed among pneumococcal isolates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the increased antimicrobial resistance era. Moreover, PI-1 was found to associate with the serotype rather than the genotype. This study adds to our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of MRSA strains in Finland and the importance of an appropriate genotyping method to be able to perform high-level laboratory-based surveillance of MRSA. Epidemiological and molecular analyses of S. pneumoniae add to our knowledge of the characteristics of pneumococcal strains in Finland.

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Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs) predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m) events (11:1) and per site r/m ratio (41:1) in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

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Sortases are cell-membrane-anchored cysteine transpeptidases that are essential for the assembly and anchoring of cell-surface adhesins in Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, they play critical roles in virulence, infection and colonization by pathogens. Sortases have been classified into four types based on their primary sequence and the target-protein motifs that they recognize. All Gram-positive bacteria express a class A housekeeping sortase (SrtA). Sortase A from Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP_358691) has been crystallized in two crystal forms. Diamond-shaped crystals of Delta N(59)SrtA diffracted to 4.0 angstrom resolution and belonged to a tetragonal system with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.8, c = 86.5 angstrom, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees, while rod-shaped crystals of Delta N(81)SrtA diffracted to 2.91 angstrom resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 66.8, b = 103.47, c = 74.79 angstrom, alpha = gamma = 90, beta = 115.65 degrees. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.77 angstrom(3) Da(-1)) with similar to 56% solvent content suggested the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit for Delta N(81)SrtA. Also, a multi-copy search using a monomer as a probe in the molecular-replacement method resulted in the successful location of four sortase molecules in the asymmetric unit, with statistics R = 41.61, R(free) = 46.44, correlation coefficient (CC) = 64.31, CC(free) = 57.67.