1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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PURPOSE: The role of bacteria in meibomian gland dysfunction is unclear, yet contamination of compresses used as treatment may exacerbate this condition. This study therefore determined the effect of heating on bacteria on two forms of compress. METHODS: Cotton flannels and MGDRx EyeBags (eyebags) were inoculated by adding experimental inoculum (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; one species for each set of 3 eyebags and flannels). One of each were then randomised in to 3 groups: no heating (control); therapeutic (47.4±0.7°C); or sanitisation (68±1.1°C). After treatment, bacteria cell numbers were calculated. The experiment was repeated in triplicate. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between each treatment with the eyebag for S. aureus (control=7.15±0.11logC/ml, therapeutic heating=5.24±0.59logC/ml, sanitisation heating=3.48±1.43logC/ml; P<0.001) and S. pyogenes (7.36±0.13, 5.73±0.26, 4.75±0.54; P<0.001). P. aeruginosa also showed a significant reduction (P<0.001) from control (6.39±0.34) to therapeutic (0.33±0.26) and sanitisation (0.33±0.21), but the latter were similar (P=1.000). For the flannels, there was significant difference between each treatment for S. aureus (6.89±0.46, 3.96±1.76, 0.42±0.90; P<0.001). For S. pyogenes, there was a significant reduction (P<0.001) from control (7.51±0.10) to therapeutic (5.91±0.62) and sanitisation (5.18±0.8), but the latter were similar (P=0.07). For P. aeruginosa, there was a significant difference (P<0.001) from control (7.15±0.36) to sanitisation (5.83±0.44); but not to therapeutic (6.84±0.31) temperatures (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic heating produces a significant reduction in bacteria on the eyebags, but only sanitisation heating appears effective for flannels. However, patients should be advised to heat the eyebag to sanitisation temperatures on initial use.

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All pathogens require high energetic influxes to counterattack the host immune system and without this energy bacterial infections are easily cleared. This study is an investigation into one highly bioenergetic pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involving the amino acid L-serine and the enzyme L-serine deaminase (L-SD). P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in patients with compromised immune systems as well as patients with cystic fibrosis. Recent evidence has linked L-SD directly to the pathogenicity of several organisms including but not limited to Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium bovis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Yersinia pestis. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa L-SD is likely to be critical for its virulence. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of two L-SD homo logs encoded by sdaA and sdaB. We analyzed the ability of P. aeruginosa to utilize serine and the role of SdaA and SdaB in serine deamination by comparing mutant strains of sdaA (PAOsdaA) and sdaB (PAOsdaB) with their isogenic parent P. aeruginosa P AO 1. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa is unable to use serine as a sole carbon source. However, serine utilization is enhanced in the presence of glycine and this glycine-dependent induction of L-SD activity requires the inducer serine. The amino acid leucine was shown to inhibit L-SD activity from both SdaA and SdaB and the net contribution to L-serine deamination by SdaA and SdaB was ascertained at 34% and 66 %, respectively. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa LSD is quite different from the characterized E. coli L-SD that is glycine-independent but leucine-dependent for activation. Growth mutants able to use serine as a sole carbon source were also isolated and in addition, suicide vectors were constructed which allow for selective mutation of the sdaA and sdaB genes on any P. aeruginosa strain of interest. Future studies with a double mutant will reveal the importance of these genes for pathogenicity.

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Las recombinasas específicas de secuencia son herramientas muy valiosas en la generación de modificaciones génicas condicionales. Estos sistemas permiten controlar la recombinación de forma específica de tejido, temporalmente, o ambas, y sortean diversas limitaciones de los sistemas de knockout (KO) convencionales, como la letalidad embrionaria o la generación de mecanismos compensatorios. Actualmente los sistemas Cre/loxP y Flp/FRT son los más empleados tanto en modelos animales como vegetales. La necesidad de realizar modificaciones más complejas en un mismo organismo hace que sea primordial caracterizar otras recombinasas que complementen a las existentes. La b recombinasa (b-rec) es originaria del plásmido pSM19035 de Streptococcus pyogenes. A diferencia de Cre y Flp, que en ausencia de factores adicionales catalizan la integración en un nuevo sustrato, la b-rec necesita un sustrato superenrollado y un cofactor de la reacción, una proteína asociada a la cromatina (como la procariota Hbsu o la eucariota HMG1). Se ha demostrado que la b-rec cataliza de forma específicamente intramolecular (resolución o inversión) la recombinación en células eucariotas, tanto de sustratos episomales como integrados en la cromatina, lo que indica que el entorno eucariota es capaz de proveer del cofactor y del superenrollamiento necesarios para que la b-rec realice su función. En este trabajo hemos determinado que la tasa de recombinación mediada por la b-rec no se ve afectada en absoluto por la deficiencia en el cofactor HMG1, alcanzando el mismo valor de recombinación en MEF KO en HMG1 que en wt. Este y otros datos confirman que en el entorno eucariota hay otras proteínas accesorias que pueden actuar de cofactores y sugiere que estas reacciones pueden ocurrir en la mayor parte de tejidos y tipos celulares. Para estudiar detalladamente el potencial de la b-rec en eucariotas desarrollamos un sistema de RAGE (activación génica mediada por recombinación) dependiente de la actividad b-rec; este sistema ha resultado funcional tanto en sustratos episomales como en sustratos integrados en la cromatina. También hemos generado un vector retroviral que porta la proteína de fusión b-Egfp, permitiendo de forma rápida y eficiente la integración y expresión funcional de nuestra proteína...

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Objetivo: Validar los criterios de CENTOR modificados (CENTOR-m) y los tests rápidos de detección del antígeno de Estreptococo del Grupo A (SGA) en la faringitis aguda. Diseño: Estudio de validación de pruebas diagnósticas. Emplazamiento y participantes: Ciento un pacientes elegibles, que consultaron al departamento de urgencias de un hospital de tercer nivel con cuadro clínico compatible con faringitis aguda. Mediciones Principales: Se obtuvieron muestras de hisopados faríngeos para la realización del test rápido antigénico para SGA (FAMR) y para cultivo, respectivamente. Se calculó en cada caso los criterios de CENTOR-m. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes incluidos en el estudio fue de 22,6 años (DE:13,8). El 48,5 % eran varones. El SGA fue el patógeno aislado en el 20,79 % de los casos. El CENTOR-m presentó una sensibilidad del 83,3 % (50,9 %-97,1 %), especificidad del 45,5 % (30,7 %-61,0 %) valor predictivo positivo (VPP) del 29,4 % (15,7 %-47,7 %) y valor predictivo negativo (VPN) del 90,9 % (69,4 %-98,4 %). El FAMR presento una sensibilidad del 81,5 % (61,3 %-93,0 %) especificidad del 98,6 % (91,4 %-99,9 %), VPP del 95,7 % (76,0 %-99,8 %) y VPN del 93,3 % (84,5 %-97,5 %). El 49,5 % de los pacientes recibieron antibióticos basándose en el juicio médico, lo que resultó en una proporción de sobreindicación de antimicrobianos del 62 %. Conclusiones: Los criterios de CENTOR-m demostraron adecuado valor pronóstico negativo y el FAMR buena sensibilidad, especificidad y valor pronóstico positivo para faringitis por SGA. La utilización de ambos métodos en la atención urgente podría optimizar el manejo de la patología y la adecuación antibiótica.

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PURPOSE: The role of bacteria in meibomian gland dysfunction is unclear, yet contamination of compresses used as treatment may exacerbate this condition. This study therefore determined the effect of heating on bacteria on two forms of compress. METHODS: Cotton flannels and MGDRx EyeBags (eyebags) were inoculated by adding experimental inoculum (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; one species for each set of 3 eyebags and flannels). One of each were then randomised in to 3 groups: no heating (control); therapeutic (47.4±0.7°C); or sanitisation (68±1.1°C). After treatment, bacteria cell numbers were calculated. The experiment was repeated in triplicate. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between each treatment with the eyebag for S. aureus (control=7.15±0.11logC/ml, therapeutic heating=5.24±0.59logC/ml, sanitisation heating=3.48±1.43logC/ml; P<0.001) and S. pyogenes (7.36±0.13, 5.73±0.26, 4.75±0.54; P<0.001). P. aeruginosa also showed a significant reduction (P<0.001) from control (6.39±0.34) to therapeutic (0.33±0.26) and sanitisation (0.33±0.21), but the latter were similar (P=1.000). For the flannels, there was significant difference between each treatment for S. aureus (6.89±0.46, 3.96±1.76, 0.42±0.90; P<0.001). For S. pyogenes, there was a significant reduction (P<0.001) from control (7.51±0.10) to therapeutic (5.91±0.62) and sanitisation (5.18±0.8), but the latter were similar (P=0.07). For P. aeruginosa, there was a significant difference (P<0.001) from control (7.15±0.36) to sanitisation (5.83±0.44); but not to therapeutic (6.84±0.31) temperatures (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic heating produces a significant reduction in bacteria on the eyebags, but only sanitisation heating appears effective for flannels. However, patients should be advised to heat the eyebag to sanitisation temperatures on initial use.

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La presente investigación está orientada a determinar el posible efecto antibacteriano y antimicótico in vitro de Pelargonium zonale en patología bucofaríngea, frente a bacterias grampositivas Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) y levadura Candida albicans (C. albicans) causantes de este tipo de patología prevalentes en la población. Se realizó el análisis fitoquímico y actividad bacteriana con el extracto alcohólico de las hojas de Pelargonium zonale. El estudio químico cualitativo de dicho extracto sugirió la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, taninos, flavonoides y terpenos, mientras que quinonas y leucoantocianidinas dieron negativo. Para el ensayo de toxicidad y establecer la Dosis letal media (DL50), se utilizó el método de Artemia Salina, los datos obtenidos se evaluaron con la prueba de Chi cuadrado (×2) y se concluye que se trata de una planta tóxica, por lo cual su uso se recomienda para vía externa. Las cepas utilizadas se obtuvieron del Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas de la Universidad de Cuenca, a las cuales se les realizó las pruebas diagnósticas de laboratorio. Para determinar su posible efecto antibacteriano y antimicótico, se empleó el Método de difusión de discos Método de Kirby - Bauer y se comparó con controles de antibióticos y antifúngicos de elección médica en dicha patología. Las concentraciones del extracto seco utilizadas en los diferentes ensayos fueron dosis tóxicas, a pesar de ello no se muestra un efecto antibacteriano y antimicótico similar a los controles empleados.

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Objetivo Determinar las manifestaciones clínicas de Faringoamigdalitis Aguda Estreptocócica, confirmado con test de detección rápida de antígeno, en pacientes entre 5 - 19 años que acudieron al Centro de Salud 1 durante mayo – julio 2013. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo. Se estudió el universo (pacientes que resultaron positivos a la prueba de detección rápida de antígeno). Los datos se obtuvieron de forma directa y se analizaron en el sistema SPSS versión 15.00. Resultados El 61.2% fueron mujeres. La edad media fue de 10.8 años, el 43.3% tenían una edad entre 5 a 9 años. El 77.6% procedieron del área urbana. El 83.6% tenían nivel de instrucción entre 5 y 15 años. El exudado amigdalar, la alza térmica, la odinodisfagia y el malestar general presentaron en más del 90%. Los ganglios cervicales anteriores, la cefalea y el escalofrío entre el 50 y 80%. La Halitosis, la tos, la rinorrea, las petequias en el paladar, el exudado faríngeo y la disfonía entre el 30 y 50%, y con menos del 20% el dolor abdominal, la conjuntivitis, el vómito, la erupción escarlatiniforme y diarrea. Conclusiones Las manifestaciones más representativas de faringoamigdalitis fueron Odinodisfagia, exudado amigdalar y ganglios cervicales anteriores. PALABRAS CLAVES: ENFERMEDADES OTORRINOLARINGOLÓGICAS, INFECCIONES ESTREPTOCÓCICAS, ESTREPTOCOCO PYOGENES, FARINGOAMIGDALITIS AGUDA, MANIFESTACIONES CLÍNICAS, TEST DE DETECCIÓN RÁPIDA DE ANTÍGENOS.

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Objetivo: Determinar las manifestaciones clínicas compatibles con Faringoamigdalitis Aguda Estreptocócica, confirmado con el cultivo en pacientes de 5 –19 años que acudieron a consulta del Centro de Salud Nº 1, Cuenca, julio – septiembre del 2013. Métodos y Materiales: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo (serie de casos), en una población de 280 pacientes con manifestaciones clínicas de faringoamidgalitis, de estos fueron estudiados 93, que resultaron positivos al cultivo para estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A. Los datos se obtuvieron de manera directa y se analizaron en el Microsoft Excel y software SPSS 15. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 11.3 años; el 61.2%, de sexo femenino; en el área urbana residían el 95.6% y el 68.8% tenían instrucción básica. La sintomatología más frecuentemente encontrada fue: exudado amigdalar se presentó en el 93.5%, la odinodisfagia en el 91.3%, alza térmica en el 90.3%, malestar general en el 84.9%, hipertrofia de ganglios cervicales anteriores en el 89.2%, petequias donuts en el 62.3% y escalofrío en el 58.0%. Conclusiones: Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron el exudado amigdalar, odinodisfagia, alza térmica e hipertrofia de ganglios cervicales anteriores. PALABRAS CLAVES: FARINGOAMIGDALITIS AGUDA, MANIFESTACIONES CLÍNICAS, CULTIVO FARÍNGEO, ESTREPTOCOCO PYOGENES.

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Several studies have been conducted in the last decades aiming to obtain an anti-canies vaccine, however some studies have demonstrated cross reactivity between Streptococcus mutans surface antigens and the human cardiac tissue. In this work, the reactivity of five anti-Streptococcus mutans monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) (24A, 56G, G8, E8 and F6) was tested against oral streptococci, cardiac antigens and skeletal and cardiac myosins, aiming to evaluate the specificity of these MoAb. The hybrid producers of immunoglobulins of the IgG 2b class were cloned by limit dilution and expanded in vivo. MoAb were tested by ELISA. The hybrid 24A reacted with S. mutans CCT 1910, S. salivarius CCT 0365 and S. pyogenes T23. No reactivity difference was observed among the tested species. Cross reactivity with heart and cardiac myosin was not confirmed and only reaction with myosin of skeletal muscle was observed (p = 0.0381). The hybrid 56G reacted with all the tested microorganisms and there was statistically significant difference between S. mutans and S. pyogenes T23 (p < 0.001). This hybrid also reacted with myosin of skeletal muscle (p = 0.0095). C8, E8 and F6 presented low reactivity against oral streptococci strains and no reactivity against cardiac antigens. The data of this study showed that the 24A and 56G anti-S. mutans MoAb presented reactivity with S. pyogenes and S. salivarius, reinforcing the occurrence of common antigens between these species. The tested MoAb presented low cross-reactivity with myosin of skeletal muscle, but anti-heart activity could not be confirmed.

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An inverse association exists between some bacterial infections and the prevalence of asthma. We investigated whether Streptococcus pneumoniae infection protects against asthma using mouse models of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease (AAD). Mice were intratracheally infected or treated with killed S. pneumoniae before, during or after OVA sensitisation and subsequent challenge. The effects of S. pneumoniae on AAD were assessed. Infection or treatment with killed S. pneumoniae suppressed hallmark features of AAD, including antigen-specific T-helper cell (Th) type 2 cytokine and antibody responses, peripheral and pulmonary eosinophil accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The effect of infection on the development of specific features of AAD depended on the timing of infection relative to allergic sensitisation and challenge. Infection induced significant increases in regulatory T-cell (Treg) numbers in lymph nodes, which correlated with the degree of suppression of AAD. Tregs reduced T-cell proliferation and Th2 cytokine release. The suppressive effects of infection were reversed by anti-CD25 treatment. Respiratory infection or treatment with S. pneumoniae attenuates allergic immune responses and suppresses AAD. These effects may be mediated by S. pneumoniae-induced Tregs. This identifies the potential for the development of therapeutic agents for asthma from S. pneumoniae.

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Alterations in innate immunity that predispose to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are poorly understood. We examined innate immunity gene expression in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes stimulated by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thirty COPD patients (15 rapid and 15 non-rapid lung function decliners) and 15 smokers without COPD were studied. Protein expression of IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ (especially monocytes) increased with bacterial challenge. In monocytes stimulated with S. pneumoniae, TNF-α protein expression was higher in COPD (non-rapid decliners) than in smokers. In co-cultures of monocytes and PMN, mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and MYD88 was up-regulated, and CD14, TLR2 and IFN-γ down-regulated with H. influenzae challenge. TNF-α mRNA expression was increased with H. influenzae challenge in COPD. Cytokine responses were similar between rapid and non-rapid decliners. TNF-α expression was up-regulated in non-rapid decliners in response to H. influenzae (monocytes) and S. pneumoniae (co-culture of monocytes and PMN). Exposure to bacterial pathogens causes characteristic innate immune responses in peripheral blood monocytes and PMN in COPD. Bacterial exposure significantly alters the expression of TNF-α in COPD patients, although not consistently. There did not appear to be major differences in innate immune responses between rapid and non-rapid decliners.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a potentially deadly human pathogen associated with high morbidity, mortality and global economic burden. The universally used bacterial genotyping methods are multilocus sequence typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. However, another highly discriminatory, rapid and less expensive genotyping technique,multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), has been developed. Unfortunately, no universal MLVA protocol exists, and some MLVA protocols do not amplify certain loci for all pneumococcal serotypes, leaving genotyping profiles incomplete. A number of other genotyping or characterization methods have been developed and will be discussed. This review examines the various protocols for genotyping S. pneumoniae and highlights the current direction technology and research is heading to understand this bacterium.

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Background Globally, over 800 000 children under five die each year from infectious diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. To understand genetic relatedness between isolates, study transmission routes, assess the impact of human interventions e.g. vaccines, and determine infection sources, genotyping methods are required. The ‘gold standard’ genotyping method, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), is useful for long-term and global studies. Another genotyping method, Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA), has emerged as a more discriminatory, inexpensive and faster technique; however there is no universally accepted method and it is currently suitable for short-term and localised epidemiology studies. Currently Australia has no national MLST database, nor has it adopted any MLVA method for short-term or localised studies. This study aims to improve S. pneumoniae genotyping methods by modifying the existing MLVA techniques to be more discriminatory, faster, cheaper and technically less demanding than previously published MLVA methods and MLST. Methods Four different MLVA protocols, including a modified method, were applied to 317 isolates of serotyped invasive S. pneumoniae isolated from sterile body sites of Queensland children under 15 years from 2007–2012. MLST was applied to 202 isolates for comparison. Results The modified MLVA4 is significantly more discriminatory than the ‘gold standard’ MLST method. MLVA4 has similar discrimination compared to other MLVA techniques in this study). The failure to amplify particular loci in previous MLVA methods were minimised in MLVA4. Failure to amplify BOX-13 and Spneu19 were found to be serotype specific. Conclusion We have modified a highly discriminatory MLVA technique for genotyping Queensland invasive S. pneumoniae. MLVA4 has the ability to enhance our understanding of the pneumococcal epidemiology and the changing genetics of the pneumococcus in localised and short-term studies.

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This research investigated the use of DNA fingerprinting to characterise the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus, and hence gain insight into the development of new vaccines or antibiotics. Different bacterial DNA fingerprinting methods were studied, and a novel method was developed and validated, which characterises different cell coatings that pneumococci produce. This method was used to study the epidemiology of pneumococci in Queensland before and after the introduction of the current pneumococcal vaccine. This study demonstrated that pneumococcal disease is highly prevalent in children under four years, that the bacteria can `switch' its cell coating to evade the vaccine, and that some DNA fingerprinting methods are more discriminatory than others. This has an impact on understanding which strains are more prone to cause invasive disease. Evidence of the excellent research findings have been published in high impact internationally refereed journals.