1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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As faringotonsilites agudas são infecções das vias aéreas superiores comuns na infância. OBJETIVO: Analisar opiniões e condutas de pediatras e otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo em relação ao diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção das faringotonsilites e suas complicações em crianças. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Selecionamos aleatoriamente 1370 pediatras e 1000 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. Aos especialistas foi enviado questionário por correio. DESENHO do ESTUDO: Estudo transversal. RESULTADOS: 95,8% dos pediatras e 91,5% dos otorrinos não solicitam rotineiramente exames para diagnóstico laboratorial das faringotonsilites agudas na criança. Os antimicrobianos mais prescritos pelos pediatras nas faringotonsilites bacterianas foram: penicilina por via oral durante 10 dias (33,6%) e penicilina benzatina em dose única (19,7%). Os antimicrobianos mais prescritos pelos otorrinos para tratamento foram: penicilina por via oral durante 10 dias (35,4%) e penicilina por via oral durante 7 dias (25,7%). A medida de prevenção das faringotonsilites bacterianas considerada muito eficaz por mais da metade dos pediatras e otorrinos foi a cirurgia de tonsilectomia. A faringotonsilite de repetição foi o principal motivo para os otorrinos indicarem cirurgia de tonsilectomia aos escolares e adolescentes (49,3% e 53,4%, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: É necessário uniformizar condutas de pediatras e otorrinos para diagnóstico e tratamento das faringotonsilites em crianças.

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Rotina bacteriológica do conteúdo vaginal e cervical de 22 mulheres com histórico de aborto recente ou ruptura precoce das membranas foi realizada. Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida sp e Gardnerella vaginalis foram isolados em 54,5% (12) das pacientes. Apesar de Ureaplasma urealyticum ter sido frequentemente encontrado (45,5%), somente em 5 das 22 mulheres foi o único microrganismo presente nos materiais analisados. Esses resultados chamam a atenção para a importância de investigação quantitativa bem como qualitativa da microbiota genital em gestantes, tendo em vista ter consequências na gestação.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative methods for the disinfection of toothbrushes considering that most of the previously proposed methods are expensive and cannot be easily implemented. Two-hundred toothbrushes with standardized dimensions and bristles were included in the study. The toothbrushes were divided into 20 experimental groups (n=10), according to microorganism considered and chemical agent used. The toothbrushes were contaminated in vitro by standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. The following disinfectants were tested: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% white vinegar, a triclosan-containing dentifrice solution, and a perborate-based tablet solution. The disinfection method was immersion in the disinfectant for 10min. After the disinfection procedure, the number of remaining microbial cells was evaluated. The values of cfu/toothbrush of each group of microorganism after disinfection were compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons (5%). The chlorhexidine digluconate solution was the most effective disinfectant. The triclosan-based dentifrice solution promoted a significant reduction of all microorganisms' counts in relation to the control group. As to the disinfection with 50% vinegar, a significant reduction was observed for all the microorganisms, except for C. albicans. The sodium perborate solution was the less effective against the tested microorganisms. Solutions based on triclosan-containing dentifrice may be considered effective, nontoxic, cost-effective, and an easily applicable alternative for the disinfection of toothbrushes. The vinegar solution reduced the presence of S. aureus, S. mutans and S. pyogenes on toothbrushes.

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Background: Necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) is characterized by progressive infectious gangrene of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Its treatment involves intensive care, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and full debridement. Methods: We present two cases of NSTI of the breast, adding these cases to the 14 described in the literature, reviewing the characteristics and evolution of all cases. Case Report: On the fourth day after mastectomy, a 59-year-old woman with ulcerated breast cancer developed Type I NSTI caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which had a favorable evolution after debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The second patient was a 57-year-old woman submitted to a mastectomy and axillary dissection, who had recurrent seromas. On the 32nd post-operative day, after a seroma puncture, she developed Type II NSTI caused by β-hemolytic streptococci. She developed sepsis and died on the tenth day after debridement, intensive care, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The cases are the first description of breast NSTI after mammary seroma aspiration and the first report of this condition caused by P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: Necrotizing soft tissue infection is rare in breast tissue. It frequently is of Type II, occurring mainly after procedures in patients with breast cancer. The surgeon's participation in controlling the focus of the infection is of fundamental importance, and just as important are broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and support measures, such as maintenance of volume, correction of electrolytic disorders, and treatment of sepsis and septic shock. Once the infection has been brought under control, skin grafting or soft tissue flaps can be considered. The mortality rate in breast NSTI is 18.7%, all deaths being in patients with the fulminant Type II form. Surgical oncologists need to be alert to the possibility of this rare condition. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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Anachoresis is the phenomenon through which blood-borne bacteria, dyes, pigments and other materials are attracted and fixed to circumscribed areas of inflammation. This study evaluated the occurrence of anachoresis in the periapical region of dogs submitted to root canal fillings. One hundred and four roots from four dogs were endodontically treated and root canals were filled with zinc-oxide-eugenol cement. Fifty percent were filled up to the dentinocemental junction and the others were overfilled. At 120 days after root canal treatment, experimental bacteremia was induced by intravenous inoculation of 105 CFU Streptococcus pyogenes. The dogs were sacrificed 48 hours and 30 days after the bacteremia. Culture and DNA amplification by PCR revealed the presence of the inoculated bacteria just in periapical tissues of dogs sacrificed 48 hours after bacteremia and not in animals sacrificed after 30 days. AP-PCR fingerprints of recovered colonies of S. pyogenes and the presence of genetic markers of resistance to antimicrobials were similar to the inoculated strain. Endodontically treated periapices seemed to be prone to the occurrence of anachoresis and there was no relationship between the phenomenon and the level of root canal filling.

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The aim of this study was to obtain comprehensive data on clinical presentation, microbiology, computed tomography, surgical findings and histology in acute, sub-acute and chronic mastoiditis. We performed a prospective, observational study in children under 16 years of age presenting to our institution during the 2-year period beginning in April 2000. The children were examined and their condition treated in accordance with a standardized protocol elaborated by the paediatric, otolaryngology (ORL) and radiology departments. Thirty-eight patients were hospitalized (22 with acute mastoiditis, seven with sub-acute mastoiditis, nine with chronic mastoiditis). There were 30 complications present in 21 patients (55%). Streptococcus pyogenes was the most common pathogen (7/24 cases), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (4/24 cases). Mastoid surgery was performed in 29 patients. Histology of mastoid tissue revealed predominantly acute inflammation in two cases, mixed acute/chronic inflammation in 19 cases and predominantly chronic inflammation in seven cases. Radiologic data were evaluated retrospectively. Spiral, volume-based high-resolution (HR) computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 38%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 50% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in detecting coalescence of mastoid trabeculae. Cranial CT with contrast had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 94%, PPV of 80% and NPV of 94% in identifying intra-cranial extension. Conclusion: histological evidence suggests that sub-acute/chronic infection underlies not only sub-acute and chronic mastoiditis, but most cases of acute mastoiditis as well. HR-CT of the temporal bone is effective in ruling out coalescence. Cranial CT is valuable in identifying intra-cranial extension. Cranial and HR-CT are recommended in the examination of children with mastoiditis.

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Abstract Background As autotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are ideal chassis organisms for sustainable production of various useful compounds. The newly characterized cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 is a promising candidate for serving as a microbial cell factory because of its unusually rapid growth rate. Here, we seek to develop a genetic toolkit that enables extensive genomic engineering of Synechococcus 2973 by implementing a CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. We targeted the nblA gene because of its important role in biological response to nitrogen deprivation conditions. Results First, we determined that the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme is toxic in cyanobacteria, and conjugational transfer of stable, replicating constructs containing the cas9 gene resulted in lethality. However, after switching to a vector that permitted transient expression of the cas9 gene, we achieved markerless editing in 100 % of cyanobacterial exconjugants after the first patch. Moreover, we could readily cure the organisms of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a markerless deletion strain. Conclusions High expression levels of the Cas9 protein in Synechococcus 2973 appear to be toxic and result in cell death. However, introduction of a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system on a plasmid backbone that leads to transient cas9 expression allowed for efficient markerless genome editing in a wild type genetic background.

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Abstract Background Multidrug resistance is a global health issue. Hence integration of traditional medicine like honey and modern medicine could be a best option in the treatment of patients infected with drug resistant bacteria. Despite the multi floral and huge honey production in the region, there are no studies that evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant bacteria. Objective To evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacterial isolates of wound and ear infections. Methods Red and white honeys were obtained from three districts Eastern Zone of Tigray namely Temben, Atsbi and Samre. The antibacterial potential of these honeys was determined against multidrug resistant isolates of clinical isolates of bacterial species of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus mirabilis , Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumonia , and five controls bacterial using tube dilutions methods. Undiluted and twofold serial dilutions of honeys were tested to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using broth tube dilution methods through visual inspection and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub-culturing tubes showing no visible sign of growth/turbidity in MIC. Results The mean MIC of red honeys for control and test bacteria was 7.7–8.9 and 12.6–17.9 % (v/v) respectively. Whilst the MIC of white honey was 12.2–12.5 % (v/v) for control and 16.1–27.7 % (v/v) for test bacteria. Mean MBC of red honeys for control and test isolates was from 25–40 to 30.4–62.5 % (v/v) respectively, and 40–55 and 60.7–75 % (v/v) for white honeys. Honey collected from Samre area has shown better antibacterial activity than other sites. Similarly red honeys from all areas were found to have better antibacterial activity against the multidrug bacteria than the white honey. Over all the MIC and MBC of all isolates was between 6.25–50 and 12.5–100 % (v/v) respectively. Conclusion Red honey from all sites showed better antibacterial activity than the white honey. Likewise, honey from Samre area showed better antibacterial activity than Temben and Atsbi districts. All collected honeys showed varied bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, and none of the isolates was resistant to tested honeys.

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Studies on circulating T cells and antibodies in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and rodent models of autoimmune diabetes suggest that beta-cell membrane proteins of 38 kDa may be important molecular targets of autoimmune attack. Biochemical approaches to the isolation and identification of the 38-kDa autoantigen have been hampered by the restricted availability of islet tissue and the low abundance of the protein. A procedure of epitope analysis for CD4+ T cells using subtracted expression libraries (TEASEL) was developed and used to clone a 70-amino acid pancreatic beta-cell peptide incorporating an epitope recognized by a 38-kDa-reactive CD4+ T-cell clone (1C6) isolated from a human diabetic patient. The minimal epitope was mapped to a 10-amino acid synthetic peptide containing a DR1 consensus binding motif. Data base searches did not reveal the identity of the protein, though a weak homology to the bacterial superantigens SEA (Streptococcus pyogenes exotoxin A) and SEB (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B) (23% identity) was evident. The TEASEL procedure might be used to identify epitopes of other autoantigens recognized by CD4+ T cells in diabetes as well as be more generally applicable to the study low-abundance autoantigens in other tissue-specific autoimmune diseases.

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Introdução: Em situações clínicas selecionadas é aconselhada investigação complementar da criança com febre, nomeadamente realização de hemocultura. Objetivos: Analisar as hemoculturas positivas por bactérias patogénicas num serviço de pediatria, nomeadamente agentes mais frequentes, sua evolução, respetivos antibiogramas e correlação com dados clínicos. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de dados micro- biológicos das bactérias patogénicas isoladas em hemoculturas e dados clínicos de crianças com idade entre um mês e 17 anos, admitidas num serviço de pediatria, entre 2003 e 2012. Resultados: No período estudado, a percentagem anual de hemoculturas positivas por bactérias potencialmente patogénicas variou entre 0,8% e 2,9%. No total isolaram-se 158 bactérias patogénicas, sendo mais frequentes: Staphylococcus aureus (29,1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (27,8%), Escherichia coli (10,1%), Enterococcus faecalis (8,2%), Neisseria meningitidis (5,7%) e Streptococcus pyogenes (5,7%). Nenhuma Neisseria meningitidis foi resistente à resistente à ampicilina, 9% dos Streptococcus pneumoniae tiveram resistência intermédia à penicilina, 8,7% dos Staphylococcus aureus tiveram resistência à meticilina e 6,3% das Escherichia coli tinham resistência à amoxicilina/ácido clavulânico. Sessenta e sete porcento das hemoculturas positivas por bactérias patogénicas correspondiam a crianças com idade inferior a 36 meses. Os diagnósticos mais relevantes foram: bacteriémia oculta, pneumonia, sépsis, meningite e pielonefrite. Ocorreu um óbito devido a choque sético (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Conclusão: Nos 10 anos analisados, as bactérias mais frequentes foram: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae e Escherichia coli. Verificou-se diminuição da incidência da Neisseria meningitidis após 2005 e do Streptococcus pneumoniae após 2007. As suscetibilidades das diferentes bactérias patogénicas aos antimicrobianos mantiveram-se estáveis. Enfatiza-se a importância epidemiológica e clínica da monitorização de dados microbiológicos.

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La tagatose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase de Streptococcus pyogenes est une aldolase qui fait preuve d'un remarquable manque de spécificité vis à vis de ses substrats. En effet, elle catalyse le clivage réversible du tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), mais également du fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), du sorbose-1,6-bisphosphate et du psicose-1,6-bisphosphate, quatre stéréoisomères, en dihydroxyacétone phosphate (DHAP) et en glycéraldéhyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Aldolase de classe I, qui donc catalyse sa réaction en formant un intermédiaire covalent obligatoire, ou base de Schiff, avec son susbtrat, la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes partage 14 % d’identité avec l’enzyme modèle de cette famille, la FBP aldolase de muscle de mammifère. Bien que le mécanime catalytique de la FBP aldolase des mammifères ait été examiné en détails et qu’il soit approprié d’en tirer des renseignements quant à celui de la TBP aldolase, le manque singulier de stéréospécificité de cette dernière tant dans le sens du clivage que celui de la condensation n’est toujours pas éclairci. Afin de mettre à jour les caractéristiques du mécanisme enzymatique, une étude structurale de la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes, un pathogène humain extrêmement versatile, a été entreprise. Elle a permis la résolution des structures de l’enzyme native et mutée, en complexe avec des subtrats et des inhibiteurs compétitifs, à des résolutions comprises entre 1.8 Å et 2.5 Å. Le trempage des cristaux de TBP aldolase native et mutante dans une solution saturante de FBP ou TBP a en outre permis de piéger un authentique intermédiaire covalent lié à la Lys205, la lysine catalytique. La determination des profils pH de la TBP aldolase native et mutée, entreprise afin d'évaluer l’influence du pH sur la réaction de clivage du FBP et TBP et ìdentifier le(s) résidu(s) impliqué(s), en conjonction avec les données structurales apportées par la cristallographie, ont permis d’identifier sans équivoque Glu163 comme résidu responsable du clivage. En effet, le mode de liaison sensiblement différent des ligands utilisés selon la stéréochimie en leur C3 et C4 permet à Glu163, équivalent à Glu187 dans la FBP aldolase de classe I, d’abstraire le proton sur l’hydroxyle du C4 et ainsi d’amorcer le clivage du lien C3-C4. L’étude du mécanimse inverse, celui de la condensation, grâce par exemple à la structure de l’enzyme native en complexe avec ses substrats à trois carbones le DHAP et le G3P, a en outre permis d’identifier un isomérisme du substrat G3P comme possible cause de la synthèse des isomères en C4 par cette enzyme. Ce résultat, ainsi que la decouverte d’un possible isomérisme cis-trans autour du lien C2-C3 de la base de Schiff formée avec le DHAP, identifié précedemment, permet de cerner presque complètement les particularités du mécanisme de cette enzyme et d’expliquer comment elle est capable de synthétiser les quatres stéréoisomères 3(S/R), 4(S/R). De plus, la résolution de ces structures a permis de mettre en évidence trois régions très mobiles de la protéine, ce qui pourrait être relié au rôle postulé de son isozyme chez S. pyogenes dans la régulation de l’expression génétique et de la virulence de la bactérie. Enfin, la résolution de la structure du mutant Lys229→Met de la FBP aldolase de muscle en complexe avec la forme cyclique du FBP, de même que des études cristallographiques sur le mutant équivalent Lys205→Met de la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes et des expériences de calorimétrie ont permis d’identifier deux résidus particuliers, Ala31 et Asp33 chez la FBP aldolase, comme possible cause de la discrimination de cette enzyme contre les substrats 3(R) et 4(S), et ce par encombrement stérique des substrats cycliques. La cristallographie par rayons X et la cinétique enzymatique ont ainsi permis d'avancer dans l'élucidation du mécanisme et des propriétés structurales de cette enzyme aux caractéristiques particulières.

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In previous studies it has been established that resistance to superoxide by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is dependent on the accumulation of Mn(II) ions involving the ABC transporter, MntABC. A mutant strain lacking the periplasmic binding protein component (MntC) of this transport system is hypersensitive to killing by superoxide anion. In this study the mntC mutant was found to be more sensitive to H2O2 killing than the wild-type. Analysis of regulation of MntC expression revealed that it was de-repressed under low Mn(II) conditions. The N. gonorrhoeae mntABC locus lacks the mntR repressor typically found associated with this locus in other organisms. A search for a candidate regulator of mntABC expression revealed a homologue of PerR, a Mn-dependent peroxide-responsive regulator found in Gram-positive organisms. A perR mutant expressed more MntC protein than wild-type, and expression was independent of Mn(II), consistent with a role for PerR as a repressor of mntABC expression. The PerR regulon of N. gonorrhoeae was defined by microarray analysis and includes ribosomal proteins, TonB-dependent receptors and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Both the mntC and perR mutants had reduced intracellular survival in a human cervical epithelial cell model.

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Traditional vaccines consisting of whole attenuated microorganisms, killed microorganisms, or microbial components, administered with an adjuvant (e.g. alum), have been proved to be extremely successful. However, to develop new vaccines, or to improve upon current vaccines, new vaccine development techniques are required. Peptide vaccines offer the capacity to administer only the minimal microbial components necessary to elicit appropriate immune responses, minimizing the risk of vaccination associated adverse effects, and focusing the immune response toward important antigens. Peptide vaccines, however, are generally poorly immunogenic, necessitating administration with powerful, and potentially toxic adjuvants. The attachment of lipids to peptide antigens has been demonstrated as a potentially safe method for adjuvanting peptide epitopes. The lipid core peptide (LCP) system, which incorporates a lipidic adjuvant, carrier, and peptide epitopes into a single molecular entity, has been demonstrated to boost immunogenicity of attached peptide epitopes without the need for additional adjuvants. The synthesis of LCP systems normally yields a product that cannot be purified to homogeneity. The current study describes the development of methods for the synthesis of highly pure LCP analogs using native chemical ligation. Because of the highly lipophilic nature of the LCP lipid adjuvant, difficulties (e.g. poor solubility) were experienced with the ligation reactions. The addition of organic solvents to the ligation buffer solubilized lipidic species, but did not result in successful ligation reactions. In comparison, the addition of approximately 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proved successful, enabling the synthesis of two highly pure, tri-epitopic Streptococcus pyogenes LCP analogs. Subcutaneous immunization of B10.BR (H-2(k)) mice with one of these vaccines, without the addition of any adjuvant, elicited high levels of systemic IgG antibodies against each of the incorporated peptides. Copyright (c) 2006 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.