1000 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES


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Medicinal plants are used more and more in our country for its therapeutic properties, most of these not been evaluated scientifically, has been its use ethnobotanical which has defined the therapeutic potential of each species. Croton elegans Kunth (mosquera) is one of the species, on which there are no evaluations biological activity or chemical identification, representing an opportunity to research on this species, this work identifies qualitatively the phytochemicals present in the plant groups and evaluated the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615. Polar used extracts of chloroform and hexane from the leaves of Croton elegans Kunth (mosquera), obtained by Soxhlet method in concentrations of 25% and 50%. The phytochemistry of plant material identification shows the presence of secondary metabolites: resins, amino acid, Quinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, catechins. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by diffusion on agar (Kirby-Bauer) method and the method in dilution in liquid, without evidence of results of inhibition in none of the concentrations of the tested pathogens, both by which research concludes by accepting the null hypothesis in terms of antibacterial activity on the micro-organisms of study.

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) é considerado um agente patogénico animal exclusivo e Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) um agente patogénico humano exclusivo. Recentemente foram encontrados fatores de virulência fágicos de GAS em estirpes de SDSD de origem bovina e casos de infeção humana associada a SDSD têm vindo a ser reportados. Em consequência, o potencial zoonótico de SDSD foi sugerido, contudo o papel destes fatores de virulência na patogénese de SDSD não foi comprovado. Um dos objetivos desta tese foi detetar a presença e expressão de fatores de virulência de GAS, entre isolados de SDSD contemporâneos de origem portuguesa, isolados de amostras de leite de bovinos disgnosticados com mastite em herdades leiteiras portuguesas entre 2011-13 e comparar estes dados com os reportados de uma coleção portuguesa de SDSD previamente estudada de 2002-03. O potencial de infeção in vitro e in vivo foi também avaliado e comparado entre coleções. Determinantes genéticos de GAS (os genes de virulência speB, speC, speF, speH, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, spd1, sdn e o elemento quimérico Tn1207.3/Φ10394.4) foram pesquisados por PCR e a sua expressão averiguada por PCR após síntese de cDNA. A produção de DNases extracelulares foi avaliada e correlacionada com o perfil genotipico dos genes spd1 e sdn. Para estudar o potencial de infeção, in vitro, foram utilizadas linhas celulares repiratórias normais e tumorais humanas (BTEC e Detroit 562, respetivamente) e in vivo, o modelo animal zebrafish. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de virulência pesquisados são característicos de SDSD de origem bovina e a produção de DNases extracelulares é independente dos genes spd1 e sdn. Os estudos de infeção in vitro e in vivo revelam que os potenciais de infeção de SDSD são específicos de estirpe e independentes dos genes de virulência pesquisados. O potencial zoonótico de SDSD é novamente sugerido uma vez que estirpes de origem bovina foram capazes de infetar linhas celulares humanas e o zebrafish.

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Human body is in continuous contact with microbes. Although many microbes are harmless or beneficial for humans, pathogenic microbes possess a threat to wellbeing. Antimicrobial protection is provided by the immune system, which can be functionally divided into two parts, namely innate and adaptive immunity. The key players of the innate immunity are phagocytic white blood cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which constantly monitor the blood and peripheral tissues. These cells are armed for rapid activation upon microbial contact since they express a variety of microbe-recognizing receptors. Macrophages and DCs also act as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and play an important role in the development of adaptive immunity. The development of adaptive immunity requires intimate cooperation between APCs and T lymphocytes and results in microbe-specific immune responses. Moreover, adaptive immunity generates immunological memory, which rapidly and efficiently protects the host from reinfection. Properly functioning immune system requires efficient communication between cells. Cytokines are proteins, which mediate intercellular communication together with direct cell-cell contacts. Immune cells produce inflammatory cytokines rapidly following microbial contact. Inflammatory cytokines modulate the development of local immune response by binding to cell surface receptors, which results in the activation of intracellular signalling and modulates target cell gene expression. One class of inflammatory cytokines chemokines has a major role in regulating cellular traffic. Locally produced inflammatory chemokines guide the recruitment of effector cells to the site of inflammation during microbial infection. In this study two key questions were addressed. First, the ability of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria to activate inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in different human APCs was compared. In these studies macrophages and DCs were stimulated with pathogenic Steptococcus pyogenes or non-pathogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The second aim of this thesis work was to analyze the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the regulation of microbe-induced chemokine production. In these studies bacteria-stimulated macrophages and influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells were used as model systems. The results of this study show that although macrophages and DCs share several common antimicrobial functions, these cells have significantly distinct responses against pathogenic and non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Macrophages were activated in a nearly similar fashion by pathogenic S. pyogenes and non-pathogenic L. rhamnosus. Both bacteria induced the production of similar core set of inflammatory chemokines consisting of several CC-class chemokines and CXCL8. These chemokines attract monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells and T cells. Thus, the results suggest that bacteria-activated macrophages efficiently recruit other effector cells to the site of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages seem to be activated by all bacteria irrespective of their pathogenicity. DCs, in contrast, were efficiently activated only by pathogenic S. pyogenes, which induced DC maturation and production of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, L. rhamnosus-stimulated DCs matured only partially and, most importantly, these cells did not produce inflammatory cytokines or chemokines. L. rhamnosus-stimulated DCs had a phenotype of "semi-mature" DCs and this type of DCs have been suggested to enhance tolerogenic adaptive immune responses. Since DCs have an essential role in the development of adaptive immune response the results suggest that, in contrast to macrophages, DCs may be able to discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and thus mount appropriate inflammatory or tolerogenic adaptive immune response depending on the microbe in question. The results of this study also show that pro-inflammatory cytokines can contribute to microbe-induced chemokine production at multiple levels. S. pyogenes-induced type I interferon (IFN) was found to enhance the production of certain inflammatory chemokines in macrophages during bacterial stimulation. Thus, bacteria-induced chemokine production is regulated by direct (microbe-induced) and indirect (pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced) mechanisms during inflammation. In epithelial cells IFN- and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) were found to enhance the expression of PRRs and components of cellular signal transduction machinery. Pre-treatment of epithelial cells with these cytokines prior to virus infection resulted in markedly enhanced chemokine response compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study show that pro-inflammatory cytokines can enhance microbe-induced chemokine production during microbial infection by providing a positive feedback loop. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines can render normally low-responding cells to high chemokine producers via enhancement of microbial detection and signal transduction.

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Bacterial surface-associated proteins are important in communication with the environment and bacteria-host interactions. In this thesis work, surface molecules of Lactobacillus crispatus important in host interaction were studied. The L. crispatus strains of the study were known from previous studies to be efficient in adhesion to intestinal tract and ECM. L. crispatus JCM 5810 possess an adhesive surface layer (S-layer) protein, whose functions and domain structure was characterized. We cloned two S-layer protein genes (cbsA; collagen-binding S-layer protein A and silent cbsB) and identified the protein region in CbsA important for adhesion to host tissues, for polymerization into a periodic layer as well as for attachment to the bacterial cell surface. The analysis was done by extensive mutation analysis and by testing His6-tagged fusion proteins from recombinant Escherichia coli as well as by expressing truncated CbsA peptides on the surface of Lactobacillus casei. The N-terminal region (31-274) of CbsA showed efficient and specific binding to collagens, laminin and extracellular matrix on tissue sections of chicken intestine. The N-terminal region also contained the information for formation of periodic S-layer polymer. This region is bordered at both ends by a conserved short region rich in valines, whose substitution to leucines drastically affected the periodic polymer structure. The mutated CbsA proteins that failed to form a periodic polymer, did not bind collagens, which indicates that the polymerized structure of CbsA is needed for collagen-binding ability. The C-terminal region, which is highly identical in S-layer proteins of L. crispatus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus, was shown to anchor the protein to the bacterial cell wall. The C-terminal CbsA peptide specifically bound to bacterial teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acids. In conclusion, the N-terminal domain of the S-layer protein of L. crispatus is important for polymerization and adhesion to host tissues, whereas the C-terminal domain anchors the protein to bacterial cell-wall teichoic acids. Lactobacilli are fermentative organisms that effectively lower the surrounding pH. While this study was in progress, plasminogen-binding proteins enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were identified in the extracellular proteome of L. crispatus ST1. In this work, the cell-wall association of enolase and GAPDH were shown to rely on pH-reversible binding to the cell-wall lipoteichoic acids. Enolase from L. crispatus was functionally compared with enolase from L. johnsonii as well as from pathogenic streptococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes) and Staphylococcus aureus. His6-enolases from commensal lactobacilli bound human plasminogen and enhanced its activation by human plasminogen activators similarly to, or even better than, the enolases from pathogens. Similarly, the His6-enolases from lactobacilli exhibited adhesive characteristics previously assigned to pathogens. The results call for more detailed analyses of the role of the host plasminogen system in bacterial pathogenesis and commensalism as well of the biological role and potential health risk of the extracellular proteome in lactobacilli.

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A biodiversidade brasileira abrange plantas de importância medicinal que podem ser utilizadas na formulação de novos fármacos. Contudo, tem sido reduzida em velocidade alarmante, em função de diferentes ações antrópicas. A cultura de tecidos vegetais propicia a conservação e uso do germoplasma permitindo a obtenção de substâncias de importância medicinal. As leishmanioses são consideradas um problema de saúde pública mundial sendo a espécie Leishmania braziliensis de maior importância epidemiológica no Brasil. Recentemente tem-se registrado aumento da resistência à linha de tratamento usual. Do mesmo modo, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos levou ao aumento de bactérias multirresistentes, que representam sério risco de infecção. A espécie Annona mucosa (Jacq.) possui substâncias, como acetogeninas e alcaloides, que apresentam atividades antiparasitária e antimicrobiana. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o potencial leishmanicida e antibacteriano de extratos de A. mucosa de material produzido in vitro e in vivo. Foi proposto um protocolo de germinação in vitro, ainda não reportada para a espécie, com vistas à obtenção de plântulas axênicas. Em meio WPM foram cultivados explantes hipocotiledonares e foliares em meio MS, suplementados com PIC e diferentes concentrações de KIN, BAP ou TDZ. Os calos obtidos foram cultivados em meio líquido de mesma composição para a produção de suspensões celulares. Os materiais foram submetidos à extração metanólica e posterior fracionamento em hexano e diclorometano. Para a avaliação da atividade dos extratos sobre L. braziliensis foi usado o modelo in vitro, com a forma promastigota, e in vivo na forma amastigota, a partir do tratamento de macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos infectados com o parasito. Ambas as formas foram tratadas com os extratos por 96 e 48h, respectivamente. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por macrodiluição do extrato em Mueller-Hinton, sendo avaliado o crescimento das cepas após 16h de incubação a 48C. A germinação in vitro da espécie foi alcançada em substrato vermiculita estéril umedecido com solução de sais do meio MS, com taxa média de 85%. A maior produção de calos friáveis foi obtida em meios contendo KIN, com potencial uso para cultivo em suspensões celulares. Os extratos do material in situ e in vitro apresentaram atividade leishmanicida, apesar da toxicidade para macrófagos. Culturas de células em suspensão apresentaram potencial leishmanicida in vitro e redução da infecção em macrófagos. Os extratos do material avaliado apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana seletiva, com inibição do crescimento de Streptococcus pyogenes e Bacillus thurigiensis em diferentes concentrações avaliadas. Os métodos biotecnológicos empregados permitiram a obtenção de materiais com propriedades medicinais para as atividades leishmanicida e antibacteriana, assim como o material in vivo, constituindo este estudo o primeiro relato para as atividades propostas em A. mucosa.

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Edwardsiella tarda is a bacterial pathogen that can infect both humans and animals. TX1, an Ed. tarda strain isolated from diseased fish, was found to produce autoinducer 2 (Al-2)-like activity that was growth phase dependent and modulated by growth conditions. The gene coding for the Al-2 synthase was cloned from TX1 and designated luxS(Et). LuxS(Et) was able to complement the Al-2 mutant phenotype of Escherichia coli strain DH5 alpha. Expression Of luxS(Et) correlated with Al-2 activity and was increased by glucose and decreased by elevated temperature. The effect of glucose was shown to be mediated through the cAMP-CRP complex, which repressed luxS(Et) expression. Overexpression of luxS(Et) enhanced Al-2 activity in TX1, whereas disruption of luxS(Et) expression by antisense RNA interference (i) reduced the level of Al-2 activity, (ii) impaired bacterial growth under various conditions, (iii) weakened the expression of genes associated with the type III secretion system and biofilm formation, and (iv) attenuated bacterial virulence. Addition of exogenous Al-2 was able to complement the deficiencies in the expression of TTSS genes and biofilm production but failed to rescue the growth defects. Our results (i) demonstrated that the Al-2 activity in TX1 is controlled at least in part at the level of luxS(Et) expression, which in turn is regulated by growth conditions, and that the temporal expression of luxS(Et) is essential for optimal bacterial infection and survival; and (ii) suggested the existence in Ed. tarda of a LuxS/Al-2-mediated signal transduction pathway that regulates the production of virulence-associated elements.

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Edwardsiella tarda is a bacterial pathogen that can infect both humans and animals. TX1, an Ed. tarda strain isolated from diseased fish, was found to produce autoinducer 2 (Al-2)-like activity that was growth phase dependent and modulated by growth conditions. The gene coding for the Al-2 synthase was cloned from TX1 and designated luxS(Et). LuxS(Et) was able to complement the Al-2 mutant phenotype of Escherichia coli strain DH5 alpha. Expression Of luxS(Et) correlated with Al-2 activity and was increased by glucose and decreased by elevated temperature. The effect of glucose was shown to be mediated through the cAMP-CRP complex, which repressed luxS(Et) expression. Overexpression of luxS(Et) enhanced Al-2 activity in TX1, whereas disruption of luxS(Et) expression by antisense RNA interference (i) reduced the level of Al-2 activity, (ii) impaired bacterial growth under various conditions, (iii) weakened the expression of genes associated with the type III secretion system and biofilm formation, and (iv) attenuated bacterial virulence. Addition of exogenous Al-2 was able to complement the deficiencies in the expression of TTSS genes and biofilm production but failed to rescue the growth defects. Our results (i) demonstrated that the Al-2 activity in TX1 is controlled at least in part at the level of luxS(Et) expression, which in turn is regulated by growth conditions, and that the temporal expression of luxS(Et) is essential for optimal bacterial infection and survival; and (ii) suggested the existence in Ed. tarda of a LuxS/Al-2-mediated signal transduction pathway that regulates the production of virulence-associated elements.

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A novel microarray was constructed with DNA PCR product probes targeting species specific functional genes of nine clinically significant respiratory pathogens, including the Gram-positive organisms (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes), the Gram-negative organisms (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii Haemophilus spp., Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as the atypical bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In a "proof-of-concept" evaluation of the developed microarray, the microarray was compared with real-time PCR from 14 sputum specimens from COPD patients. All of the samples positive for bacterial species in real-time PCR were also positive for the same bacterial species using the microarray. This study shows that a microarray using PCR probes is a potentially useful method to monitor the populations of bacteria in respiratory specimens and can be tailored to specific clinical needs such as respiratory infections of particular patient populations, including patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of numerous diseases ranging from benign infections (pharyngitis and impetigo) to severe infections associated with high mortality (necrotizing fasciitis and bacterial sepsis). As with other bacterial infections, there is considerable interest in characterizing the contribution of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) responses to protective immunity. We here show significant il17a up-regulation by quantitative real-time PCR in secondary lymphoid organs, correlating with increased protein levels in the serum within a short time of S. pyogenes infection. However, our data offer an important caveat to studies of IL-17A responsiveness following antigen inoculation, because enhanced levels of IL-17A were also detected in the serum of sham-infected mice, indicating that inoculation trauma alone can stimulate the production of this cytokine. This highlights the potency and speed of innate IL-17A immune responses after inoculation and the importance of proper and appropriate controls in comparative analysis of immune responses observed during microbial infection.

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Tese de doutoramento, Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde (Microbiologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2014

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Tese de doutoramento, Farmácia (Biotecnologia Farmacêutica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2014

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Point-of-care (POC) tests offer potentially substantial benefits for the management of infectious diseases, mainly by shortening the time to result and by making the test available at the bedside or at remote care centres. Commercial POC tests are already widely available for the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections and for parasitic diseases, including malaria. Infectious diseases specialists and clinical microbiologists should be aware of the indications and limitations of each rapid test, so that they can use them appropriately and correctly interpret their results. The clinical applications and performance of the most relevant and commonly used POC tests are reviewed. Some of these tests exhibit insufficient sensitivity, and should therefore be coupled to confirmatory tests when the results are negative (e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes rapid antigen detection test), whereas the results of others need to be confirmed when positive (e.g. malaria). New molecular-based tests exhibit better sensitivity and specificity than former immunochromatographic assays (e.g. Streptococcus agalactiae detection). In the coming years, further evolution of POC tests may lead to new diagnostic approaches, such as panel testing, targeting not just a single pathogen, but all possible agents suspected in a specific clinical setting. To reach this goal, the development of serology-based and/or molecular-based microarrays/multiplexed tests will be needed. The availability of modern technology and new microfluidic devices will provide clinical microbiologists with the opportunity to be back at the bedside, proposing a large variety of POC tests that will allow quicker diagnosis and improved patient care.

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La tagatose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase de Streptococcus pyogenes est une aldolase de classe I qui fait montre d'un remarquable manque de spécificité vis à vis de ses substrats. En effet, elle catalyse le clivage réversible du tagatose-1,6-biphosphate (TBP), mais également du fructose-1,6-biphosphate (FBP), du sorbose-1,6-biphosphate et du psicose-1,6-biphosphate, quatre stéréoisomères, en dihydroxyacétone phosphate (DHAP) et en glycéraldéhyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Afin de mettre à jour les caractéristiques du mécanisme enzymatique, une étude structurale de la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes, un pathogène humain extrêmement versatile, a été entreprise. Elle a permis la résolution de la structure native et en complexe avec le DHAP, a respectivement 1.87 et 1.92 Å de résolution. Ces mêmes structures ont permis de se représenter plus clairement le site actif de l'enzyme en général, et les résidus catalytiques en particulier. Le trempage des cristaux de TBP aldolase dans une solution saturante de DHAP a en outre permis de piéger un authentique intermédiaire iminium, ainsi que sa géométrie particulière en atteste. Des expériences d'échange de proton, entreprises afin d'évaluer le stéréoisomérisme du transfert de proton catalytique, ont également permis de faire une intéressante découverte : la TBP aldolase ne peut déprotoner le coté pro-R du C3 du DHAP, mais peut le protonner. Ce résultat, ainsi que la comparaison de la structure du complexe TBP aldolase-DHAP avec la structure du complexe FBP aldolase de muscle de lapin- DHAP, pointe vers un isomérisme cis-trans autour du lien C2-C3 de la base de Schiff formée avec le DHAP. De plus, la résolution de ces deux structures a permis de mettre en évidence trois régions très mobiles de la protéine, ce qui pourrait être relié au rôle postulé de son isozyme chez S. pyogenes dans la régulation de l’expression génétique et de la virulence de la bactérie. La cristallographie par rayons X et la cinétique enzymatique ont ainsi permis d'avancer dans l'élucidation du mécanisme et des propriétés structurales de cette enzyme aux caractéristiques particulières.

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La tagatose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase de Streptococcus pyogenes est une aldolase qui fait preuve d'un remarquable manque de spécificité vis à vis de ses substrats. En effet, elle catalyse le clivage réversible du tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), mais également du fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), du sorbose-1,6-bisphosphate et du psicose-1,6-bisphosphate, quatre stéréoisomères, en dihydroxyacétone phosphate (DHAP) et en glycéraldéhyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Aldolase de classe I, qui donc catalyse sa réaction en formant un intermédiaire covalent obligatoire, ou base de Schiff, avec son susbtrat, la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes partage 14 % d’identité avec l’enzyme modèle de cette famille, la FBP aldolase de muscle de mammifère. Bien que le mécanime catalytique de la FBP aldolase des mammifères ait été examiné en détails et qu’il soit approprié d’en tirer des renseignements quant à celui de la TBP aldolase, le manque singulier de stéréospécificité de cette dernière tant dans le sens du clivage que celui de la condensation n’est toujours pas éclairci. Afin de mettre à jour les caractéristiques du mécanisme enzymatique, une étude structurale de la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes, un pathogène humain extrêmement versatile, a été entreprise. Elle a permis la résolution des structures de l’enzyme native et mutée, en complexe avec des subtrats et des inhibiteurs compétitifs, à des résolutions comprises entre 1.8 Å et 2.5 Å. Le trempage des cristaux de TBP aldolase native et mutante dans une solution saturante de FBP ou TBP a en outre permis de piéger un authentique intermédiaire covalent lié à la Lys205, la lysine catalytique. La determination des profils pH de la TBP aldolase native et mutée, entreprise afin d'évaluer l’influence du pH sur la réaction de clivage du FBP et TBP et ìdentifier le(s) résidu(s) impliqué(s), en conjonction avec les données structurales apportées par la cristallographie, ont permis d’identifier sans équivoque Glu163 comme résidu responsable du clivage. En effet, le mode de liaison sensiblement différent des ligands utilisés selon la stéréochimie en leur C3 et C4 permet à Glu163, équivalent à Glu187 dans la FBP aldolase de classe I, d’abstraire le proton sur l’hydroxyle du C4 et ainsi d’amorcer le clivage du lien C3-C4. L’étude du mécanimse inverse, celui de la condensation, grâce par exemple à la structure de l’enzyme native en complexe avec ses substrats à trois carbones le DHAP et le G3P, a en outre permis d’identifier un isomérisme du substrat G3P comme possible cause de la synthèse des isomères en C4 par cette enzyme. Ce résultat, ainsi que la decouverte d’un possible isomérisme cis-trans autour du lien C2-C3 de la base de Schiff formée avec le DHAP, identifié précedemment, permet de cerner presque complètement les particularités du mécanisme de cette enzyme et d’expliquer comment elle est capable de synthétiser les quatres stéréoisomères 3(S/R), 4(S/R). De plus, la résolution de ces structures a permis de mettre en évidence trois régions très mobiles de la protéine, ce qui pourrait être relié au rôle postulé de son isozyme chez S. pyogenes dans la régulation de l’expression génétique et de la virulence de la bactérie. Enfin, la résolution de la structure du mutant Lys229→Met de la FBP aldolase de muscle en complexe avec la forme cyclique du FBP, de même que des études cristallographiques sur le mutant équivalent Lys205→Met de la TBP aldolase de S. pyogenes et des expériences de calorimétrie ont permis d’identifier deux résidus particuliers, Ala31 et Asp33 chez la FBP aldolase, comme possible cause de la discrimination de cette enzyme contre les substrats 3(R) et 4(S), et ce par encombrement stérique des substrats cycliques. La cristallographie par rayons X et la cinétique enzymatique ont ainsi permis d'avancer dans l'élucidation du mécanisme et des propriétés structurales de cette enzyme aux caractéristiques particulières.

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Background
The incidence and mortality from necrotizing fasciitis (NF) are increasing in New Zealand (NZ). Triggered by a media report that traditional Samoan tattooing was causing NF, we conducted a chart review to investigate the role of this and other predisposing and precipitating factors and to document NF microbiology, complications and interventions in NZ.

Methods
We conducted a retrospective review of 299 hospital charts of patients discharged with NF diagnosis codes in eight hospitals in NZ between 2000 and 2006. We documented and compared by ethnicity the prevalence of predisposing and precipitating conditions, bacteria isolated, complications and interventions used.

Results
Out of 299 charts, 247 fulfilled the case definition. NF was most common in elderly males. Diabetes was the most frequent co-morbid condition, followed by obesity. Nearly a quarter of patients were taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Traditional Samoan tattooing was an uncommon cause. Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were the two commonly isolated bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was implicated in a relatively small number of cases. Shock, renal failure, coagulation abnormality and multi-organ dysfunction were common complications. More than 90% of patients underwent surgical debridement, 56% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and slightly less than half of all patients had blood product transfusion. One in six NF cases had amputations and 23.5% died.

Conclusion
This chart review found that the highest proportion of NF cases was elderly males with co-morbidities, particularly diabetes and obesity. Tattooing was an uncommon precipitating event. The role of NSAID needs further exploration. NF is a serious disease with severe complications, high case fatality and considerable use of health care resources.