27 resultados para Rotaviruses


Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Epidemiology of symptomatic rotaviruses from Bangalore and Mysore in Southern India was investigated. While serotype G3 predominated throughout the 7-year study period from 1988 to 1994 in Bangalore, serotype G1 was more predominant than serotype G3 in Mysore during 1993 and 1994. Serotype G2 strains were either not detected or infrequently observed in both the cities. However, several strains with subgroup I and lsquoshortrsquo RNA pattern that exhibited high reactivity with typing MAbs specific for serotype 2 as well as other serotypes were detected throughout the period. Among the nonserotypeable strains from both cities, several exhibited dual subgroup (SGI+II) or subgroup I specificity and lsquolongrsquo RNA pattern indicating their probable animal origin. Notably, a gradual, yet highly significant reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis, from 45.3% in 1988 to 1.8% during 1994, was observed in Bangalore in stark contrast to the consistently high (about 34%) incidence of asymptomatic infections among neonates by I321-like G10P11 type strains during the same period. Moreover, I321-like asymptomatic strains were not detected in children with diarrhea.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Human rotaviruses were isolated from asymptomatic neonates at various hospitals and clinics in the city of Bangalore, India, and were found to be subgroup I specific and possess long RNA patterns (M. Sukumaran, K. Gowda, P. P. Maiya, T. P. Srinivas, M. S. Kumar, S. Aijaz, R. R. Reddy, L. Padilla, H. B. Greenberg, and C. D. Rao, Arch. Virol. 126:239-251, 1992). Three of these strains were adapted to tissue culture and found by serotype analysis and neutralization assays to be of serotype 10, a serotype commonly found in cattle but infrequently found in humans and not previously identified in neonates. By RNA-RNA hybridization, a high level of relatedness to a serotype 10 bovine rotavirus strain and a low-to-medium level of relatedness to a human rotavirus strain were observed. Since this human isolate shares a genogroup with bovine rotavirus, it is likely that it originated by interspecies transmission. A human rotavirus strain isolated from asymptomatic neonates and similar to bovine rotavirus might represent a good vaccine candidate.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Previous studies have shown predominant association of G10P11 type bovine rotavirus-derived reassortant strains with asymptomatic infections in newborn children in India. To understand the epidemiological and genetic basis for the origin of these strains in humans, the relative frequencies of different serotypes among bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) isolated from southern, western and central regions of the country were determined by subgroup and serotype analysis as well as nucleotide (nt) sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7. Since the human G10P11 asymptomatic neonatal strain I321 possessed NSP1 from a human rotavirus, to determine its genetic origin in the bovine strains, comparative analysis of partial gene sequences from representative G10P11 strains was also carried out. The following observations were of great epidemiological significance, (i) G10P11 strains predominated in all the three regions with frequencies ranging between 55.6% and 85.2%. In contrast to the high prevalence of G6 strains in other countries, only one G6 strain was detected in this study and G8 strains represented 5.8% of the isolates, (ii) among the G10 strains, in serotyping ELISA, four patterns of reactivity were observed that appeared to correlate with the differences in electropherotypic patterns and amino acid (aa) sequence of the VP7, (iii) surprisingly, strains belonging to serotype G3 were detected more frequently (10.7%) than those of serotypes G6 and G8 combined, while strains representing the new serotype (G15) were observed in a single farm in Bangalore, and (iv) about 3.9% of the isolates were nontypeable as they exhibited high cross-reactivity to the serotyping MAbs used in the study. Comparative analysis of the VP7 gene sequence from the prototype G3 MAb-reactive bovine strain J63 revealed greatest sequence relatedness (87.6% nt and 96.0% aa) with that of serotype G3 rhesus-monkey strain RRV. It also exhibited high sequence homology with the VP7 from several animal and animal rotavirus-related human G3 strains (Simian SA11; equine ERV316 and FI-14. canine CU-1 and K9; porcine 4F; Feline Cat2 and human HCR3, YO and AU1). Partial nucleotide sequence analysis of the NSP1 gene of J63 showed greatest nt sequence homology (95.9%) to the NSP1 gene allele of the Indian G8 strain, isolated from a diarrheic child, which is likely to have been transmitted directly from cattle and 92.6% homology to that of the bovine G8 strain A5-10 suggesting the likely origin of J63 by gene reassortment between a bovine G8 strain and a G3 animal strain. Prevalence of G10P11 strains in cattle and G10P11 or P11 type reassortant strains in asymptomatic neonates as well as detection of G8P[1] strains in diarrheic children support our hypothesis for bidirectional transmission of rotaviruses between humans and cattle and origin of novel strains catalyzed by the age-old traditions and socio-economic conditions in India.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

In an epidemiological survey from South India, 936 serum samples were tested for IgG against recombinant baculovirus-expressed VP6 proteins from human group A and group C rotaviruses. The overall seroprevalence for group A was 100% and for group C was 25.32% (95% CI 22.64-28.21). The lowest seroprevalence for group C was in children aged

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Rotavirus replication occurs in vivo in intestinal epithelial cells. Cell lines fully permissive to rotavirus include kidney epithelial (MA104), colonic (Caco-2) and hepatic (HepG2) types. Previously, it has been shown that cellular integrins α2β1, α4β1 and αXβ2 are involved in rotavirus cell entry. As receptor usage is a major determinant of virus tropism, the levels of cell surface expression of these integrins have now been investigated by flow cytometry on cell lines of human (Caco-2, HepG2, RD, K562) and monkey (MA104, COS-7) origin in relation to cellular susceptibility to infection with monkey and human rotaviruses. Cells supporting any replication of human rotaviruses (RD, HepG2, Caco-2, COS-7 and MA104) expressed α2β1 and (when tested) αXβ2, whereas the non-permissive K562 cells did not express α2β1, α4β1 or αXβ2. Only RD cells expressed α4β1. Although SA11 grew to higher titres in RD, HepG2, Caco-2, COS-7 and MA104 cells, this virus still replicated at a low level in K562 cells. In all cell lines tested, SA11 replicated to higher titres than did human strains, consistent with the ability of SA11 to use sialic acids as alternative receptors. Levels of cell surface α2 integrin correlated with levels of rotavirus growth. The α2 integrin relative linear median fluorescence intensity on K562, RD, COS-7, MA104 and Caco-2 cells correlated linearly with the titre of SA11 produced in these cells at 20 h after infection at a multiplicity of 0·1, and the data best fitted a sigmoidal dose–response curve (r2=1·00, P=0·005). Thus, growth of rotaviruses in these cell lines correlates with their surface expression of α2β1 integrin and is consistent with their expression of αXβ2 and α4β1 integrins.

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The prevalence of antirotavirus antibodies in chickens and turkeys in the Gonzales, Texas and Llano, Texas areas was studied. Caged layer chicken flocks were found to have a prevalence of 64% when samples were taken randomly. This compares to 45% in chicken broiler breeder flocks and 92% in turkey breeding flocks. The natural occurrence of turkey rotavirus infection in two separate field studies showed an increase in mortality varying from 9% to 45% above expected death losses. Clinically, pasted vents, lacitude, and general malaise were noted in affected poults. Lesions noted on post mortem examination were; slight ballooning of the small intestine, excessively large ceca, and mild hyperemia of the small and large intestines.^ The use of maternal antibody from simian rotavirus immunized chickens' eggs for preventing murine rotavirus infection in infant mice was investigated. There was a reduction from 91% to 15% incidence when infant mice were treated twice daily with egg yolk immunoglobulin.^ The need for a convenient, easily grown and rapidly reproducing model for avian and mammalian rotaviruses led to the use of coturnix chicks. The turkey rotavirus was adapted to the quail chicks be serial passage. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as micropathological methods were used in the study of the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in quail and infant mice. ^

Relevância:

20.00% 20.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Rotavirus double-stranded RNA was detected directly in sewage treatment plant samples over a 1-year period by reverse transcription followed by PCR amplification of the VP7 gene and Southern blot hybridization. The presence of naturally occurring rotaviruses was demonstrated in 42% of raw sewage samples and in 67% of treated effluent samples, Amplified viral sequences were analyzed bg restriction enzymes. Ten different restriction profiles were characterized, most of which were found in treated effluent samples. A mixture of restriction profiles was observed in 75% of contaminated effluent samples, The profiles were compared with those obtained from human rotavirus isolates involved in infections in children from the same area (six different profiles were detected), Five identical viral sequences were detected in both environmental and clinical samples, Restriction profiles sere also compared io profiles from known genomic sequences of human and animal viruses. Both human and animal origins of rotavirus contamination of water seemed likely.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

VP6, the intermediate capsid protein of the virion, specifies subgroup specificity of rotavirus, It is also the most conserved, both at nucleotide and amino acid levels, among group A rotaviruses and is the target of choice for rotavirus detection, In this study we report the sequence of the subgroup I (SGI)-specific VP6 from the serotype G2 strain IS2 isolated from a child suffering from acute diarrhoea in Bangalore ana its comparison with the published VP6 sequences. Interestingly, IS2 gene 6 shared highest homology with that from bovine UK strain and the protein contained substitutions by lysine at amino acid positions 97 and 134, In contrast, the amino acids Met and Glu/Asp at these respective positions are highly conserved in all the other group A rotaviruses sequenced so far, These observations have obvious implications for the evolution of serotype G2 and G2-like strains circulating in India, The SGI VP6, of a human rotavirus, possessing epitopes that are conformationally similar to those found in the native protein in the virion, was successfully expressed in E. coli and purified for the first time by single-step affinity chromatography.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The complete sequence of a P4 type VP4 gene from a G2 serotype human rotavirus, IS2, isolated in India has been determined. Although the IS2 VP4 is highly homologous to the other P4 type alleles, it contained acidic amino acid substitutions at several positions that make it acidic among the P4 type alleles that are basic. Moreover, comparative sequence analysis revealed unusual polymorphism in members of the P4 type at amino acid position 393 which is highly conserved in members of other VP4 types. To date, expression of complete VP4 inE. coli has not been achieved. In this study we present successful expression inE. coli of the complete VP4 as well as VP8* and VP5* cleavage subunits in soluble form as fusion proteins of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and their purification by single-step affinity chromatography. The hemagglutinating activity exhibited by the recombinant protein was specifically inhibited by the antiserum raised against it. Availability of pure VP4 proteins should facilitate development of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for P serotyping of rotaviruses.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

In an epidemiological study of symptomatic human rotaviruses in Mysore, India during 1993 and 1994, isolates MP409 and MP480 were isolated from two children suffering from severe, acute dehydrating diarrhea. Both isolates exhibited 'long' RNA pattern and subgroup I specificity suggesting the likelihood of their animal origin. Both isolates did not react with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for serotypes G1 to G6 as well as CIO. To determine the genetic origin of these isolates, complete nucleotide sequences of genes encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, nonstructural proteins NSP1 and NSP3 and viral enterotoxin protein NSP4 from MP409 and partial sequences of genes from MP480 were determined. Comparison of the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of 250 nucleotides revealed complete identity of the gene sequences in both strains suggesting that MP409 and MP480 are two different isolates of a single strain. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of VP4, VP7, NSP1 and NSP3 of MP409 with published sequences of strains belonging to different serotypes revealed that both outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 and NSP1 are highly related to the respective proteins from the P6[1], G8 type bovine rotavirus A5 isolated from a calf with diarrhoea in Thailand and that the NSP3 is highly homologous to that of bovine rotaviruses. The NSP 1 protein showed greatest sequence identity with NSP4s belonging to the KUN genetic group to which NSP4s from human G2 type strains and bovine rotaviruses belong. MP409 and MP480 likely signify interspecies transmission of P6[1], G8 type strains from cattle to humans and represent the first P6[1] type rotaviruses isolated in humans. These and our previous studies on the asymptomatic neonatal strain I321 are of evolutionary and epidemiological significance in the context of close association of majority of the Indian population with cattle.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The nucleotide sequence of genes 4 and 9, encoding the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 of a serotype 10 tissue culture-adapted strain, 1321, representative of asymptomatic neonatal rotaviruses isolated from neonates in Bangalore, India, were determined. Comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of 1321 VP4 and VP7 with previously published sequences of various serotypes revealed that both genes were highly homologous to the respective genes of serotype 10 bovine rotavirus, B223. The VP4 of 1321 represents a new human P serotype and the 1321 and related strains represent the first description of neonatal rotaviruses that appear to derive both surface proteins from an animal rotavirus.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

NSP3, an acidic nonstructural protein, encoded by gene 7 has been implicated as the key player in the assembly of the 11 viral plus-strand RNAs into the early replication intermediates during rotavirus morphogenesis. To date, the sequence or NSP3 from only three animal rotaviruses (SA11, SA114F, and bovine UK) has been determined and that from a human strain has not been reported. To determine the genetic diversity among gene 7 alleles from group A rotaviruses, the nucleotide sequence of the NSP3 gene from 13 strains belonging to nine different G serotypes, from both humans and animals, has been determined. Based on the amino acid sequence identity as well as phylogenetic analysis, NSP3 from group A rotaviruses falls into three evolutionarily related groups, i.e., the SA11 group, the Wa group, and the S2 group. The SA 11/SA114F gene appears to have a distant ancestral origin from that of the others and codes for a polypeptide of 315 amino acids (aa) in length. NSP3 from all other group A rotaviruses is only 313 aa in length because of a 2-amino-acid deletion near the carboxy-terminus, While the SA114F gene has the longest 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 132 nucleotides, that from other strains suffered deletions of varying lengths at two positions downstream of the translational termination codon. In spite of the divergence of the nucleotide (nt) sequence in the protein coding region, a stretch of about 80 nt in the 3' UTR is highly conserved in the NSP3 gene from all the strains. This conserved sequence in the 3' UTR might play an important role in the regulation of expression of the NSP3 gene. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

En génétique dite « classique », l’examen d’un phénotype conduit à l’étude des gènes impliqués dans son obtention. La génétique inverse est une méthode expérimentale très puissante dans laquelle, au contraire, le matériel génétique est modifié et utilisé pour reconstruire un organisme complet, afin de déterminer le résultat de ces modifications. Cette approche est spécialement bien adaptée à l'étude des virus, compte tenu de la relative simplicité et de la petite taille de leurs génomes; l’obstacle principal demeure de récupérer des virus infectieux à partir de génomes viraux clonés. Au cours des années, cet exploit a été accompli pour des représentants de presque toutes les familles de virus de mammifères. Jusqu’à récemment, les Reoviridae, virus à génome d'ARN bicaténaire segmenté, faisaient toutefois exception. Dans cette revue, les progrès réalisés vers la mise au point de la génétique inverse pour l'étude du réovirus seront discutés. La génétique inverse pourrait avoir un impact majeur dans l'optimisation de nouvelles souches de réovirus pour leur utilisation en thérapie comme agents oncolytiques et pour le développement de vaccins dans le cas des rotavirus et des orbivirus. Les travaux actuels font toutefois ressortir les limites de l'approche, la nécessité d’une analyse prudente des résultats obtenus, ainsi que le besoin de développer des systèmes plus efficaces et polyvalents.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)