1000 resultados para Quality of life


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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scored Patient-generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) tool as an outcome measure in clinical nutrition practice and determine its association with quality of life (QoL). DESIGN: A prospective 4 week study assessing the nutritional status and QoL of ambulatory patients receiving radiation therapy to the head, neck, rectal or abdominal area. SETTING: Australian radiation oncology facilities. SUBJECTS: Sixty cancer patients aged 24-85 y. INTERVENTION: Scored PG-SGA questionnaire, subjective global assessment (SGA), QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3). RESULTS: According to SGA, 65.0% (39) of subjects were well-nourished, 28.3% (17) moderately or suspected of being malnourished and 6.7% (4) severely malnourished. PG-SGA score and global QoL were correlated (r=-0.66, P<0.001) at baseline. There was a decrease in nutritional status according to PG-SGA score (P<0.001) and SGA (P<0.001); and a decrease in global QoL (P<0.001) after 4 weeks of radiotherapy. There was a linear trend for change in PG-SGA score (P<0.001) and change in global QoL (P=0.003) between those patients who improved (5%) maintained (56.7%) or deteriorated (33.3%) in nutritional status according to SGA. There was a correlation between change in PG-SGA score and change in QoL after 4 weeks of radiotherapy (r=-0.55, P<0.001). Regression analysis determined that 26% of the variation of change in QoL was explained by change in PG-SGA (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: The scored PG-SGA is a nutrition assessment tool that identifies malnutrition in ambulatory oncology patients receiving radiotherapy and can be used to predict the magnitude of change in QoL.

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The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of pain on functioning across multiple quality of life (QOL) domains among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 219 people were recruited from a regional MS society membership database to serve as the community-based study sample. All participants completed a questionnaire containing items about their demographic and clinical characteristics, validated measures of QOL and MS-related disability, and a question on whether or not they had experienced clinically significant pain in the preceding 2 weeks. Respondents who reported pain then completed an in-person structured pain interview assessing pain characteristics (intensity, quality, location, extent, and duration). Comparisons between participants with and without MS-related pain demonstrated that pain prevalence and intensity were strongly correlated with QOL: physical health, psychological health, level of independence, and global QOL were more likely to be impaired among people with MS when pain was present, and the extent of impairment was associated with the intensity of pain. Moreover, these relationships remained significant even after statistically controlling for multiple demographic and clinical covariates associated with self-reported QOL. These findings suggest that for people with MS, pain is an important source of distress and disability beyond that caused by neurologic impairments.

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It is widely acknowledged that “quality of life” (QoL) is an imprecise concept, which is difficult to define (Arnold, 1991; Ball et al., 2000; Bury & Holme, 1993; Byrne & MacLean, 1997; Guse & Masesar, 1999; McDowell & Newell, 1996). McDowell and Newell (1996) described the term as “intuitively familiar” (p.382), suggesting that everyone believes that they know what it means; while, in reality its meaning differs from person to person. Recent years, have seen steadily increasing interest in the study and measurement of QoL related to human services, which reflects greater importance being attached to accountability in its widest sense. Anecdotally, many care staff will indicate that ensuring good QoL for their clients is important to them, but how can we ascertain whether we are achieving positive QoL outcomes, and given the complexities of the concept and its measurement, how can we best incorporate QoL assessment into everyday practice? This chapter will explore the issues of QoL definition and measurement, particularly as they pertain to aged care. It will consider many measurement tool options, and provide advice on how to choose an appropriate instrument for your circumstances. Issues of quality of care and their relationship to QoL will also be considered, and the chapter will conclude with a discussion on the integration of QoL assessment into practice. Because residential aged care constitutes a living environment as well as a care environment, QoL is considered particularly pertinent in this context, and as such, it will provide much of the focus for the chapter

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Objectives It is widely assumed improving care in residential facilities will improve quality of life (QoL), but little research has explored this relationship. The Clinical Care Indicators (CCI) Tool was developed to fill an existing gap in quality assessment within Australian residential aged care facilities and it was used to explore potential links between clinical outcomes and QoL. Design and Setting Clinical outcome and QoL data were collected within four residential facilities from the same aged care provider. Subjects Subjects were 82 residents of four facilities. Outcome Measures Clinical outcomes were measured using the CCI Tool and QoL data was obtained using the Australian WHOQOL‑100. Results Independent t‑test analyses were calculated to compare individual CCIs with each domain of the WHOQOL‑100, while Pearson’s product moment coefficients (r) were calculated between the total number of problem indicators and QoL scores. Significant results suggested poorer clinical outcomes adversely affected QoL. Social and spiritual QoL were particularly affected by clinical outcomes and poorer status in hydration, falls and depression were most strongly associated with lower QoL scores. Poorer clinical status as a whole was also significantly correlated with poorer QoL. Conclusions Hydration, falls and depression were most often associated with poorer resident QoL and as such appear to be key areas for clinical management in residential aged care. However, poor clinical outcomes overall also adversely affected QoL, which suggests maintaining optimum clinical status through high quality nursing care, would not only be important for resident health but also for enhancing general life quality.

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Introduction: Five-year survival from breast cancer in Australia is 87%. Hence, ensuring a good quality of life (QOL) has become a focal point of cancer research and clinical interest. Exercise during and after treatment has been identified as a potential strategy to optimise QOL of women diagnosed with breast cancer.----- Methods: Exercise for Health is a randomised controlled trial of an eight-month, exercise intervention delivered by Exercise Physiologists. An objective of this study was to assess the impact of the exercise program during and following treatment on QOL. Queensland women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer in 2006/07 were eligible to participate. Those living in urban-Brisbane (n=194) were allocated to either the face-to-face exercise group, the telephone exercise group, or the usual-care group, and those living in rural Queensland (n=143) were allocated to the telephone exercise group or the usual-care group. QOL, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B+4) questionnaire, was measured at 4-6 weeks (pre-intervention), 6 months (mid-intervention) and 12 months (three months post-intervention) post-surgery.----- Results: Significant (P<0.01) increases in QOL were observed between pre-intervention and three months post-intervention 12 months post-surgery for all women. Women in the exercise groups experienced greater mean positive changes in QOL during this time (+10 points) compared with the usual-care groups (+5 to +7 points) after adjusting for baseline QOL. Although all groups experienced an overall increase in QOL, approximately 20% of urban and rural women in the usual-care groups reported a decline in QOL, compared with 10% of women in the exercise groups.----- Conclusions: This work highlights the potential importance of participating in physical activity to optimise QOL following a diagnosis of breast cancer. Results suggest that the telephone may be an effective medium for delivering exercise counselling to newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

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Introduction: Evidence suggests a positive association between quality of life (QOL). and overall survival(OS). among metastatic breast cancer (BC). patients, although the relationship in early-stage BC is unclear. This work examines the association between QOL and OS following a diagnosis of early-stage BC. ----- Methods: A population-based sample of Queensland women (n=287). with early-stage, invasive, unilateral BC, were prospectively observed for a median of 6.6 years. QOL was assessed at six and 18 months post-diagnosis using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast FACT-B+4. questionnaire. Raw scores for the FACT-B+4 scales were computed and individuals were categorised according to whether QOL declined, remained stable or improved over time. OS was measured from the date of diagnosis to the date of death or was censored at the date of last follow-up. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). for the association between QOL and OS were obtained using Cox proportional hazards survival models adjusted for confounding characteristics. ----- Results: A total of 27 (9.4%). women died during the follow-up period. Three baseline QOL scales (emotional, general and overall QOL) were significantly associated with OS, with RRs ranging between 0.89 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98; P=0.01. and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99; P=0.03),indicating a 2%-11% reduced risk of death for every one unit increase in QOL. When QOL was categorised according to changes between six and 18 months post-diagnosis, analyses showed that for those who experienced declines in functional and physical QOL, risk of death increased by two- (95% CI: 1.43, 12.52; P<0.01) and four-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 7.19; P=0.02), respectively. Conclusions: This work indicates that specific QOL scales at six months post-diagnosis, and changes in certain QOL scales over the subsequent 12-month period (as measured by the FACT-B+4), are associated with overall survival in women with early-stage breast cancer.

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Objective: To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of regional and rural breast cancer survivors at 12 months post-diagnosis and to identify correlates of HRQoL. Methods: 323 (202 regional and 121 rural) Queensland women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer in 2006/2007 participated in a population-based, cross-sectional study. HRQoL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast plus arm morbidity (FACT-B+4) self-administered questionnaire. Results: In age-adjusted analyses, mean HRQoL scores of regional breast cancer survivors were comparable to their rural counterparts 12 months post-diagnosis (122.9, 95% CI: 119.8, 126.0 vs. 123.7, 95% CI: 119.7, 127.8; p>0.05). Irrespective of residence, younger (<50 years) women reported lower HRQoL than older (50+ years) women (113.5, 95% CI: 109.3, 117.8 vs. 128.2, 95%CI: 125.1, 131.2; p<0.05). Those women who received chemotherapy, reported two complications post-surgery, had poorer upper-body function than most, reported more stress, reduced coping, who were socially isolated, had no confidante for social-emotional support, had unmet healthcare needs, and low health self-efficacy reported lower HRQoL scores. Together, these factors explained 66% of the variance in overall HRQoL. The pattern of results remained similar for younger and older age groups. Conclusions and Implications: The results underscore the importance of supporting and promoting regional and rural breast cancer programs that are designed to improve physical functioning, reduce stress and provide psychosocial support following diagnosis. Further, the information can be used by general practitioners and other allied health professionals for identifying women at risk of poorer HRQoL.

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Purpose: Physical activity has become a focus of cancer recovery research as it has the potential to reduce treatment-related burden and optimize health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, the potential for physical activity to influence recovery may be age-dependent. This paper describes physical activity levels and HRQoL among younger and older women after surgery for breast cancer and explores the correlates of physical inactivity. Methods: A population-based sample of breast cancer patients diagnosed in South-East Queensland, Australia, (n=287) were assessed once every three months, from 6 to 18 months post-surgery. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire (FACTB+4) and items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire were used to measure HRQoL and physical activity, respectively. Physical activity was assigned metabolic equivalent task (MET) values, and categorized as < 3, 3 to 17.9 and 18+ MET-hours/weeks. Descriptive statistics, generalized linear models with age stratification (<50 years versus 50+ years), and logistic regression were used for analyses (p=0.05, two-tailed). Results: Younger women who engaged in 3 or more MET-hours/week of physical activity reported a higher HRQoL at 18 months compared to their more sedentary counterparts (p<0.05). Older women reported similar HRQoL irrespective of activity level and consistently reported clinically higher HRQoL than younger women. Increasing age, being overweight or obese, and restricting use of the treated side at six months post-surgery increased the likelihood of sedentary behavior (OR>3, p<0.05). Conclusions: Age influences the potential to observe HRQoL benefits related to physical activity participation. These results also provide relevant information for the design of exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors and highlights that some groups of women are at greater risk of long-term sedentary behavior.

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Objective: This review addresses the effect of overweight and obese weight status on pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Method: Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, AMED and PubMed were searched for peer-reviewed studies in English reporting HRQOL and weight status in youth (<21 years), published before March 2008. Results: Twenty-eight articles were identified. Regression of HRQOL against body mass index (BMI) using pooled data from 13 studies utilizing the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory identified an inverse relationship between BMI and pediatric HRQOL (r=−0.7, P=0.008), with impairments in physical and social functioning consistently reported. HRQOL seemed to improve with weight loss, but randomized controlled trials were few and lacked long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Little is known about the factors associated with reduced HRQOL among overweight or obese youth, although gender, age and obesity-related co-morbidities may play a role. Few studies have examined the differences in HRQOL between community and treatment-seeking samples. Pooled regressions suggest pediatric self-reported HRQOL can be predicted from parent proxy reports, although parents of obese youths tend to perceive worse HRQOL than children do about themselves. Thus, future research should include both pediatric and parent proxy perspectives.

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The increase of life expectancy worldwide during the last three decades has increased age-related disability leading to the risk of loss of quality of life. How to improve quality of life including physical health and mental health for older people and optimize their life potential has become an important health issue. This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to examine factors influencing health behaviours, and the relationship with quality of life. A cross-sectional mailed survey of 1300 Australians over 50 years was conducted at the beginning of 2009, with 730 completed questionnaires returned (response rate 63%). Preliminary analysis reveals that physiological changes of old age, especially increasing waist circumference and co morbidity was closely related to health status, especially worse physical health summary score. Physical activity was the least adherent behaviour among the respondents compared to eating healthy food and taking medication regularly as prescribed. Increasing number of older people living alone with co morbidity of disease may be the barriers that influence their attitude and self control toward physical activity. A multidisciplinary and integrated approach including hospital and non hospital care is required to provide appropriate services and facilities toward older people.

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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to specifically investigate the differences in culture, attitudes and social networks between Australian and Taiwanese men and women and identify the factors that predict midlife men and women’s quality of life in both countries. Methods: A stratified random sample strategy based on probability proportional sampling (PPS) was conducted to investigate 278 Australian and 398 Taiwanese midlife men and women’s quality of life. Multiple regression modelling and classification and regression trees (CARTs) were performed to examine the potential differences on culture, attitude, social networks, social demographic factors and religion/spirituality in midlife men and women’s quality of life in both Australia and Taiwan. Results: The results of this study suggest that culture involves multiple functions and interacts with attitudes, social networks and individual factors to influence a person’s quality of life. Significant relationships were found between the interaction between cultural circumstances and a person’s internal and external factors. The research found that good social support networks and a healthy optimistic disposition may significantly enhance midlife men and women’s quality of life. Conclusion: The study indicated that there is a significant relationship between culture, attitude, social networks and quality of life in midlife Australian and Taiwanese men and women. People who had higher levels of horizontal individualism and collectivism, positive attitudes and better social support had better psychological, social, physical and environmental health, while it emerged that vertical individualists with competitive characteristics would experience a lower quality of life. This study has highlighted areas where opportunities exist to further reflect upon contemporary social health policies for Australian and Taiwanese societies and also within the global perspective, in order to provide enhanced quality care for growing midlife populations.

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Background: This study examined the quality of life (QOL), measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) questionnaire, among urban (n=277) and non-urban (n=323) breast cancer survivors and women from the general population (n=1140) in Queensland, Australia. ---------- Methods: Population-based samples of breast cancer survivors aged <75 years who were 12 months post-diagnosis and similarly-aged women from the general population were recruited between 2002 and 2007. ---------- Results: Age-adjusted QOL among urban and non-urban breast cancer survivors was similar, although QOL related to breast cancer concerns was the weakest domain and was lower among non-urban survivors than their urban counterparts (36.8 versus 40.4, P<0.01). Irrespective of residence, breast cancer survivors, on average, reported comparable scores on most QOL scales as their general population peers, although physical well-being was significantly lower among non-urban survivors (versus the general population, P<0.01). Overall, around 20%-33% of survivors experienced lower QOL than peers without the disease. The odds of reporting QOL below normative levels were increased more than two-fold for those who experienced complications following surgery, reported upper-body problems, had higher perceived stress levels and/or a poor perception of handling stress (P<0.01 for all). ---------- Conclusions: Results can be used to identify subgroups of women at risk of low QOL and to inform components of tailored recovery interventions to optimize QOL for these women following cancer treatment.

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Objective To describe quality of life (QOL) over a 12-month period among women with breast cancer, consider the association between QOL and overall survival (OS), and explore characteristics associated with QOL declines. Methods A population-based sample of Australian women (n=287) with invasive, unilateral breast cancer (Stage I+), was observed prospectively for a median of 6.6 years. QOL was assessed at six, 12 and 18 months post-diagnosis, using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast (FACT-B+4) questionnaire. Raw scores for the FACT-B+4 and subscales were computed and individuals were categorized according to whether QOL declined, remained stable or improved between six and 18 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards survival methods were used to estimate OS and its associations with QOL. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with QOL decline. Results Within FACT-B+4 sub-scales, between 10% and 23% of women showed declines in QOL. Following adjustment for established prognostic factors, emotional wellbeing and FACT-B+4 scores at six months post-diagnosis were associated with OS (p<0.05). Declines in physical (p<0.01) or functional (p=0.02) well-being between six and 18 months post-diagnosis were also associated significantly with OS. Receiving multiple forms of adjuvant treatment, a perception of not handling stress well and reporting one or more other major life events at six months post-diagnosis were factors associated with declines in QOL in multivariable analyses. Conclusions Interventions targeted at preventing QOL declines may ultimately improve quantity as well as quality of life following breast cancer.

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