1000 resultados para Pharmacology


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β-Adrenoceptor blocking agents (β-blockers) that at low concentrations antagonize cardiostimulant effects of catecholamines, but at high concentrations also cause cardiostimulation, have been appearing since the late 1960s. These cardiostimulant β-blockers, coined non-conventional partial agonists, antagonize the effects of catecholamines through a high-affinity site (β1HAR), but cause cardiostimulation mainly through a low-affinity site (β1LAR) of the myocardial β1-adrenoceptor. The experimental non-conventional partial agonist (−)-CGP12177 increases cardiac L-type Ca2+ current density and Ca2+ transients, shortens action potential duration but augments action potential plateau, increases heart rate and force, as well as causes arrhythmic Ca2+ transients and arrhythmic cardiocyte contractions. Other β-blockers, which do not cause cardiostimulation, consistently have lower affinity for β1LAR than β1HAR. These sites were verified and the cardiac pharmacology of non-conventional partial agonists confirmed on recombinant β1-adrenoceptors and on β1-adrenoceptors overexpressed into the heart. A targeted mutation of Asp138 to Glu138 virtually abolished the pharmacology of β1HAR but left intact the pharmacology of β1LAR. Non-conventional partial agonists may be beneficial for the treatment of peripheral autonomic neuropathy but probably due to their arrhythmic propensities, may be harmful for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

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An eBook to support accelerated nursing students is being developed at QUT. The first component of this is a formative activity comprising key bioscience and pharmacology concepts and self-help quizzes. This initiative has been reviewed favourably by the students. The eBook will also cover requisite academic skills and revision bioscience material.

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Background: For medical and allied health students, bioscience knowledge underpins the successful scaffolding of learning in their developmental and advanced level units. Many of these students complete theory-based Bioscience units, followed by a unit in Pharmacology, which specifically requires knowledge of anatomy, physiology and microbiology. In general, studies of recall report relatively large losses over short retention intervals (months), which accumulate, but level off, for longer retention intervals (years) (Custers, 2010). However, there are no studies that specifically test the recall of bioscience knowledge by allied health students. Methods: We are tracking the recall of bioscience in nursing students prior to, and during, their Pharmacology unit. In each semester, students complete short, basic, knowledge-based MCQ quizzes on concepts from (i) the gastrointestinal system and (ii) fundamental microbiology. Students were given 5 days warning about the microbiology quizzes but were given no warning prior to the gastrointestinal system quiz. Performance in these quizzes was compared to individual student’s results in the final examination on these topics in the first semester of their degree. Results: At the start of the study, the nursing students performed better in the exam MCQs on the gastrointestinal system than on microbiology. In the exam, the students’ mean marks for the gastrointestinal system ranged from 69–83%, and this was successively reduced to 63%, 53% and 49% after 4, 9 and 16 months, respectively. The mean exam marks for microbiology was 48–58%, and this did not change significantly after 4 (63%), 9 (59%) or 16 months (47%). This suggests that warning the nursing students that they were to be quizzed on microbiology may have helped their recall. However, after 16 months regardless of the subject, the nursing students undertaking the Pharmacology unit recalled less than half of the bioscience quiz answers. Conclusions: Nursing students may not have the recall of bioscience necessary to study pharmacology, and this may limit their success in pharmacology. Reference: Custers, E. J. F. M. (2010). Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: a review study. Advances in Health Science Education, 15, 109–128.

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Although cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes occupy a key position in biological detoxification processes, two of the most relevant human isoenzymes, GSTT1-1 and GSTM1-1, are genetically deleted (non-functional alleles GSTT1*0 and GSTM1*0) in a high percentage of the human population, with major ethnic differences. The structures of the GSTT and GSTM gene areas explain the underlying genetic processes. GSTT1-1 is highly conserved during evolution and plays a major role in phase-II biotransformation of a number of drugs and industrial chemicals, e.g. cytostatic drugs, hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. GSTM1-1 is particularly relevant in the deactivation of carcinogenic intermediates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several lines of evidence suggest that hGSTT1-1 and/or hGSTM1-1 play a role in the deactivation of reactive oxygen species that are likely to be involved in cellular processes of inflammation, ageing and degenerative diseases. There is cumulating evidence that combinations of the GSTM1*0 state with other genetic traits affecting the metabolism of carcinogens (CYP1A1, GSTP1) may predispose the aero-digestive tract and lung, especially in smokers, to a higher risk of cancer. The GSTM1*0 status appears also associated with a modest increase in the risk of bladder cancer, consistent with a GSTM1 interaction with carcinogenic tobacco smoke constituents. Both human GST deletions, although largely counterbalanced by overlapping substrate affinities within the GST superfamily, have consequences when the organism comes into contact with distinct man-made chemicals. This appears relevant in industrial toxicology and in drug metabolism.

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- For use in Introductory Units/Courses to Biomedical/Science Students - For use with Allied Health Students who are taking pharmacology as a Unit/Course or a part Unit/Course

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Diploma students transitioning into the NS40 BNursing (BN) course at QUT withdraw from the bioscience and pharmacology units, and leave the university at higher rates than traditional students. The diploma students, entering in second year, have missed out on 2 units of bioscience taught to the traditional students in their first year, and miss out on a 3rd unit of bioscience taught to the traditional students in their 2nd year. Instead the diploma students receive one specialized unit in bioscience only i.e. a bridging unit. As a consequence, the diploma students may not have the depth of bioscience knowledge to be able to successfully study the bridging unit (LSB111) or the pharmacology unit (LSB384). Our plan was to write an eBook which refreshed and reinforced diploma students’ knowledge of bioscience aiming to prepare them with the concepts and terminology, and to build a level of confidence to support their transition to the BN. We have previously developed an intervention associated with reduced attrition of diploma nursing students, and this was our starting point. The study skills part of the initial intervention was addressed in the eBook, by links to the specialist services and resources available from our liaison librarian and academic skills adviser. The introductory bioscience/pharmacology information provided by the previous intervention involved material from standard textbooks. However, we considered this material too difficult for diploma students. Thus, we created simplified diagrams to go with text as part of our eBook. The outcome is an eBook, created and made available to the diploma students via the Community Website: “Surviving Bioscience and Pharmacology”. Using simplified diagrams to illustrate the concise text, definition to explain the concepts, the focus has been on encouraging self-awareness and help-seeking strategies and building students who take responsibility for their learning. All the nursing students in the second semester LSB384 Pharmacology Unit have been surveyed face-to-face to get feedback on their engagement with the eBook resource. The data has not been analysed to date. An important consideration is that the website be evaluated by the diploma students as they come into bioscience in first semester (LSB111), the student population for whom the eBook is primarily intended. To get a good response rate we need to do a face-to-face survey. However, we have not been able to do this, as the co-ordinator of the unit has changed since we started the project, and the present co-ordinator will not allow us access to these students.

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In order to reduce the attrition of accelerated nursing students in bioscience/pharmacology, we introduced an innovation to help these students. Although this innovation was associated with reduced attritions from the units in their first year at university, we now show that there was a reduced graduation rate of the accelerated students who survived pharmacology, compared to the traditional students.

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The antinociceptive properties of oxycodone and its metabolites were studied in models of thermal and mechanical nociception and in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Oxycodone induced potent antinociception after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in all models of nociception used in rats compared with morphine, methadone and its enantiomers. In the SNL model of neuropathic pain in rats, oxycodone produced dose dependent antinociception after s.c. administration. The antinociceptive effects of s.c. oxycodone were antagonized by naloxone but not by nor-binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI) a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist indicating that the antinociceptive properties of oxycodone are predominantly μ-opioid receptor-mediated. The antinociceptive activity of oxymorphone, noroxycodone, and noroxymorphone, oxidative metabolites of oxycodone, were studied to determine their role in the oxycodone-induced antinociception in the rat. Of the metabolites of oxycodone s.c. administration of oxymorphone produced potent thermal and mechanical antinociception. Noroxycodone had a poor antinociceptive effect and noroxymorphone was inactive. Oxycodone produced naloxone-reversible antinociception after intrathecal (i.t) administration with a poor potency compared with morphine and oxymorphone. This seems to be related to the low efficacy and potency of oxycodone to stimulate μ-opioid receptor activation in the spinal cord in μ-opioid receptor agonist-stimulated (GTP)γ[S] autoradiography, compared with morphine and oxymorphone. All metabolites studied were more potent than oxycodone after i.t. administration. I.t. noroxymorphone induced a significantly longer lasting antinociceptive effect compared with the other drugs studied. The role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6-mediated metabolites on the analgesic activity of oxycodone in humans was studied by blocking the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of oxycodone with paroxetine. Paroxetine co-administration had no effect on the analgesic effect of oxycodone compared with placebo in chronic pain patients, indicating that oxycodone-induced analgesia and adverse-effects are not dependent of the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism in humans. Although oxycodone has many pharmacologically active metabolites, they seem to have an insignificant role in oxycodone-induced antinociception in humans and rats.

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Background To reduce nursing shortages, accelerated nursing programs are available for domestic and international students. However, the withdrawal and failure rates from these programs may be different than for the traditional programs. The main aim of our study was to improve the retention and experience of accelerated nursing students. Methods The academic background, age, withdrawal and failure rates of the accelerated and traditional students were determined. Data from 2009 and 2010 were collected prior to intervention. In an attempt to reduce the withdrawal of accelerated students, we set up an intervention, which was available to all students. The assessment of the intervention was a pre-post-test design with non-equivalent groups (the traditional and the accelerated students). The elements of the intervention were a) a formative website activity of some basic concepts in anatomy, physiology and pharmacology, b) a workshop addressing study skills and online resources, and c) resource lectures in anatomy/physiology and microbiology. The formative website and workshop was evaluated using questionnaires. Results The accelerated nursing students were five years older than the traditional students (p < 0.0001). The withdrawal rates from a pharmacology course are higher for accelerated nursing students, than for traditional students who have undertaken first year courses in anatomy and physiology (p = 0.04 in 2010). The withdrawing students were predominantly the domestic students with non-university qualifications or equivalent experience. The failure rates were also higher for this group, compared to the traditional students (p = 0.05 in 2009 and 0.03 in 2010). In contrast, the withdrawal rates for the international and domestic graduate accelerated students were very low. After the intervention, the withdrawal and failure rates in pharmacology for domestic accelerated students with non-university qualifications were not significantly different than those of traditional students. Conclusions The accelerated international and domestic graduate nursing students have low withdrawal rates and high success rates in a pharmacology course. However, domestic students with non-university qualifications have higher withdrawal and failure rates than other nursing students and may be underprepared for university study in pharmacology in nursing programs. The introduction of an intervention was associated with reduced withdrawal and failure rates for these students in the pharmacology course.

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The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane proteins. CFTR has two homologous halves, each consisting of six transmembrane spanning domains (TM) followed by a nucleotide binding fold, connected by a regulatory (R) domain. This thesis addresses the question of which domains are responsible for Cl^- selectivity, i.e., which domains line the channel pore.

To address this question, novel blockers of CFTR were characterized. CFTR was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes to study the mechanism of block by two closely related arylaminobenzoates, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC) and flufenamic acid (FFA). Block by both is voltage-dependent, with a binding site ≈ 40% through the electric field of the membrane. DPC and FFA can both reach their binding site from either side of the membrane to produce a flickering block of CFTR single channels. In addition, DPC block is influenced by Cl^- concentration, and DPC blocks with a bimolecular forward binding rate and a unimolecular dissociation rate. Therefore, DPC and FFA are open-channel blockers of CFTR, and a residue of CFTR whose mutation affects their binding must line the pore.

Screening of site-directed mutants for altered DPC binding affinity reveals that TM-6 and TM-12 line the pore. Mutation of residue 5341 in TM-6 abolishes most DPC block, greatly reduces single-channel conductance, and alters the direction of current rectification. Additional residues are found in TM-6 (K335) and TM-12 (T1134) whose mutations weaken or strengthen DPC block; other mutations move the DPC binding site from TM-6 to TM-12. The strengthened block and lower conductance due to mutation T1134F is quantitated at the single-channel level. The geometry of DPC and of the residues mutated suggest α-helical structures for TM-6 and TM-12. Evidence is presented that the effects of the mutations are due to direct side-chain interaction, and not to allosteric effects propagated through the protein. Mutations are also made in TM-11, including mutation S1118F, which gives voltage-dependent current relaxations. The results may guide future studies on permeation through ABC transporters and through other Cl^- channels.

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Although the management of breast cancer has improved over the past few decades, it remains an important challenge for the clinician. Cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormonotherapy, when given in the adjuvant setting, have a definitive though modest impact on the outcome of early-stage breast cancer. In metastatic disease, these therapies help to provide substantial palliation of symptoms but have a limited impact on survival. The discovery of vinorelbine and the taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, certainly represented the most encouraging clinical development of the 1980s in breast cancer therapy. Several other new cytotoxic agents have been recognised for their potential in the treatment of this disorder. Many of them are only in a very early phase of their clinical development and it remains to be proven that they will have a major role in daily practice in the near future.