998 resultados para Patología Oral Forense


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Head and neck cancers are some of the leading cancers in the coloured and black South African male population and the perception exists that the incidence rates are rising. Aims: To determine the standardised morbidity rates and some of the risk factors for oral cancer in South Africa. Methods: Using histologically verified data from the National Cancer Registry, the age standardised incidence rates (ASIR) and life-time risks (LR) of oral cancer in South Africa were calculated for 1988-1991.2. In an ongoing case control study (1995 +) among black patients in Johannesburg/Soweto, adjusted odds ratios for developing oral cancers in relation to tobacco and alcohol consumption were calculated. Results: Coloured males vs. females: ASIR 13.13 vs. 3.5 (/100,000/year), LR 1:65 vs. 1:244. Black males vs. females: ASIR 9.06 vs. 1.75, LR 1:86 and 1:455. White males vs. females: ASIR 8.06 vs. 3.18, LR 1:104 vs. 1:278. Asian males vs. females: ASIR 5.24 vs. 6.66, LR 1:161 vs. 1:125. The odds ratio for oral cancer in black males in relation to smoking was 7.0 (95% CI 3.0-14.6) and daily alcohol consumption 1.3 (95% CI 0.6-2.8). In black females the odds ratios in relation to smoking were 3.9 (95% CI 1.7 8.9) and daily alcohol consumption 1.7(95% CI 0.7-4.1). Conclusions: The risk factors for oral cancer in South Africa are multiple and gender discrepancies in ASIR and LR signal differences in exposure to carcinogens. It is unclear whether the incidence of oral cancers will rise in the future.

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The authors used data collected from 1995 to 1999, from an on-going cancer case–control study in greater Johannesburg, to estimate the importance of tobacco and alcohol consumption and other suspected risk factors with respect to cancer of the oesophagus (267 men and 138 women), lung (105 men and 41 women), oral cavity (87 men and 37 women), and larynx (51 men). Cancers not associated with tobacco or alcohol consumption were used as controls (804 men and 1370 women). Tobacco smoking was found to be the major risk factor for all of these cancers with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.5–4.5) for oesophageal cancer in female ex-smokers to 50.9 (95% CI 12.6–204.6) for lung cancer in women, and 23.9 (95% CI 9.5–60.3) for lung cancer and 23.6 (95% CI 4.6–121.2) for laryngeal cancer in men who smoked 15 or more grams of tobacco a day. This is the first time an association between smoking and oral and laryngeal cancers has been shown in sub-Saharan Africa. Long-term residence in the Transkei region in the southeast of the country continues to be a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, especially in women (odds ratio=14.7, 95% CI 4.7–46.0), possibly due to nutritional factors. There was a slight increase in lung cancer (odds ratio=2.9, 95% CI 1.1–7.5) in men working in ‘potentially noxious’ industries. ‘Frequent’ alcohol consumption, on its own, caused a marginally elevated risk for oesophageal cancer (odds ratio=1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.9, for women and odds ratio=1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, for men). The risks for oesophageal cancer in relation to alcohol consumption increased significantly in male and female smokers (odds ratio=4.7, 95% CI=2.8–7.9 in males and odds ratio=4.8, 95% CI 3.2–6.1 in females). The above results are broadly in line with international findings.

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AIM: This systematic review investigated the prescription, administration and effectiveness of oral liquid nutritional supplements (OLNS) for people with dementia in residential aged care facilities (RACF). METHODS: A comprehensive search of relevant databases, hand searching and cross-referencing found 15 relevant articles from a total of 2910 possible results. Articles which met the inclusion criteria were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the relevant Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) appraisal checklist. Data were extracted using the relevant JBI extraction instruments. No data synthesis was possible due to clinical and methodological heterogeneity. RESULTS: Included studies examined a range of strategies, issues and results related to OLNS for persons with dementia in RACFs; however there appear to be significant gaps in the current body of research, particularly in relation to examinations of effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review was unable to produce a definitive finding regarding effectiveness. OLNS may improve the nutritional state of residents with dementia and help prevent weight loss, and there is some suggestion that it may slow the rate of cognitive decline. However, in order for OLNS to be effective, nursing and care staff need to ensure that sufficient attention is paid to the issues of prescription and administration.

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Oral diseases, or stomatognathic diseases, denote the diseases of the mouth (“stoma”) and jaw (“gnath”). Dental caries and periodontal diseases have been traditionally considered as the most important global oral health burdens. It is important to note that in oral diagnostics, the greatest challenges are determining the clinical utility of potential biomarkers for screening (in asymptomatic people), predicting the early onset of disease (prognostic tests), and evaluating the disease activity and the efficacy of therapy through innovative diagnostic tests. An oral diagnostic test, in principle, should provide valuable information for differential diagnosis, localization of disease, and severity of infection. This information can then be incorporated by the physician when planning treatments and will provide means for assessing the effectiveness of therapy.

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Background: There are persistent concerns about litigation in the dental and medical professions. These concerns arise in a setting where general dentists are more frequently undertaking a wider range of oral surgery procedures, potentially increasing legal risk. Methods: Judicial cases dealing with medical negligence in the fields of general dentistry (oral surgery procedure) and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were located using the three main legal databases. Relevant cases were analysed to determine the procedures involved, the patients’ claims of injury, findings of negligence, and damages awarded. A thematic analysis of the cases was undertaken to determine trends. Results: Fifteen cases over a twenty-year period were located across almost all Australian jurisdictions (eight cases involved general dentists; seven cases involved Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons). Eleven of the fifteen cases involved determinations of whether or not the practitioner had failed in their duty of care; negligence was found in six cases. Eleven of the fifteen cases related to molar extractions (eight specifically to third molar). Conclusions: Dental and medical practitioners wanting to manage legal risk should have regard to circumstances arising in judicial cases. Adequate warning of risks is critical, as is offering referral in appropriate cases. Pre-operative radiographs, good medical records, and processes to ensure appropriate follow-up are also important.

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Oral administration of dry vaccine formulations is acknowledged to offer major clinical and logistical benefits by eliminating the cold chain required for liquid preparations. A model antigen, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was encapsulated in alginate microspheres using aerosolisation. Hydrated microspheres 25 to 65 μm in size with protein loading of 3.3 % w/w were obtained. Environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated a stabilizing effect of encapsulated protein on alginate hydrogels revealed by an increase in dehydration resistance. Freeze drying of alginate microspheres without use of a cryoprotectant resulted in fragmentation and subsequent rapid loss of the majority of the protein load in simulated intestinal fluid in 2 h, whereas intact microspheres were observed following freeze-drying of BSA-loaded microspheres in the presence of maltodextrin. BSA release from freeze-dried preparations was limited to less than 7 % in simulated gastric fluid over 2 h, while 90 % of the protein load was gradually released in simulated intestinal fluid over 10 h. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that released BSA largely preserved its molecular weight. These findings demonstrate the potential for manufacturing freeze-dried oral vaccines using alginate microspheres.

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Background Increases in the incidence of squamous cell oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have been reported from some countries, but have not been assessed in Australia or New Zealand. This study examines trends for squamous cell OPC and squamous cell oral cavity cancer (OCC) in two similarly sized populations, New Zealand and Queensland, Australia. Methods Incidence data for 1982–2010 were obtained from the respective population-based cancer registries for squamous cell OPC and OCC, by subsite, sex, and age. Time trends and annual percentage changes (APCs) were assessed by joinpoint regression. Results The incidence rates of squamous cell OPC in males in New Zealand since 2005 and Queensland since 2006 have increased rapidly, with APCs of 11.9% and 10.6% respectively. The trends were greatest at ages 50–69 and followed more gradual increases previously. In females, rates increased by 2.1% per year in New Zealand from 1982, but by only 0.9% (not significant) in Queensland. In contrast, incidence rates for OCC decreased by 1.2% per year in males in Queensland since 1982, but remained stable for females in Queensland and for both sexes in New Zealand. Overall, incidence rates for both OCC and OPC were substantially higher in Queensland than in New Zealand. In males in both areas, OPC incidence is now higher than that of OCC. Conclusions Incidence rates of squamous cell OPC have increased rapidly in men, while rates of OCC have been stable or reducing, showing distinct etiologies. This has both clinical and public health importance, including implications for the extension of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination to males.

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Anti-cancer drug loaded-nanoparticles (NPs) or encapsulation of NPs in colon-targeted delivery systems shows potential for increasing the local drug concentration in the colon leading to improved treatment of colorectal cancer. To investigate the potential of the NP-based strategies for colon-specific delivery, two formulations, free Eudragit® NPs and enteric-coated NP-loaded chitosan–hypromellose microcapsules (MCs) were fluorescently-labelled and their tissue distribution in mice after oral administration was monitored by multispectral small animal imaging. The free NPs showed a shorter transit time throughout the mouse digestive tract than the MCs, with extensive excretion of NPs in faeces at 5 h. Conversely, the MCs showed complete NP release in the lower region of the mouse small intestine at 8 h post-administration. Overall, the encapsulation of NPs in MCs resulted in a higher colonic NP intensity from 8 h to 24 h post-administration compared to the free NPs, due to a NP ‘guarding’ effect of MCs during their transit along mouse gastrointestinal tract which decreased NP excretion in faeces. These imaging data revealed that this widely-utilised colon-targeting MC formulation lacked site-precision for releasing its NP load in the colon, but the increased residence time of the NPs in the lower gastrointestinal tract suggests that it is still useful for localised release of chemotherapeutics, compared to NP administration alone. In addition, both formulations resided in the stomach of mice at considerable concentrations over 24 h. Thus, adhesion of NP- or MC-based oral delivery systems to gastric mucosa may be problematic for colon-specific delivery of the cargo to the colon and should be carefully investigated for a full evaluation of particulate delivery systems.

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The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18–35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p = 0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p = 0.0004) and in the last year (p = 0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians.

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Aims: To establish a model to measure bidirectional flow of water from a glucose oral rehydration solution (G-ORS) and a newly developed rice-based oral rehydration solution (R-ORS) using a dual isotope tracer technique in a rat perfusion model. To measure net water, sodium and potassium absorption from the ORS. Methods: In viva steady-state perfusion studies were carried out in normal and secreting (induced by cholera toxin) rat small intestine (n = 11 in each group). To determine bidirectional flow of water from the ORS the animals were initially labelled with tritium, and deuterium was added to the perfusion solution. Sequential perfusate and blood samples were collected after attainment of steady-state conditions and analysed for water and electrolyte content. Results: There was a significant increase in net water absorption from the R-ORS compared to the G-ORS in both the normal (P < 0.02) and secreting intestine (P < 0.05). Water efflux was significantly reduced in the R-ORS group compared to the G-ORS group in both the normal (P < 0.01) and the secreting intestine (P < 0.01). There was an increase in sodium absorption in the R-ORS group compared to the G-ORS. The G-ORS produced a significantly greater blood glucose level at 75 min compared to the R-ORS (P < 0.03) in the secreting intestine. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the improved water absorption from a rice-based ORS in both the normal and secreting intestine. Evidence that the absorption of water may be influenced by the osmolality of the ORS was also demonstrated.

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A prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) with glucose ORS in infants and children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhoea and mild to moderate dehydration (<10%). One hundred children presenting to a large metropolitan teaching hospital were eligible for entry to the study and were randomized to receive rice ORS or glucose ORS. Outcome measures were stool output (SO), duration of illness (DD) and recovery time to introduction of other fluids (RTF) and diet (RTD). Significant differences were found for all outcome measures in favour of the rice ORS group. Mean SO was lower (160 vs 213 mt; P<0.02), mean DD was reduced (17.3 vs 24.3 h; P = 0.03) and median RTF was decreased (12.7 vs 18.1 h; P< 0.001) in the rice ORS group compared with the glucose ORS group. The median rime to introduction of diet and mean length of hospital stay showed similar significant reductions. Our study has shown rice ORS to be an acceptable alternative to glucose ORS in young children and have shown that it is significantly more effective in reducing the course of diarrhoeal illness and the time taken to return to normal drinking and eating habits.

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Measurements were made of the intake of a WHO/UNICEF glucose-based and a rice cereal-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) by children with diarrhoea. Twenty children who presented to the Children's Outpatient Department at Port Moresby General Hospital with acute diarrhoea and mild dehydration were randomly assigned to an ORS and measurements were taken over the following 3 hours. For data analysis, the patients were paired by weight. Testing the means of the paired samples by t test showed that there was no significant difference between the amount of rice ORS and the amount of glucose ORS taken over 3 hours. The discovery of oral rehydration solution (ORS) for the treatment of diarrheal disease has been heralded as the most important medical discovery of the century. Cereal-based ORS is able to decrease stool output and the duration of diarrheal illness more than the standard glucose-based ORS, through the increased absorption provided by oligosaccharides without the imposition of a greater osmotic penalty. Moreover, the peptides in cereals enhance amino acid and water absorption, while providing nutritional benefits. UNICEF's glucose-based ORS is becoming more widely used in Papua New Guinea (PNG). 20 children aged 6-37 months (mean age, 15 months) who presented to the Children's Outpatient Department at Port Moresby General Hospital during September-October 1993 with acute diarrhea and mild dehydration were randomly assigned to receive either a rice-based ORS or standard glucose ORS, and measurements were taken over the following 3 hours. The patients were paired by weight for analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between the amount of rice ORS and the amount of glucose ORS taken over 3 hours.

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The guardians of children brought to the Port Moresby General Hospital's Children's Outpatient Department with a chief complaint of diarrhoeal disease were questioned regarding their preference of glucose-based vs rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) in order to determine the acceptability of a rice-based ORS. Of the 93 guardians interviewed, greater than 60% preferred the glucose-based solution in its mixability, appearance and taste, and 65% initially reported that their children preferred the taste of the glucose solution. However, after a 30-minute trial, only 58% of children still preferred the glucose solution. In a country where diarrhoeal disease is a leading cause of child death and guardians are the primary health care providers, the acceptability of an ORS is critical to the morbidity and mortality of Papua New Guinea's children. Killing an estimated 2.9 million children annually, diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Diarrheal disease is also the second leading cause of child mortality in Papua New Guinea (PNG), killing an average 193 inpatient children per year over the period 1984-90. However, despite the high level of diarrhea-related mortality and the proven efficacy of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in managing diarrhea-related dehydration, standardized ORT has been underutilized in PNG. The current glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) does not reduce the frequency or volume of a child's diarrhea, the most immediate concern of caregivers during episodes of illness. Cereal-based ORS, made from cereals which are commonly available as food staples in most countries, better address the short-term concerns of caregivers while offering a superior nutritional profile. A sample of guardians of children brought to the Port Moresby General Hospital's Children's Outpatient Department complaining of child diarrhea were asked about their preferences on glucose-based versus rice-based ORS in order to determine the acceptability of a rice-based ORS. More than 60% of the 93 guardians interviewed preferred the glucose-based solution for its mixability, appearance, and taste. 65% initially reported that their children preferred the taste of the glucose solution. However, after a 30-minute trial, only 58% of children still preferred the glucose solution.

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An open-label, inpatient study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS) given randomly to children aged 1-10 years who had acute gastroenteritis with mild or moderate dehydration (n = 45). One solution contained 60 mmol/L sodium and 1.8% glucose, total osmolality 240 mosm/l (gastrolyte, Rhone-poulenc, Rorer) and the other contained 26 mmol/l sodium, 2.7% glucose and 3.6% sucrose, total osmolality 340 mOsm/l (Glucolyte, Gilseal). Analysis of data indicated that Gastrolyte therapy resulted in significantly fewer episodes and volume of vomiting over all time periods in comparison to Glucolyte and significantly less stool volume during the first 8 h and in the 0-24 h period. The differences between treatments in degree of dehydration at each follow-up period, duration of diarrhea, and duration of hospital stay were not significant. No adverse drug reactions occurred. Six patients received intravenous rehydration treatment and were considered treatment failures. We conclude that oral rehydration therapy is safe and efficacious in the management of dehydration in acute diarrhoea and that the lower osmolar rehydration solution has clinically marginal advantages.