1000 resultados para Pathogenesis


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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disorder and represents a major health burden to society. In the course of the pathological development of OA, articular cartilage chondrocytes (ACCs) undergo atypical phenotype changes characterized by the expression of hypertrophic differentiation markers. Also, the adjacent subchondral bone shows signs of abnormal mineral density and enhanced production of bone turnover markers, indicative of osteoblast dysfunction. Collectively these findings indicate that the pathological changes typical of OA, involve alterations of the phenotypic properties of cells in both the subchondral bone and articular cartilage. However, the mechanism(s) by which these changes occur during OA development are not completely understood. The purpose of this project was to address the question of how subchondral bone osteoblasts (SBOs) and ACCs interact with each other with respect to regulation of respective cells’ phenotypic properties and in particular the involvement of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways under normal and OA joint condition. We also endeavoured to test the influence of cross-talk between SBOs and ACCs isolated from normal and OA joint on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. For this purpose tissues from the knees of OA patients and normal controls were collected to isolate SBOs and ACCs. The cellular cross-talk of SBOs and ACCs were studied by means of both direct and indirect co-culture systems, which made it possible to identify the role of both membrane bound and soluble factors. Histology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, zymography, ELISA and western blotting were some of the techniques applied to distinguish the changes in the co-cultured vs. non co-cultured cells. The MAPK signalling pathways were probed by using targeted MAPK inhibitors, and their activity monitored by western blot analysis using phospho MAPK specific antibodies. Our co-culture studies demonstrated that OA ACCs enhanced the SBOs differentiation compared to normal ACCs. We demonstrated that OA ACCs induced these phenotypic changes in the SBOs via activating an ERK1/2 signalling pathway. The findings from this study thus provided clear evidence that OA ACCs play an integral role in altering the SBO phenotype. In the second study, we tested the influence of normal SBOs and OA SBOs on ACCs phenotype changes. The results showed that OA SBOs increased the hypertrophic gene expression in co-cultured ACCs compared to normal SBOs, a phenotype which is considered as pathological to the health and integrity of articular cartilage. It was demonstrated that these phenotype changes occurred via de-activation of p38 and activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These findings suggest that the pathological interaction of OA SBOs with ACCs is mediated by cross-talking between ERK1/2 and p38 pathways, resulting in ACCs undergoing hypertrophic differentiation. Subsequent experiments to determine the effect on MMP regulation, of SBOs and ACCs cross-talk, revealed that co-culturing OA SBOs with ACCs significantly enhanced the proteolytic activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In turn, co-culture of OA ACCs with SBOs led to abundant MMP-2 expression in SBOs. Furthermore, we showed that the addition of ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors reversed the elevated MMP-2 and MMP-9 production which otherwise resulted from the interactions of OA SBOs-ACCs. Thus, this study has demonstrated that the altered interactions between OA SBOs-ACCs are capable of triggering the pathological pathways leading to degenerative changes seen in the osteoarthritic joint. In conclusion, the body of work presented in this dissertation has given clear in vitro evidence that the altered bi-directional communication of SBOs and ACCs may play a role in OA development and that this process was mediated by MAPK signalling pathways. Targeting these altered interactions by the use of MAPK inhibitors may provide the scientific rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment and management of OA.

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Objective: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that lipid biology is integral to brain development and neurodegeneration. Both aspects are proposed as being important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of lipid biology, in particular the role of essential fatty acids (EFA), for schizophrenia. Methods: Medline databases were searched from 1966 to 2001 followed by the crosschecking of references. Results: Most studies investigating lipids in schizophrenia described reduced EFA, altered glycerophospholipids and an increased activity of a calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in blood cells and in post-mortem brain tissue. Additionally, in vivo brain phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) demonstrated lower phosphomonoesters (implying reduced membrane precursors) in first- and multi-episode patients. In contrast, phosphodiesters were elevated mainly in first-episode patients (implying increased membrane breakdown products), whereas inconclusive results were found in chronic patients. EFA supplementation trials in chronic patient populations with residual symptoms have demonstrated conflicting results. More consistent results were observed in the early and symptomatic stages of illness, especially if EFA with a high proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid was used. Conclusion: Peripheral blood cell, brain necropsy and 31P-MRS analysis reveal a disturbed lipid biology, suggesting generalized membrane alterations in schizophrenia. 31P-MRS data suggest increased membrane turnover at illness onset and persisting membrane abnormalities in established schizophrenia. Cellular processes regulating membrane lipid metabolism are potential new targets for antipsychotic drugs and might explain the mechanism of action of treatments such as eicosapentaenoic acid.

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HtrA (High Temperature Requirement A) is a critical stress response protease and chaperone for many bacteria. HtrA is a multitasking protein which can degrade unfolded proteins, conduct specific proteolysis of some substrates for correct assembly, interact with substrates to ensure correct folding, assembly or localisation, and chaperone unfolded proteins. These functions are critical for the virulence of a number of bacterial pathogens, in some cases not simply due to the broad activities of HtrA in protection against the protein stress conditions which occur during virulence. But also due to the role of HtrA in either specific proteolysis or assembly of key protein substrates which function directly in virulence. Remarkably, these activities are all conducted without any requirement for ATP. The biochemical mechanism of HtrA relies both on the chymotryptic serine protease active site as well as the presence of two PDZ (protein binding) domains. The mechanism is a unique combination of activation by substrate motifs to alter the confirmation of the active site, and assembly into a multimeric complex which has enhanced degradation and may also act as a protective cage for proteins which are not degraded. The role of this protease in the pathogenesis of a number of bacteria and the details of its distinctive biochemical activation and assembly mechanisms are discussed in this chapter.

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The reason why a sustained high concentration of insulin induces laminitis in horses remains unclear. Cell proliferation occurs in the lamellae during insulin-induced laminitis and in other species high concentrations of insulin can activate receptors for the powerful cell mitogen, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. The first aim of this study was to determine if IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) are activated in the hoof during insulin-induced laminitis. Gene expression for IGF-1R and the insulin receptor (InsR) was measured using qRT-PCR, in lamellar tissue from control horses and from horses undergoing a prolonged euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp (p-EHC), during the mid-developmental (24 h) and acute (46 h) phases of insulin-induced laminitis. Gene expression for both receptors was decreased 13–32-fold (P < 0.05) at both time-points in the insulin-treated horses. A second aim was to determine if the down-regulation of the receptor genes could be accounted for by an increase in circulating IGF-1. Serum IGF-1 was measured at 0, 10, 25 and 46 h post-treatment in horses given a p-EHC for approximately 46 h, and in matched controls administered a balanced, electrolyte solution. There was no increase in serum IGF-1 concentrations during the p-EHC, consistent with down-regulation of both receptors by insulin. Stimulation of the IGF-1R by insulin may lead to inappropriate lamellar epidermal cell proliferation and lamellar weakening, a potential mechanism for hyperinsulinaemic laminitis. Targeting this receptor may provide insights into the pathogenesis or identify a novel therapy for hyperinsulinaemic laminitis.

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Research into hyperinsulinemic laminitis has progressed significantly in recent years with the use of the prolonged-euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (p-EHC). Previous investigations of laminitis pathophysiology have focused on digital vascular dysfunction, inflammation, altered glucose metabolism within the lamellae, and lamellar basement membrane breakdown by metalloproteinases. The etiopathogenesis of laminitis occurring in association with hyperinsulinemia is yet to be fully characterized, but it may not involve these mechanisms. Insulin stimulates cellular proliferation and can also affect other body systems, such as the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is structurally homologous to insulin and, like insulin, binds with strong affinity to a specific tyrosine kinase receptor on the cell surface to produce its effects, which include promoting cell proliferation. Receptors for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) are present in the lamellar epidermis. An alternative theory for the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemic laminitis is that uncontrolled cell proliferation, mediated through both the insulin receptor (InsR) and IGF-1R, leads to lengthening, weakening, and failure of the lamellae. An analysis of the proliferative activity of lamellar epidermal cells during the developmental and acute phases of hyperinsulinemic laminitis, and lamellar gene expression of the InsR and IGF-1R was undertaken.

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The link between chronic immune activation and tumorigenesis is well established. Compelling evidence has accumulated that histologic assessment of infiltration patterns of different host immune response components in non-small cell lung cancer specimens helps identify different prognostic patient subgroups. This review provides an overview of recent insights gained in the understanding of the role played by chronic inflammation in lung carcinogenesis. The usefulness of quantification of different populations of lymphocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, and mast cells within the tumor microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer is also discussed. In particular, the importance of assessment of inflammatory cell microlocalization within both the tumor islet and surrounding stromal components is emphasized. Copyright © 2010 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is part of a family of plasma membrane receptor tyrosine kinases that control many important cellular functions, from growth and proliferation to cell death. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is an enzyme which catalyses the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostagladins and thromboxane. It is induced by various inflammatory stimuli, including the pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin (IL)-1β, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and IL-2. Both EGFR and COX-2 are over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have been implicated in the early stages of tumourigenesis. This paper considers their roles in the development and progression of lung cancer, their potential interactions, and reviews the recent progress in cancer therapies that are directed toward these targets. An increasing body of evidence suggests that selective inhibitors of both EGFR and COX-2 are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of NSCLC, in the adjuvant, metastatic and chemopreventative settings. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Caveolae and their proteins, the caveolins, transport macromolecules; compartmentalize signalling molecules; and are involved in various repair processes. There is little information regarding their role in the pathogenesis of significant renal syndromes such as acute renal failure (ARF). In this study, an in vivo rat model of 30 min bilateral renal ischaemia followed by reperfusion times from 4 h to 1 week was used to map the temporal and spatial association between caveolin-1 and tubular epithelial damage (desquamation, apoptosis, necrosis). An in vitro model of ischaemic ARF was also studied, where cultured renal tubular epithelial cells or arterial endothelial cells were subjected to injury initiators modelled on ischaemia-reperfusion (hypoxia, serum deprivation, free radical damage or hypoxia-hyperoxia). Expression of caveolin proteins was investigated using immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, and immunoblots of whole cell, membrane or cytosol protein extracts. In vivo, healthy kidney had abundant caveolin-1 in vascular endothelial cells and also some expression in membrane surfaces of distal tubular epithelium. In the kidneys of ARF animals, punctate cytoplasmic localization of caveolin-1 was identified, with high intensity expression in injured proximal tubules that were losing basement membrane adhesion or were apoptotic, 24 h to 4 days after ischaemia-reperfusion. Western immunoblots indicated a marked increase in caveolin-1 expression in the cortex where some proximal tubular injury was located. In vitro, the main treatment-induced change in both cell types was translocation of caveolin-1 from the original plasma membrane site into membrane-associated sites in the cytoplasm. Overall, expression levels did not alter for whole cell extracts and the protein remained membrane-bound, as indicated by cell fractionation analyses. Caveolin-1 was also found to localize intensely within apoptotic cells. The results are indicative of a role for caveolin-1 in ARF-induced renal injury. Whether it functions for cell repair or death remains to be elucidated.

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A pro-fibrotic role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in tubular cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well established in renal fibrosis; however studies from our group and others have demonstrated some previously unrecognized complexity of MMP-9 that has been overlooked in renal fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern, origin and the exact mechanism underlying the contribution of MMP-9 to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), a well-established model of renal fibrosis via MMP-9 inhibition. Renal MMP-9 expression in BALB/c mice with UUO was examined on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14. To inhibit MMP-9 activity, MMP-2/9 inhibitor or MMP-9-neutralizing antibody was administered daily for 4 consecutive days from day 0-3, 6-9 or 10-13 and tissues harvested at day 14. In UUO, there was a bi-phasic early- and late-stage upregulation of MMP-9 activity. Interestingly, tubular epithelial cells (TECs) were the predominant source of MMP-9 during early stage, whereas TECs, macrophages and myofibroblasts produced MMP-9 during late-stage UUO. Early- and late-stage inhibition of MMP-9 in UUO mice significantly reduced tubular cell EMT and renal fibrosis. Moreover, MMP-9 inhibition caused a significant reduction in MMP-9-cleaved osteopontin and macrophage infiltration in UUO kidney. Our in vitro study showed MMP-9-cleaved osteopontin enhanced macrophage transwell migration and MMP-9 of both primary TEC and macrophage induced tubular cell EMT. In summary, our result suggests that MMP-9 of both TEC and macrophage origin may directly or indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis via osteopontin cleavage, which, in turn further recruit macrophage and induce tubular cell EMT. Our study also highlights the time dependency of its expression and the potential of stage-specific inhibition strategy against renal fibrosis.

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This 2nd special edition of Cells Tissues Organs on epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) stems from the 2nd International Conference on EMT, which was convened by Shoukat Dedhar and Raghu Kalluri on October 1–3, 2005, in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. EMT – the transformation of epithelial cells which are usually arranged in a coherent layer and sessile, into more individualistic and motile cells, mesenchymal cells – is well recognized as an important primary mechanism in embryogenesis for remodeling tissues, as is the reverse transition. This has obvious implications in numerous pathophysiologies, and in particular EMT has emerged as an important feature of fibrosis in a growing number of organ types. It is now clear that about a third of the fibroblasts in the setting of organ fibrosis are likely derived from the epithelium. Cancer EMT remains topical, and although EMT has been reported in many cancer studies, this meeting was held against a backdrop of controversy in the cancer community as to the prevalence of EMT in clinical scenarios [Tarin et al.: Cancer Res 2005;65:5996–6000; Thompson et al.: Cancer Res 2005;65:5991–5995]...

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the primary hepatic malignancies and is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although a wealth of knowledge has been gained concerning the initiation and progression of HCC over the last half century, efforts to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis at a molecular level are still greatly needed, to enable clinicians to enhance the standards of the current diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In the post-genome era, advanced mass spectrometry driven multi-omics technologies (e.g., profiling of DNA damage adducts, RNA modification profiling, proteomics, and metabolomics) stand at the interface between chemistry and biology, and have yielded valuable outcomes from the study of a diversity of complicated diseases. Particularly, these technologies are being broadly used to dissect various biological aspects of HCC with the purpose of biomarker discovery, interrogating pathogenesis as well as for therapeutic discovery. This proof of knowledge-based critical review aims at exploring the selected applications of those defined omics technologies in the HCC niche with an emphasis on translational applications driven by advanced mass spectrometry, toward the specific clinical use for HCC patients. This approach will enable the biomedical community, through both basic research and the clinical sciences, to enhance the applicability of mass spectrometry-based omics technologies in dissecting the pathogenesis of HCC and could lead to novel therapeutic discoveries for HCC.

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Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide resulting in 4–5 million new cases of Chlamydia annually and an estimated 100 million cases per annum. Infections of the lower female genital tract (FGT) frequently are asymptomatic so they often remain undiagnosed or untreated. If infections are either not resolved, or are left untreated, chlamydia can ascend to the upper FGT and infect the fallopian tubes (FTs) causing salpingitis that may lead to functional damage of the FTs and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Clinical observations and experimental data have indicated a role for antibodies against C. trachomatis proteins such as the 60 kDa heat-shock protein 60 (cHSP60) in the immunopathogenesis of TFI. When released from infected cells cHSP60 can induce pro-inflammatory immune responses that may functionally impair the FTs leading to fibrosis and luminal occlusion. Chlamydial pathogenesis of irreversible and permanent tubal damage is a consequence of innate and adaptive host immune responses to ongoing or repeated infections. The extracellular matrix (ECM) that is regulated by metalloproteinases (MMPs) may also be modified by chlamydial infections of the FGT. This review will highlight protective and pathogenic immune responses to ongoing and repeated chlamydial infections of the FGT. It will also present two recent hypotheses to explain mechanisms that may contribute to FT damage during a C. trachomatis infection. If Chlamydia immunopathology can be controlled it might yield a method of inducing fibrosis and thus provide a means of non-surgical permanent contraception for women.

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There have been recent improvements in the clinical understanding and definition of the major types of autoimmune liver disease. However, still lacking is knowledge of their prevalence and pathogenesis. Three areas of study are in progress in our laboratory. First, in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, the search continues to identify a liver/disease-specific autoantigenic reactant. Using hepatocyte membrane preparations, immunoblotting has underlined the problem of distinguishing, among multiple reactants, those that may be causally rather than consequentially related to hepatocellular damage. Second, in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the need for population screening to ascertain prevalence and detect preclinical cases can be met by a rapid automated procedure for detection, by specific enzyme inhibition in microtitre wells, of antibody (anti-M2) to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit (PDC-E2). Third, the structure of the conformational epitope within the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 is being investigated by screening random phage-displayed peptide libraries using PBC sera. This has yielded phage clones in which the sequence of the peptide insert portrays the structure of this epitope, as judged by clustering of PBC-derived sequences to particular branches of a guide-tree that shows relatedness of peptides, and by reactivity of selected phage clones with anti-PDC-E2. Thus phage display identifies a peptide 'mimotope' of the antibody epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2.