80 resultados para Parvovirus


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Human parvovirus B19 is a minute ssDNA virus causing a wide variety of diseases, including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemias, and fetal death. After primary infection, genomic DNA of B19 has been shown to persist in solid tissues of not only symptomatic but also of constitutionally healthy, immunocompetent individuals. In this thesis, the viral DNA was shown to persist as an apparently intact molecule of full length, and without persistence-specific mutations. Thus, although the mere presence of B19 DNA in tissue can not be used as a diagnostic criterion, a possible role in the pathogenesis of diseases e.g. through mRNA or protein production can not be excluded. The molecular mechanism, the host-cell type and the possible clinical significance of B19 DNA tissue persistence are yet to be elucidated. In the beginning of this work, the B19 genomic sequence was considered highly conserved. However, new variants were found: V9 was detected in 1998 in France, in serum of a child with aplastic crisis. This variant differed from the prototypic B19 sequences by ~10 %. In 2002 we found, persisting in skin of constitutionally healthy humans, DNA of another novel B19 variant, LaLi. Genetically this variant differed from both the prototypic sequences and the variant V9 also by ~10%. Simultaneously, B19 isolates with DNA sequences similar to LaLi were introduced by two other groups, in the USA and France. Based on phylogeny, a classification scheme based on three genotypes (B19 types 1-3) was proposed. Although the B19 virus is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route, blood and plasma-derived products contaminated with high levels of B19 DNA have also been shown to be infectious. The European Pharmacopoeia stipulates that, in Europe, from the beginning of 2004, plasma pools for manufacture must contain less than 104 IU/ml of B19 DNA. Quantitative PCR screening is therefore a prerequisite for restriction of the B19 DNA load and obtaining of safe plasma products. Due to the DNA sequence variation among the three B19 genotypes, however, B19 PCR methods might fail to detect the new variants. We therefore examined the suitability of the two commercially available quantitative B19 PCR tests, LightCycler-Parvovirus B19 quantification kit (Roche Diagnostics) and RealArt Parvo B19 LC PCR (Artus), for detection, quantification and differentiation of the three B19 types known, including B19 types 2 and 3. The former method was highly sensitive for detection of the B19 prototype but was not suitable for detection of types 2 and 3. The latter method detected and differentiated all three B19 virus types. However, one of the two type-3 strains was detected at a lower sensitivity. Then, we assessed the prevalence of the three B19 virus types among Finnish blood donors, by screening pooled plasma samples derived from >140 000 blood-donor units: none of the pools contained detectable levels of B19 virus types 2 or 3. According to the results of other groups, B19 type 2 was absent also among Danish blood-donors, and extremely rare among symptomatic European patients. B19 type 3 has been encountered endemically in Ghana and (apparently) in Brazil, and sporadical cases have been detected in France and the UK. We next examined the biological characteristics of these virus types. The p6 promoter regions of virus types 1-3 were cloned in front of a reporter gene, the constructs were transfected into different cell lines, and the promoter activities were measured. As a result, we found that the activities of the three p6 promoters, although differing in sequence by >20%, were of equal strength, and most active in B19-permissive cells. Furthermore, the infectivity of the three B19 types was examined in two B19-permissive cell lines. RT-PCR revealed synthesis of spliced B19 mRNAs, and immunofluorescence verified the production of NS1 and VP proteins in the infected cells. These experiments suggested similar host-cell tropism and showed that the three virus types are strains of the same species, i.e. human parvovirus B19. Last but not least, the sera from subjects infected in the past either with B19 type 1 or type 2 (as evidenced by tissue persistence of the respective DNAs), revealed in VP1/2- and VP2-EIAs a 100 % cross-reactivity between virus types 1 and 2. These results, together with similar studies by others, indicate that the three B19 genotypes constitute a single serotype.

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Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is known to cause anemia, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death especially during the first half of pregnancy. Women who are in occupational contact with young children are at increased risk of B19V infection. The role of the recently discovered human parvovirus, human bocavirus (HBoV), in reproduction is unknown. The aim of this research project was to establish a scientific basis for assessing the work safety of pregnant women and for issuing special maternity leave regulations during B19V epidemics in Finland. The impact of HBoV infection on the pregnant woman and her fetus was also defined. B19V DNA was found in 0.8% of the miscarriages and in 2.4% of the intrauterine fetal death (IUFD; fetal death after completed 22 gestational weeks). All control fetuses (from induced abortions) were B19V-DNA negative. The findings on hydropic B19V DNA-positive IUFDs with evidence of acute or recent maternal B19V infection are in line with those of previous Swedish studies. However, the high prevalence of B19V-related nonhydropic IUFDs noted in the Swedish studies was mostly without evidence of maternal B19V infection and was not found during the third trimester. HBoV was not associated with miscarriages or IUFDs. Almost all of the studied pregnant women were HboV-IgG positive, and thus most probably immune to HBoV. All preterm births, perinatal deaths, smallness for gestational age (SGA) and congenital anomaly were recorded among the infants of child-care employees in a nationwide register-based cohort study over a period of 14 years. Little or no differences in the results were found between the infants of the child-care employees and those of the comparison group. The annual B19V seroconversion rate was over two-fold among the child-care employees, compared to the women in the comparison group. The seropositivity of the child-care employees increased with age, and years from qualification/joining the trade union. In general, the child-care employees are not at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. However, at the population level, the risk of rare events, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes attributed to infections, could not be determined. According to previous studies, seronegative women had a 5 10% excess risk of losing the fetus during the first half of their pregnancy, but thereafter the risk was very low. Therefore, an over two-fold increased risk of B19V infection among child-care employees is considerable, and should be taken into account in the assessment of the occupational safety of pregnant women, especially during the first half of their pregnancy.

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Introduction: Whilst there are reports of viral myopathies affecting children and the immunocompromised, infective myositis is a relatively rare inflammatory myopathy in adults. The clinical spectrum can range from benign myalgias to more serious complications in certain risk groups. Case Presentation: We present two cases of myositis as a result of parvovirus B19 infection.
Conclusion: Viral myositis and parvovirus B19 associated myositis should be considered in adults presenting with significant myalgia.

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This study was undertaken to provide first-time estimates for the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among daycare educators in Montre´ al, Canada, and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. A cross-sectional design was used. Directors and educators from 81 daycare centres (DCCs) were surveyed about DCC and personal characteristics respectively, and serum samples from 477 female educators were tested for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies. The seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 was 70%. Parvovirus B19 seropositivity was significantly associated with age and with working experience in DCCs, but the latter association was restricted to educators aged less than 40 years. In conclusion, working as a daycare educator appears to be associated with increased risk of acquiring parvovirus B19 infection, but this finding will require further investigation. Because of the large proportion of educators susceptible to acquiring parvovirus B19 infection, our findings also highlight the need for preventive measures.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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The 3'-terminal 853 nt (and the putative 283 aa) sequence of the VP2-encoding gene from 29 field strains of porcine parvovirus (PPV) were determined and compared both to each other and with other published sequences. Sequences were examined using maximum-parsimony and statistical analyses for nucleotide diversity and sequence variability. Among the nucleotide sequences of the PPV field strains, 26 polymorphic sites were encountered; 22 polymorphic sites were detected in the putative amino acid sequence. Mapping polymorphic sites of protein data onto the three-dimensional (3D) structure of PPV VP2 revealed that almost all substitutions were located on the external surface of the viral capsid. Mapping amino acid substitutions to the alignment between PPV VP2 sequences and the 3D structure of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsid, many PPV substitutions were observed to map to regions of recognized antigenicity and/or to contain phenotypically important residues for CPV and other parvoviruses. In spite of the high sequence similarity, genetic analysis has shown the existence of at least two virus lineages among the samples. In conclusion, these results highlight the need for close surveillance on PPV genetic drift, with an assessment of its potential ability to modify the antigenic make-up of the virus.

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Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can be a life-threatening condition among patients with hereditary (chronic) hemolytic anemias. Our objective was to characterize the infection molecularly among patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Forty-seven patients (37 with sickle cell disease, and 10 with beta-thalassemia major) as well as 47 healthy blood donors were examined for B19V infection by anti-B19V IgG enzyme immunoassay, quantitative PCR, which detects all B19V genotypes, and DNA sequencing. B19V viremia was documented in nine patients (19.1%) as two displayed acute infection and the rest had a low titre viremia (mean 3.4 x 10(4) copies/mL). All donors were negative for B19V DNA. Anti-B19V IgG was detected in 55.3% of the patients and 57.4% among the donors. Based on partial NS1 fragments, all patient isolates were classified as genotype 1 and subgenotype 1A. The evolutionary events of the examined partial NS1 gene sequence were associated with a lack of positive selection. The quantification of all B19V genotypes by a single hydrolytic probe is a technically useful method, but it is difficult to establish relationships between B19V sequence characteristics and infection outcome.

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Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a recognized cause of life-threatening conditions among patients with hemoglobinopathies. This study investigates B19V infection in patients with sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia using different experimental approaches. A total of 183 individuals (144 with sickle cell disease and 39 with beta-thalassemia major) and 100 healthy blood donors were examined for B19V using anti-B19V IgG enzyme immunoassay, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Viremia was documented in 18.6% of patients and 1% of donors, and was generally characterized by low viral load (VL); however, acute infections were also observed. Anti-B19V IgG was detected in 65.9% of patients with sickle cell disease and in 60% of donors, whereas the patients with thalassemia exhibited relatively low seroreactivity. The seroprevalence varied among the different age groups. In patients, it progressively increased with age, whereas in donors it reached a plateau. Based on partial NS1 fragments, all isolates detected were classified as subgenotype 1A with a tendency to elicit genetically complex infections. Interestingly, quasispecies occurred in the plasma of not only patients but also donors with even higher heterogeneity. The partial NS1 sequence examined did not exhibit positive selection. Quantitation of B19V with a conservative probe is a technically and practically useful approach. The extensive spread of B19V subgenotype 1A in patients and donors and its recent introduction into the countryside of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil were demonstrated; however, it is difficult to establish a relationship between viral sequences and the clinical outcomes of the infection. J. Med. Virol. 84:16521665, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Il Parvovirus B19, virus patogeno umano della famiglia Parvoviridae, mostra uno specifico tropismo per i precursori eritroidi e una limitata replicazione in alcune linee cellulari megacarioblastoidi. Allo scopo di sviluppare sistemi utili allo studio delle caratteristiche biologiche del virus, diversi laboratori si sono occupati della costruzione di cloni genomici di B19 dotati di competenza funzionale e capaci di generare virus infettante. Parte del presente lavoro ha riguardato l’analisi funzionale di diversi cloni genomici di B19 e ha permesso di caratterizzare le regioni terminali del virus e di identificare requisiti essenziali per la loro funzionalità. Nel contesto intracellulare, esistono differenti livelli di restrizione in relazione alla capacità della cellula di supportare la replicazione virale, non ancora del tutto caratterizzati. Inoltre si sono accumulate evidenze circa la capacità del B19 di instaurare persistenza in numerosi tessuti. Non sono ancora note le caratteristiche funzionali del genoma virale in questo stato, è possibile che il virus persista in forma silente e meccanismi epigenetici possano regolare tale silenziamento. In questo studio è stato analizzato lo stato di metilazione del genoma di B19 e il suo possibile effetto sul ciclo replicativo virale ed è stata investigata la possibile associazione del DNA virale agli istoni cellulari nel corso di infezione in vitro. I risultati ottenuti confermano la presenza di questi meccanismi epigenetici, potendo ipotizzare che giochino un importante ruolo nella regolazione della funzionalità virale e nell’interazione B19-cellula e siano un elemento critico per l’adattamento del virus nell’ambiente in cui si trova. Inoltre l’ipotesi che anche i microRNA possano assumere un importante significato nell’interazione B19-cellula è stata proposta da diversi lavori e nel presente studio è stata valutata la produzione di queste piccole molecole durante l'infezione in vitro, ricercando microRNA (cellulari e/o virali) con omologia di sequenza per il genoma di B19 e quindi specifici per il virus.

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Ziel dieser Dissertation war es die funktionelle Rolle der Toll-like Rezeptoren (TLRs) und ihrer Signalwege bei der Aktivierung von dendritischen Zellen (DC) durch Parvovirus H-1- rn(H-1PV) induzierte Tumorzelllysate (TCL) zu untersuchen. rnDas angeborene Immunsystem bekämpft die Bildung und das Wachstum von Tumoren, insbesondere durch Interaktion von Effektor-Immunzellen mit Tumorzellen. Die Aktivierung dieser Immunreaktionen in der Antitumortherapie ist wünschenswert, aber in vielen Situationen nicht zufriedenstellend, da sie durch klassische systemische Therapie allein nicht immer erreicht werden kann. Die therapeutische Anwendung von onkolytischen Viren bei Patienten mit malignen Erkrankungen (Virotherapie) ist ein vielversprechendes Gebiet der Forschung. Die onkosuppressive und immunstimulierende Wirkung von H-1PV auf humane Tumor- und Immunzellen spricht für eine Verwendung in der Krebstherapie. Ein Aktivierung des Immunsystems durch H-1PV konnte bereits in unserer Arbeitsgruppe gezeigt werden.rnIn dieser Arbeit wurden wichtige Aspekte bezüglich der Aktivierung von Toll-like Rezeptoren bei einer H-1PV Infektion untersucht. Zunächst wurde die Rolle von TLRs nach der H-1PV Infektion untersucht. Humane embryonale Nierenzellen (HEK293) wurden stabil mit humanen TLRs transfiziert, um die Rolle spezifischer TLRs während der Aktivierung des Immunsystems zu untersuchen. TLR3 und TLR9 wurden durch eine H-1PV Infektion, die mit der NFκB-Translokation in den Zellkern korreliert, aktiviert. Mit Hilfe eines Reporterplasmides (pNiFty-Luc), wurde durch erhöhte Expression eines NFκB-induzierbaren Reportergens die NFκB-Aktivität im Anschluss an eine H-1PV Infektion nachgewiesen. Zudem wurde die immunologische Wirkung von H-1PV-induzierten Tumorzelllysaten (TCL) auf die humane antitumor-gerichtete Immunantworten analysiert. Ein humanes ex vivo-Modell, bestehend aus einer HLA-A2-positiven humanen Melanom-Zelllinie (SK29Mel) wurde verwendet, um Immunreaktionen mit entsprechenden HLA-restringierten humanen DCs zu untersuchen. DCs die mit H-1PV-infizierten SK29Mel Zellen koinkubiert wurden, zeigten eine erhöhte TLR3- und TLR9-Expression. Diese Daten deuten darauf hin, dass H-1PV-induzierte TCLs humane DCs stimulieren und dies zumindest teilweise durch TLR-abhängige Signalwege geschieht. Demnach wird eine DC-Reifung durch Kokultur mit H-1PV-induzierten TCLs über den TLR-Signalweg erreicht und führte u.a. zu einer NFκB-abhängigen Aktivierung des adaptiven Immunsystems. Die onkolytischen Virotherapie mit H-1PV erhöht so durch unterschiedliche Auswirkungen auf DCs die Immunreaktion und verstärkt die Anti-Tumor-Immunität. Diese Ergebnisse zeigen einen neuen potenziellen Ansatz für den Einsatz onkolytischer Viren für TLR-zielgerichtete Therapieoptionen und stellen eine ideale Möglichkeit zur Erweiterung der Krebsbehandlung dar.rn

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We investigated the role that erythroviruses (parvovirus B19 and erythrovirus genotypes 2 and 3) play in the lives of immunosuppressed HIV-infected patients with chronic anemia. We screened the serum samples of 428 patients by specific ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Sixteen patients had circulating DNA, with no apparent clinical impact. Erythrovirus-associated anemia is an extremely rare event in HIV-infected patients.