234 resultados para PSORIASIS


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Healthy human skin harbours a diverse array of microbes that comprise the skin microbiome. Commensal bacteria constitute an important component of resident microbiome and are intricately linked to skin health. Recent studies describe an association between altered skin microbial community and epidemiology of diseases, like psoriasis, atopic dermatitis etc. In this study, we compare the differences in bacterial community of lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo subjects. Our study reveals dysbiosis in the diversity of microbial community structure in lesional skin of vitiligo subjects. Although individual specific signature is dominant over the vitiligo-specific microbiota, a clear decrease in taxonomic richness and evenness can be noted in lesional patches. Investigation of community specific correlation networks reveals distinctive pattern of interactions between resident bacterial populations of the two sites (lesional and non-lesional). While Actinobacterial species constitute the central regulatory nodes (w.r.t. degree of interaction) in non-lesional skin, species belonging to Firmicutes dominate on lesional sites. We propose that the changes in taxonomic characteristics of vitiligo lesions, as revealed by our study, could play a crucial role in altering the maintenance and severity of disease. Future studies would elucidate mechanistic relevance of these microbial dynamics that can provide new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

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Introdução: O infliximabe é um anticorpo monoclonal quimérico que inibe o fator de necrose tumoral, sendo usado em doenças autoimunes e/ou inflamatórias, tais como a artrite reumatóide (AR), a espondilite anquilosante (EA), a psoríase e a artrite psoriásica (AP) e as doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII). Objetivos: Avaliar se o infliximabe induz à formação de autoanticorpos e verificar a ocorrência de eventos adversos, sobretudo o lúpus induzido por este medicamento. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo aberto, prospectivo, de fase IV, onde dosamos os autoanticorpos antes e depois do tratamento (das doenças citadas anteriormente), o qual teve duração mínima de 6 meses (5 infusões). Resultados: No total, 286 pacientes foram avaliados para o fator anti-nuclear (FAN) por imunofluorescência indireta em células Hep2, sendo significativo o aumento de número de indivíduos (p = 0,0001), antes e depois da medicação. Além do FAN, foram dosados, em 146 pacientes, 17 outros autoanticorpos pelo método multiplex, sendo que o anti-DNA de dupla hélice (anti-dsDNA) e o anticardiolipina IgM (aCL IgM) tiveram um aumento significativo (p = 0,003 e 0,0024, respectivamente). Pacientes com AR tiveram uma variação significativa nos títulos do anticorpo anti-proteína citrulinada (ACPA) (antes e depois do tratamento) (p = 0,012). De todos os pacientes avaliados (n = 286), somente 1 (0,35%) apresentou sinais clínicos e laboratoriais de lúpus induzido pelo infliximabe. Conclusão: O estudo demonstrou que o infliximabe interferiu na formação de autoanticorpos (FAN, anti-dsDNA, aCL IgM e ACPA), sendo rara a indução de lúpus pelo medicamento.

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Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas

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Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease that has been shown to play a key role in MHC class II antigen presentation. Consequently, it has been extensively evaluated as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Additionally, clinical and mechanistic evidence is emerging, revealing its inappropriate expression and secretion in a wide range of disease states including atherosclerosis and tumourigenesis. This review covers the known role and consequences of cathepsin S activity in these pathological disorders, highlighting various studies that have demonstrated its utility as a therapeutic target. This review also examines challenges that exist towards the development of agents that specifically target this protease and discusses the studies to date that have applied cathepsin S inhibitors in disease models.

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The joint fluids of 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, eight patients with traumatic injuries to their joints, two patients with Reiter's syndrome and three patients with psoriatic arthritis were tested for the presence of B cell colony stimulating activity (B cell CSA). B cell CSA was found in all of the joint fluids from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis but in none of the joint fluids from patients with traumatic injuries to their joints or in the joint fluids from the patients with Reiter's syndrome. A trace of B cell CSA was found in the joint fluid of one of the three patients with psoriatic arthritis. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.796) between the amount of rheumatoid factor present in the joint fluids and the titre of B cell CSA. This correlation was highly significant (P less than 0.001). The B cell CSA was localized to component(s) with molecular weight ranges 115-129 kD and 64-72 kD and an isoelectric point of 6.8. Its activity was sensitive to reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol and to the oxidising action of potassium periodate.

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Background We analysed incidence, predictors, histological features and specific treatment options of anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody-induced psoriasiform skin lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

Design Patients with IBD were prospectively screened for anti-TNF-induced psoriasiform skin lesions. Patients were genotyped for IL23R and IL12B variants. Skin lesions were examined for infiltrating Th1 and Th17 cells. Patients with severe lesions were treated with the anti-interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 p40 antibody ustekinumab.

Results Among 434 anti-TNF-treated patients with IBD, 21 (4.8%) developed psoriasiform skin lesions. Multiple logistic regression revealed smoking (p=0.007; OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.55 to 13.60) and an increased body mass index (p=0.029; OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24) as main predictors for these lesions. Nine patients with Crohn's disease and with severe psoriasiform lesions and/or anti-TNF antibody-induced alopecia were successfully treated with the anti-p40-IL-12/IL-23 antibody ustekinumab (response rate 100%). Skin lesions were histologically characterised by infiltrates of IL-17A/IL-22-secreting T helper 17 (Th17) cells and interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting Th1 cells and IFN-alpha-expressing cells. IL-17A expression was significantly stronger in patients requiring ustekinumab than in patients responding to topical therapy (p=0.001). IL23R genotyping suggests disease-modifying effects of rs11209026 (p.Arg381Gln) and rs7530511 (p.Leu310Pro) in patients requiring ustekinumab.

Conclusions New onset psoriasiform skin lesions develop in nearly 5% of anti-TNF-treated patients with IBD. We identified smoking as a main risk factor for developing these lesions. Anti-TNF-induced psoriasiform skin lesions are characterised by Th17 and Th1 cell infiltrates. The number of IL-17A-expressing T cells correlates with the severity of skin lesions. Anti-IL-12/IL23 antibody therapy is a highly effective therapy for these lesions.

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The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis and the course of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. Posttranscriptional activation of IL-1β is mediated by inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms triggering IL-1β processing remain unknown. Recently, cytosolic DNA has been identified as a danger signal that activates inflammasomes containing the DNA sensor AIM2. In this study, we detected abundant cytosolic DNA and increased AIM2 expression in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions but not in healthy skin. In cultured keratinocytes, interferon-γ induced AIM2, and cytosolic DNA triggered the release of IL-1β via the AIM2 inflammasome. Moreover, the antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37, which can interact with DNA in psoriatic skin, neutralized cytosolic DNA in keratinocytes and blocked AIM2 inflammasome activation. Together, these data suggest that cytosolic DNA is an important disease-associated molecular pattern that can trigger AIM2 inflammasome and IL-1β activation in psoriasis. Furthermore, cathelicidin LL-37 interfered with DNA-sensing inflammasomes, which thereby suggests an anti-inflammatory function for this peptide. Thus, our data reveal a link between the AIM2 inflammasome, cathelicidin LL-37, and autoinflammation in psoriasis, providing new potential targets for the treatment of this chronic skin disease.

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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of cutaneous innate immunity and protect primarily against microbial infections. An array of AMPs can be found in and on the skin. Those include peptides that were first discovered for their antimicrobial properties but also proteins with antimicrobial activity first characterized for their activity as chemokines, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and neuropeptides. Cathelicidins were among the first families of AMPs discovered in skin. They are now known to exert a dual role in innate immune defense: they have direct antimicrobial activity and will also initiate a host cellular response resulting in cytokine release, inflammation and angiogenesis. Altered cathelicidin expression and function was observed in several common inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rosacea and psoriasis. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underlying cathelicidin regulation were not known. Lately, vitamin D3 was identified as the major regulator of cathelicidin expression and entered the spotlight as an immune modulator with impact on both, innate and adaptive immunity. Therapies targeting vitamin D3 signalling may provide novel approaches for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory skin diseases by affecting both innate and adaptive immune functions through AMP regulation.

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Constant exposure to a wide variety of microbial pathogens represents a major challenge for our skin. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are mediators of cutaneous innate immunity and protect primarily against microbial infections. Cathelicidins were among the first AMPs identified in human skin and recent evidence suggests that they exert a dual role in innate immune defense: At first, due to their antimicrobial activity they kill pathogens directly. In addition, these peptides initiate a potent host response to infection resulting in cytokine release, inflammation and a cellular response. Disturbed cathelicidin expression and function was observed in several common inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis where cathelicidin peptide converts inert self-DNA and self-RNA into an autoimmune stimulus. In atopic dermatitis decreased levels of cathelicidin facilitating microbial superinfections have been discussed. Furthermore, abnormally processed cathelicidin peptides induce inflammation and a vascular response in rosacea. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying cathelicidin regulation were unknown. Recently, the vitamin D3 pathway was identified as the major regulator of cathelicidin expression. Consequently, vitamin D3 entered the spotlight as an immune modulator with impact on both innate and adaptive immunity. Therapies targeting vitamin D3 signaling may provide new approaches for infectious and inflammatory skin diseases by affecting both innate and adaptive immune functions.

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Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases, but the nature of these associations is not well understood. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to investigate shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases. We analyzed data from GWAS (n~200,000 individuals), applying new False Discovery Rate (FDR) methods, to investigate genetic overlap between blood lipid levels [triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL)] and a selection of archetypal immune-mediated diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, psoriasis and sarcoidosis). We found significant polygenic pleiotropy between the blood lipids and all the investigated immune-mediated diseases. We discovered several shared risk loci between the immune-mediated diseases and TG (n = 88), LDL (n = 87) and HDL (n = 52). Three-way analyses differentiated the pattern of pleiotropy among the immune-mediated diseases. The new pleiotropic loci increased the number of functional gene network nodes representing blood lipid loci by 40%. Pathway analyses implicated several novel shared mechanisms for immune pathogenesis and lipid biology, including glycosphingolipid synthesis (e.g. FUT2) and intestinal host-microbe interactions (e.g. ATG16L1). We demonstrate a shared genetic basis for blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases independent of environmental factors. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into dyslipidemia and immune-mediated diseases and may have implications for therapeutic trials involving lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory agents.

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Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Biomédicas (Biologia Celular e Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2014

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RESUMO: A importância da avaliação económica na área da saúde tem sido crescente ao longo das últimas três décadas. É um campo de análise multi-disciplinar pelo qual se têm vindo a interessar investigadores de todo o mundo e onde, naturalmente, a economia da saúde tem contributos significativos para dar. Contudo, é uma área ainda relativamente inexplorada em termos de investigação metodológica em Portugal. Espera-se com este trabalho colmatar algumas das lacunas existentes e lançar pontes para investigação futura. Neste estudo pretendem-se desenvolver contributos autónomos, numa óptica de resolução de problemas concretos, para a avaliação económica de medicamentos em Portugal. Em primeiro lugar abordou-se a importância da estimação dos custos nos estudos de avaliação económica em saúde. Em segundo lugar determinou-se o custo de um doente com esclerose múltipla, por nível de severidade em Portugal com recurso à metodologia de estudos custo da doença. Em terceiro lugar, aplicando a mesma metodologia, determinou-se o custo de um doente com psoríase, por nível de severidade, em Portugal. Em quarto lugar mediu-se o impacto da psoríase na qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde dos indivíduos afectados através de dois instrumentos genéricos de medição da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde (SF-36 e EQ-5D) e de dois instrumentos específicos (DLQI e PDI). Em quinto lugar, foi feita a adaptação de um modelo sobre a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso em cirurgia ortopédica ao contexto nacional com recurso a dados recolhidos numa amostra de hospitais portugueses. Foi ainda apresentada uma estimativa do impacto orçamental decorrente da inclusão, ou não, de um novo medicamento na prática nacional. ABSTRACT: The importance of economic evaluation in the health care sector has been growing in the last three decades. It is a multidisciplinary field of research that attracts attention from researchers working all over the world. It is should be noted that health economics can contribute significantly to the development of this area. However, in Portugal is difficult to find methodological contributes in this field of research. With this work one hope to be able to overcome some of the existing shortcomings. This study seeks to develop independent contributions for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Portugal, aiming to help to solve existing problems. Firstly, one approached the importance of the accurate estimation of costs in economic evaluations of pharmaceuticals. Secondly, the cost of patient with multiple sclerosis was estimated, by severity level, in Portugal, using a cost of illness methodology. In third place, employing the same methodology, the cost of patient with psoriasis by severity level was estimated for Portugal. In fourth place, the impact of psoriasis in the quality of life related to health was ascertained by two generic measures (SF-36 and EQ-5D) and two specific measures (DLQI and PDI). Lastly, a model on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery was adapted for Portugal through the inclusion of data collected in a sample of Portuguese hospita

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Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists are effective in treating several immune-inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The paradoxical and unpredictable induction of psoriasis and psoriasiform skin lesions is a recognized adverse event, although of unclear aetiology. However, histological analysis of these eruptions remains insufficient, yet suggesting that some might constitute a new pattern of adverse drug reaction, rather than true psoriasis. Case report: The authors report the case of a 43-year-old woman with severe recalcitrant Crohn disease who started treatment with infliximab. There was also a personal history of mild plaque psoriasis without clinical expression for the past eight years. She developed a heterogeneous cutaneous eruption of psoriasiform morphology with pustules and crusts after the third infliximab infusion. The histopathological diagnosis was of a Sweet-like dermatosis. The patient was successfully treated with cyclosporine in association with both topical corticosteroid and vitamin D3 analogue. Three weeks after switching to adalimumab a new psoriasiform eruption was observed, histologically compatible with a psoriasiform drug eruption. Despite this, and considering the beneficial effect on the inflammatory bowel disease, it was decided to maintain treatment with adalimumab and to treat through with topicals, with progressive control of skin disease. Discussion: Not much is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasiform eruptions induced by biological therapies, but genetic predisposition and Koebner phenomenon may contribute to it. Histopathology can add new facets to the comprehension of psoriasiform reactions. In fact, histopathologic patterns of such skin lesions appear to be varied, in a clear asymmetry with clinical findings. Conclusion: The sequential identification in the same patient of two clinical and histopathologic patterns of drug reaction to TNFα antagonists is rare. Additionally, to the authors’ knowledge, there is only one other description in literature of a TNFα antagonist-induced Sweet-like dermatosis, emphasizing the singularity of this case report.

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RESUMO - Objetivos: Caracterizar a adesão à terapêutica nos doentes do CHLN, na área do VIH/SIDA, Esclerose, Artrite Reumatóide, Psoríase e Paramiloidose e avaliar a hipótese de ser possível prever o risco de um doente se tornar, num doente sem adesão. Metodologia: Estudo retrospetivo, observacional e longitudinal, realizado entre Janeiro de 2010 a 31 de Dezembro de 2013, a 4.761 doentes, em que a adesão à terapêutica foi calculada com base nos registos informáticos das dispensas de medicação, efectuados pelos Serviços Farmacêuticos, com recurso à Compliance Rate (CR) e utilizada como variável dependente. A estatística descritiva foi utilizada para caracterizar os doentes e os seus levantamentos e a regressão logística para avaliar o efeito das variáveis (idade, sexo, distrito de residência, período de observação, número de interrupções superiores a trinta dias e tempo até à primeira interrupção) sobre a adesão à terapêutica. Resultados e Conclusões: A percentagem de doentes com adesão foi de 64%, no entanto no HIV/Sida e na Artrite Reumatóide e Psoríase esta percentagem foi significativamente mais baixa, 42% dos doentes interromperam a terapêutica por períodos superiores a 30 dias, ocorrendo essa interrupção maioritariamente entre o primeiro e segundo ano de terapêutica. O modelo de regressão logística permitiu verificar que só com as variáveis sociodemográficas não é possível prever o risco de um doente se tornar num doente sem adesão, sendo para tal necessário adicionar ao modelo a variável número de interrupções superiores a 30 dias que foi identificada como importante factor preditivo da não adesão (OR=15,9, p=0,000).