234 resultados para PSORIASIS


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Abstract Background Interleukin (IL)-33 is a dual cytokine with both an alarmin role and a T helper 2 cell (Th2)-like inducing effect. It is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its models; we recently demonstrated that exogenous IL-33 could inhibit collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in C57BL/6 mice. However, its pathophysiological role in RA is unclear. Indeed, mice deficient in the IL-33 receptor ST2 show reduced susceptibility to arthritis, and the disease is not modified in IL-33-deficient mice. We examined the immune response in wild-type (WT) and IL-33-deficient mice with CIA. To further understand the role of endogenous IL-33 in inflammatory diseases, we studied its role in a skin psoriasis model. Mice on a C57BL/6 background were deficient in IL-33 but expressed lacZ under the IL-33 promoter. Therefore, IL-33 promotor activity could be analyzed by lacZ detection and IL-33 gene expression was analyzed by X-Gal staining in various mice compartments. Frequencies of CD4 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th1 and Th17 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry in WT and IL-33 -/- mice. Bone resorption was studied by evaluating osteoclast activity on a synthetic mineral matrix. Psoriasis-like dermatitis was induced by application of imiquimod to the skin of mice. Results Severity of CIA was similar in IL-33 -/- and WT littermates. Joints of IL-33 -/- mice with CIA showed IL-33 promotor activity. In mice with CIA, frequencies of Tregs, Th1 and Th17 in the spleen or lymph nodes did not differ between the genotypes; osteoclast activity was higher but not significantly in IL-33 -/- than WT mice. Psoriasis development did not differ between the genotypes. Conclusions Despite its expression in the synovium of arthritic mice and normal keratinocytes, IL-33 is not required for CIA development in arthritis or psoriasis. Its absence does not induce a T cell shift toward Th1, Th17 or Treg subpopulations. Altogether, these data and our previous ones, showing that exogenous IL-33 can almost completely inhibit CIA development, suggest that this cytokine is not crucial for development of chronic inflammation. ...

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Abstract Systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress can be relevant for assessment of psoriasis severity, for prediction of the outcome of therapy and of the development of comorbidities. In this review we aimed to evaluate the relationship between plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxidation biomarkers, as well as their association with dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation in psoriasis. The review of 59 case–control comparisons (from 41 studies) and 17 interventions (from 13 studies) suggests that peroxidation markers are more sensitive than TAC in the evaluation of oxidative stress in psoriasis. Although few studies investigated the effect of treatment on oxidative stress, it seems that biological drugs could be the better choice in the treatment of psoriasis. However, considering the limitations of TAC and plasma peroxidation markers, this review suggests that new methods should be developed in order to evaluate systemic oxidative stress in psoriasis.

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Revisión, presentación y síntesis de las diversas tipologías de la psoriasis y de los tratamientos desarrollados -desde aquellos más comunes a los más novedosos-. Se exponen los cuidados de enfermería más frecuentes. Teniendo en cuenta la cronicidad, evolución por brotes, y afectación tanto física como psicológica del paciente, el rol de la enfermera es esencial en la adaptación e independencia del enfermo con psoriasis.

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Background: Leflunomide has shown promise in the treatment of psoriasis. Objective: To provide an in-depth analysis of the effect of leflunomide on psoriasis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods: 190 patients with plaque psoriasis (at least 3% skin involvement) and active PsA were randomized to double-blind treatment with leflunomide (100 mg/day loading dose for 3 days followed by 20 mg/day orally) or placebo for 24 weeks. Results: As previously reported, leflunomide resulted in a significantly higher Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria response rate than placebo (58.9 vs. 29.7%; p < 0.0001). Significant differences in favor of leflunomide were also observed in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 50 in 30.4% of patients vs. 18.9% for placebo; p = 0.05), target lesion response (46.4 vs. 25.3%; p = 0.0048), combined skin and joint response (27.2 vs. 8.9%; p < 0.0001), Dermatology Life Quality Index (improvement of 1.9 points vs. 0.2; p = 0.0173) and certain SF-36 subdomains. Dermatological responses were observed at the earliest examination (4 weeks) and increased throughout the 24-week study. Conclusion: Once-daily oral leflunomide is an effective and convenient treatment for PsA and plaque psoriasis. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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Healthcare providers and policy makers are faced with an ever-increasing number of medical publications. Searching for relevant information and keeping up to date with new research findings remains a constant challenge. It has been widely acknowledged that narrative reviews of the literature are susceptible to several types of bias and a systematic approach may protect against these biases. The aim of this thesis was to apply quantitative methods in the assessment of outcomes of topical therapies for psoriasis. In particular, to systematically examine the comparative efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of topical calcipotriol in the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Over the years, a wide range of techniques have been used to evaluate the severity of psoriasis and the outcomes from treatment. This lack of standardisation complicates the direct comparison of results and ultimately the pooling of outcomes from different clinical trials. There is a clear requirement for more comprehensive tools for measuring drug efficacy and disease severity in psoriasis. Ideally, the outcome measures need to be simple, relevant, practical, and widely applicable, and the instruments should be reliable, valid and responsive. The results of the meta-analysis reported herein show that calcipotriol is an effective antipsoriatic agent. In the short-tenn, the pooled data found calcipotriol to be more effective than calcitriol, tacalcitol, coal tar and short-contact dithranol. Only potent corticosteroids appeared to have comparable efficacy, with less short-term side-effects. Potent corticosteroids also added to the antipsoriatic effect of calcipotriol, and appeared to suppress the occurrence of calcipotriol-induced irritation. There was insufficient evidence to support any large effects in favour of improvements in efficacy when calcipotriol is used in combination with systemic therapies in patients with severe psoriasis. However, there was a total absence of long-term morbidity data on the effectiveness of any of the interventions studied. Decision analysis showed that, from the perspective of the NHS as payer, the relatively small differences in efficacy between calcipotriol and short-contact dithranol lead to large differences in the direct cost of treating patients with mildto-moderate plaque psoriasis. Further research is needed to examine the clinical and economic issues affecting patients under treatment for psoriasis in the UK. In particular, the maintenance value and cost/benefit ratio for the various treatment strategies, and the assessment of patient's preferences has not yet been adequately addressed for this chronic recurring disease.

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Psoriasis is characterised by epidermal proliferation and inflammation resulting in the appearance of elevated erythematous plaques. The ratio of c~AMP/c~GMP is decreased in psoriatic skin and when the epidermal cell surface receptors are stimulated by β-adrenergic agonists, intracellular ATP is transformed into c-AMP, thus restoring the c~AMP/c~GMP levels. This thesis describes a series of β-adrenoceptor agonists for topical delivery based upon the soft-drug approach. Soft drugs are defined as biologically active, therapeutically useful chemical compounds (drugs) characterised by a predictable and controllable In vivo destruction (metabolism) to non-toxic moieties. after they achieve their therapeutic role, The N-substituent can accommodate a broad range of structures and here the alkoxycarbonylethyl group has been used to provide metabolic susceptability. The increased polarity of the dihydroxy acid, expected after metabolic conversion of the soft~drug, ethyl N-[2'-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2'-hydroxyethyl]-3- aminopropionate, should eliminate agonist activity. Further. to prevent oxidation and enhance topical delivery, the catechol hydroxyl groups have been esterified to produce a pro-soft-drug which generates the soft-drug in enzymic systems. The chemical hydrolysis of the pro-soft-drug proceeded via the formation of the dlpivaloyloxy acid and it failed to generate the active dihydroxy ester soft-drug. In contrast, in the presence of porcine liver carboxyesterase, the hydrolysis of the pro-soft drug proceeded via the formation of the required active soft-drug. This compound, thus, has the appropnate kinetic features to enable it to be evaluated further as a drug for the treatment of psoriasis. The pH rate-profile for the hydrolysis of soft-drug indicated a maximum stability at pH ∼ 4.0. The individual rate constants for the degradation and the pKa were analysed by nonlinear regression. The pKa of 7.40 is in excellent agreement with that determined by direct titration (7.43) and indicates that satisfactory convergence was achieved. The soft-drug was poorly transported across a silicone membrane; it was also air-sensitive due to oxidation of the catechol group. The transport of the pro-soft-drug was more efficient and, over the donor pH range 3-8, increased with pH. At lower values, the largely protonated species was not transported. However, above pH 7. chemical degradation was rapid so that a donor pH of 5-6 was optimum. The β-adrenergic agonist activity of these compounds was tested in vitro by measuring chronotropic and inotropic responses in the guinea pig atria and relaxation of guinea pig trachea precontracted with acetylcholine (10-3 M). The soft~drug was a full agonist on the tracheal preparation but was less potent than isoprenaline. Responses of the soft~drug were competitively antagonised by propranolol (10-6 M). The soft~drug produced an increase in force and rate of the isolated atrial preparatIon. The propyl analogue was equally potent with ED50 of 6.52 x 10-7 M. In contrast, at equivalent doses, the dihydroxy acid showed no activity; only a marginal effect was observed on the tracheal preparation. For the pro~soft-drug, responses were of slow onset, in both preparations, with a slowly developing relaxatlon of the tracheal preparatlon at high concentrations (10-5 M). This is consistent with in vitro results where the dipivaloyl groups are hydrolysed more readily than the ethyl ester to gIve the active soft-drug. These results confirm the validity tif the pro-soft-drug approach to the deUvery of β-adrenoceptor agonists.

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Azidoprofen {2-(4-azidophenyl)propionic acid; AZP}, an azido-substituted arylalkanoic acid, was investigated as a model soft drug candidate for a potential topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the assay of AZP, a series of ester analogues and their· degradation products. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was also employed as an analytical method in selected cases. Reduction of the azido-group to the corresponding amine has been proposed as a potential detoxification mechanism for compounds bearing this substituent. An in vitro assay to measure the susceptibility of azides towards reduction was developed using dithiothreitol as a model reducing agent. The rate of reduction of AZP was found to be base-dependent, hence supporting the postulated mechanism of thiol-mediated reduction via nucleophilic attack by the thiolate anion. Prodrugs may enhance topical bioavailability through the manipulation of physico-chemical properties of the parent drug. A series of ester derivatives of AZP were investigated for their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, which regenerates the parent acid. Use of alcoholic cosolvents with differing alkyl functions to that of the ester resulted in transesterification reactions, which were found to be enzyme-mediated. The skin penetration of AZP was assessed using an in vitro hairless mouse skin model, and silastic membrane in some cases. The rate of permeation of AZP was found to be a similar magnitude to that of the well established NSAIA ibuprofen. Penetration rates were dependent on the vehicle pH and drug concentration when solutions were employed. In contrast, flux was independent of pH when suspension formulations were used. Pretreatment of the skin with various enhancer regimes, including oleic acid and azone in propylene glycol, promoted the penetration of AZP. An intense IR absorption due to the azide group serves as a highly diagnostic marker, enabling azido compounds to be detected in the outer layers of the· stratum corneum following their application to skin, using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). This novel application enabled a non-invasive examination of the percutaneous penetration enhancement of a model azido compound in vivo in man, in the presence of the enhancer oleic acid.

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