### Immunology and HIV expression in skin, in vitro, and in response to ultraviolet light

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HIV can enter the body through Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in skin mucosa, and spreads by lysis or by syncytia. Since UVL induces of HIV-LTR in transgenic mice mid in cell lines in vitro, we hypothesized that UVB may affect HIV in people and may affect HIV in T cells in relation to dose, apoptosis, and cytokine expression. To determine whether HIV is induced by UVL in humans, a clinical study of HIV+ patients with psoriasis or pruritus was conducted during six weeks of UVB phototherapy, Controls were HIV-psoriasis patients receiving UVB and HIV+ KS subjects without UVB.Blood and skin biopsy specimens were collected at baseline, weeks 2 and 6, and 4 weeks after UVL. AIDS-related skin diseases showed unique cytokine profiles in skin and serum at baseline. In patients and controls on phototherapy, we observed the following: (1) CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers are not significantly altered during phototherapy, (2) p24 antigen levels, and also HIV plasma levels increase in patients not on antiviral therapy, (3) HIV-RNA levels in serum or plasma. (viral load) can either increase or decrease depending on the patient's initial viral load, presence of antivirals, and skin type, (4) HIV-RNA levels in the periphery are inversely correlated to serum IL-10 and (5) HIV+ cell in skin increase after UVL at 2 weeks by RT-PCR in situ hybridization mid we negatively correlated with peripheral load. To understand the mechanisms of UVB mediated HIV transcription, we treated Jurkat T cell lines stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-luciferase plasmid only or additionally with tat-SV-40 early promoter with UVB (2 J/m2 to 200 J/m2), 50 to 200 ng/ml rhIL-10, and 10 μg/ml PHA as control. HIV promoter activity was measured by luciferase normalized to protein. Time points up to 72 hours were analyzed for HIV-LTR activation. HIV-LTR activation had the following properties: (1) requires the presence of Tat, (2) occurs at 24 hours, and (3) is UVB dose dependent. Changes in viability by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethyhhiazol-2-y1)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphonyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) mixed with PMS (phenazine methosulfate) solution and apoptosis by propidium iodide and annexin V using flow cytometry (FC) were seen in irradiated Jurkat cells. We determined that (1) rhIL-10 moderately decreased HIV-LTR activation if given before radiation and greatly decreases it when given after UVB, (2) HIV-LTR activation was low at doses of greater than 70 J/m2, compared to activation at 50 J/m2. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)^

### Human TH9 cells are skin-tropic and have autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory capacity.

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T helper type 9 (TH9) cells can mediate tumor immunity and participate in autoimmune and allergic inflammation in mice, but little is known about the TH9 cells that develop in vivo in humans. We isolated T cells from human blood and tissues and found that most memory TH9 cells were skin-tropic or skin-resident. Human TH9 cells coexpressed tumor necrosis factor-α and granzyme B and lacked coproduction of TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines, and many were specific for Candida albicans. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) production was transient and preceded the up-regulation of other inflammatory cytokines. Blocking studies demonstrated that IL-9 was required for maximal production of interferon-γ, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 by skin-tropic T cells. IL-9-producing T cells were increased in the skin lesions of psoriasis, suggesting that these cells may contribute to human inflammatory skin disease. Our results indicate that human TH9 cells are a discrete T cell subset, many are tropic for the skin, and although they may function normally to protect against extracellular pathogens, aberrant activation of these cells may contribute to inflammatory diseases of the skin.

### Memory regulatory T cells reside in human skin.

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Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, are a dynamic and heterogeneous population of cells that control immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. We recently identified a subset of Tregs in murine skin with properties typical of memory cells and defined this population as memory Tregs (mTregs). Due to the importance of these cells in regulating tissue inflammation in mice, we analyzed this cell population in humans and found that almost all Tregs in normal skin had an activated memory phenotype. Compared with mTregs in peripheral blood, cutaneous mTregs had unique cell surface marker expression and cytokine production. In normal human skin, mTregs preferentially localized to hair follicles and were more abundant in skin with high hair density. Sequence comparison of TCRs from conventional memory T helper cells and mTregs isolated from skin revealed little homology between the two cell populations, suggesting that they recognize different antigens. Under steady-state conditions, mTregs were nonmigratory and relatively unresponsive; however, in inflamed skin from psoriasis patients, mTregs expanded, were highly proliferative, and produced low levels of IL-17. Taken together, these results identify a subset of Tregs that stably resides in human skin and suggest that these cells are qualitatively defective in inflammatory skin disease.

### Successful Treatment of Recalcitrant Prurigo with Alitretinoin

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BACKGROUND Chronic itch with secondary scratch lesions such as prurigo has a major impact on quality of life. Due to its relapsing nature and often unknown origin, its treatment is challenging. OBJECTIVE We sought to demonstrate that alitretinoin can be an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment in a patient suffering from chronic itch with concomitant prurigo and psoriatic lesions. METHODS Case report. RESULTS After 1 month of alitretinoin treatment (30 mg daily), itch as well as prurigo and psoriasis lesions decreased markedly. Three cycles of alitretinoin were administered, as each cessation of treatment led to relapse of the symptoms after 6-8 weeks. Tapering of the alitretinoin dose (30 mg every second day) after the third cycle allowed to maintain the effects for over 18 months. CONCLUSION Treatment of refractory prurigo with alitretinoin might be an efficacious alternative to standard therapies. In case of relapse, retreatment with alitretinoin reinduces a further long-lasting response.

### Chronological Order of Appearance of Extraintestinal Manifestations Relative to the Time of IBD Diagnosis in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

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BACKGROUND Data evaluating the chronological order of appearance of extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) relative to the time of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosis is currently lacking. We aimed to assess the type, frequency, and chronological order of appearance of EIMs in patients with IBD. METHODS Data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study were analyzed. RESULTS The data on 1249 patients were analyzed (49.8% female, median age: 40 [interquartile range, 30-51 yr], 735 [58.8%] with Crohn's disease, 483 [38.7%] with ulcerative colitis, and 31 [2.5%] with indeterminate colitis). A total of 366 patients presented with EIMs (29.3%). Of those, 63.4% presented with 1, 26.5% with 2, 4.9% with 3, 2.5% with 4, and 2.7% with 5 EIMs during their lifetime. Patients presented with the following diseases as first EIMs: peripheral arthritis 70.0%, aphthous stomatitis 21.6%, axial arthropathy/ankylosing spondylitis 16.4%, uveitis 13.7%, erythema nodosum 12.6%, primary sclerosing cholangitis 6.6%, pyoderma gangrenosum 4.9%, and psoriasis 2.7%. In 25.8% of cases, patients presented with their first EIM before IBD was diagnosed (median time 5 mo before IBD diagnosis: range, 0-25 mo), and in 74.2% of cases, the first EIM manifested itself after IBD diagnosis (median: 92 mo; range, 29-183 mo). CONCLUSIONS In one quarter of patients with IBD, EIMs appeared before the time of IBD diagnosis. Occurrence of EIMs should prompt physicians to look for potential underlying IBD.

### Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases: A Nationwide Registry-Based Cohort Study

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BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients with alcoholic cirrhosis vs controls in Denmark. METHODS We collected data from nationwide health care registries to identify and follow up all citizens of Denmark diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis from 1977 through 2010. Each patient was matched with 5 random individuals from the population (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS Of the 24,679 patients diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis, 532 developed an autoimmune disease, yielding an overall increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.50). The strongest associations were with Addison's disease (aIRR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.04-5.85), inflammatory bowel disease (aIRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate for polymyalgia rheumatica decreased in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis compared with controls (aIRR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.33-0.67). CONCLUSIONS Based on a nationwide cohort study of patients in Denmark, alcoholic cirrhosis is a risk factor for several autoimmune diseases.

### Protective effect of a germline, IL-17-neutralizing antibody in murine models of autoimmune inflammatory disease.

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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibiting cytokines have recently emerged as new drug modalities for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a T-cell-derived central mediator of autoimmunity. Immunization with Qβ-IL-17, a virus-like particle based vaccine, has been shown to produce autoantibodies in mice and was effective in ameliorating disease symptoms in animal models of autoimmunity. To characterize autoantibodies induced by vaccination at the molecular level, we generated mouse mAbs specific for IL-17 and compared them to germline Ig sequences. The variable regions of a selected hypermutated high-affinity anti-IL-17 antibody differed in only three amino acid residues compared to the likely germline progenitor. An antibody, which was backmutated to germline, maintained a surprisingly high affinity (0.5 nM). The ability of the parental hypermutated antibody and the derived germline antibody to block inflammation was subsequently tested in murine models of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis), and psoriasis (imiquimod-induced skin inflammation). Both antibodies were able to delay disease onset and significantly reduced disease severity. Thus, the mouse genome unexpectedly encodes for antibodies with the ability to functionally neutralize IL-17 in vivo.

### Molecular mechanism of PUVA-induced apoptosis in mouse epidermal cells

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A combination of psoralens and ultraviolet-A radiation referred to as PUVA, is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis. PUVA therapy is highly effective in killing hyperproliferative cells, but its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Psoralen binds to DNA, and upon photoactivation by UVA, it forms monofunctional adducts and interstrand cross-links. PUVA treatment has been shown to be mutagenic and to produce tumors in animals. In addition, epidemiological studies have reported a 10 to 15 percent increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma in individuals treated chronically with PUVA. However, it remains a treatment for skin disorders such as psoriasis because its benefits outweigh its risks. The widespread use of PUVA therapy and its associated cancer risk requires us to understand the molecular mechanisms by which PUVA induces cell death. Immortalized JB6 mouse epidermal cells, p53−/− mice, and Fas Ligand−/− (gld) mice were used to investigate the molecular mechanism by which PUVA kills cells. Treatment of JB6 cells with 10 μg/ml 8-methoxypsoralen followed by irradiation with 20 kJ/m2 UVA resulted in cell death. The cells exhibited morphological and biochemical characteristics of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation, DNA ladder formation, and TUNEL-positivity. PUVA treatment stabilized and phosphorylated p53 leading to its activation, as measured by nuclear localization and induction of p21Waf/Cip1, a transcriptional target of p53. Subsequent in vivo studies revealed that there was statistically significantly less apoptosis in p53 −/− mice than in p53+/+ mice at 72 hours after PUVA. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed more Fas and FasL expression in p53+/+ mice than in p53−/− mice, suggesting that p53 is required to transcriptionally activate Fas, which in turn causes the cells to undergo apoptosis. Studies with gld mice confirmed a role for Fas/FasL interactions in PUVA-induced apoptosis. There was statistically significantly less apoptosis in gld mice compared with wild-type mice 24, 48, and 72 hours after PUVA. These results demonstrate that PUVA-induced apoptosis in mouse epidermal cells requires p53 and Fas/FasL interactions. These findings may be important for designing effective treatments for diseases such as psoriasis without increasing the patient's risk for skin cancer. ^

### The information bottleneck method for genome-wide association studies

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In population studies, most current methods focus on identifying one outcome-related SNP at a time by testing for differences of genotype frequencies between disease and healthy groups or among different population groups. However, testing a great number of SNPs simultaneously has a problem of multiple testing and will give false-positive results. Although, this problem can be effectively dealt with through several approaches such as Bonferroni correction, permutation testing and false discovery rates, patterns of the joint effects by several genes, each with weak effect, might not be able to be determined. With the availability of high-throughput genotyping technology, searching for multiple scattered SNPs over the whole genome and modeling their joint effect on the target variable has become possible. Exhaustive search of all SNP subsets is computationally infeasible for millions of SNPs in a genome-wide study. Several effective feature selection methods combined with classification functions have been proposed to search for an optimal SNP subset among big data sets where the number of feature SNPs far exceeds the number of observations. ^ In this study, we take two steps to achieve the goal. First we selected 1000 SNPs through an effective filter method and then we performed a feature selection wrapped around a classifier to identify an optimal SNP subset for predicting disease. And also we developed a novel classification method-sequential information bottleneck method wrapped inside different search algorithms to identify an optimal subset of SNPs for classifying the outcome variable. This new method was compared with the classical linear discriminant analysis in terms of classification performance. Finally, we performed chi-square test to look at the relationship between each SNP and disease from another point of view. ^ In general, our results show that filtering features using harmononic mean of sensitivity and specificity(HMSS) through linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is better than using LDA training accuracy or mutual information in our study. Our results also demonstrate that exhaustive search of a small subset with one SNP, two SNPs or 3 SNP subset based on best 100 composite 2-SNPs can find an optimal subset and further inclusion of more SNPs through heuristic algorithm doesn't always increase the performance of SNP subsets. Although sequential forward floating selection can be applied to prevent from the nesting effect of forward selection, it does not always out-perform the latter due to overfitting from observing more complex subset states. ^ Our results also indicate that HMSS as a criterion to evaluate the classification ability of a function can be used in imbalanced data without modifying the original dataset as against classification accuracy. Our four studies suggest that Sequential Information Bottleneck(sIB), a new unsupervised technique, can be adopted to predict the outcome and its ability to detect the target status is superior to the traditional LDA in the study. ^ From our results we can see that the best test probability-HMSS for predicting CVD, stroke,CAD and psoriasis through sIB is 0.59406, 0.641815, 0.645315 and 0.678658, respectively. In terms of group prediction accuracy, the highest test accuracy of sIB for diagnosing a normal status among controls can reach 0.708999, 0.863216, 0.639918 and 0.850275 respectively in the four studies if the test accuracy among cases is required to be not less than 0.4. On the other hand, the highest test accuracy of sIB for diagnosing a disease among cases can reach 0.748644, 0.789916, 0.705701 and 0.749436 respectively in the four studies if the test accuracy among controls is required to be at least 0.4. ^ A further genome-wide association study through Chi square test shows that there are no significant SNPs detected at the cut-off level 9.09451E-08 in the Framingham heart study of CVD. Study results in WTCCC can only detect two significant SNPs that are associated with CAD. In the genome-wide study of psoriasis most of top 20 SNP markers with impressive classification accuracy are also significantly associated with the disease through chi-square test at the cut-off value 1.11E-07. ^ Although our classification methods can achieve high accuracy in the study, complete descriptions of those classification results(95% confidence interval or statistical test of differences) require more cost-effective methods or efficient computing system, both of which can't be accomplished currently in our genome-wide study. We should also note that the purpose of this study is to identify subsets of SNPs with high prediction ability and those SNPs with good discriminant power are not necessary to be causal markers for the disease.^

### Functional data analysis approaches for genotype-phenotype association studies from next-generation sequencing

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Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms can effectively detect the entire spectrum of genomic variation and is emerging to be a major tool for systematic exploration of the universe of variants and interactions in the entire genome. However, the data produced by next-generation sequencing technologies will suffer from three basic problems: sequence errors, assembly errors, and missing data. Current statistical methods for genetic analysis are well suited for detecting the association of common variants, but are less suitable to rare variants. This raises great challenge for sequence-based genetic studies of complex diseases.^ This research dissertation utilized genome continuum model as a general principle, and stochastic calculus and functional data analysis as tools for developing novel and powerful statistical methods for next generation of association studies of both qualitative and quantitative traits in the context of sequencing data, which finally lead to shifting the paradigm of association analysis from the current locus-by-locus analysis to collectively analyzing genome regions.^ In this project, the functional principal component (FPC) methods coupled with high-dimensional data reduction techniques will be used to develop novel and powerful methods for testing the associations of the entire spectrum of genetic variation within a segment of genome or a gene regardless of whether the variants are common or rare.^ The classical quantitative genetics suffer from high type I error rates and low power for rare variants. To overcome these limitations for resequencing data, this project used functional linear models with scalar response to develop statistics for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both common and rare variants. To illustrate their applications, the functional linear models were applied to five quantitative traits in Framingham heart studies. ^ This project proposed a novel concept of gene-gene co-association in which a gene or a genomic region is taken as a unit of association analysis and used stochastic calculus to develop a unified framework for testing the association of multiple genes or genomic regions for both common and rare alleles. The proposed methods were applied to gene-gene co-association analysis of psoriasis in two independent GWAS datasets which led to discovery of networks significantly associated with psoriasis.^

### Involvement of {\it p53\/} in PUVA-induced skin cancers

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A combination of psoralen and ultraviolet-A radiation, commonly referred to as "PUVA," is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis. However, PUVA treatment increases the risk of developing skin cancer in psoriasis patients and induces skin cancer in mice. It is, however unknown whether the increased incidence of skin cancer in PUVA treated psoriasis patients is due to the carcinogenic effects of PUVA therapy or due to an indirect effect such as immunosuppression, which can permit the growth of tumors induced by UVB radiation. In this study, we used the p53 tumor suppressor gene as a molecular marker to determine whether PUVA-induced mouse skin cancers contain unique mutations in p53 that are different from UV-induced mutations, and if so, determine whether skin cancers from PUVA treated patients have PUVA-type or UV-type p53 mutations. Since the DNA lesions induced by PUVA are quite different from those induced by UV, we hypothesize that p53 mutations induced by PUVA may also be different from those induced by UV.^ Analysis of PUVA-induced murine skin cancers for p53 mutations revealed that 14 of 15 (93%) missense mutations detected in these cancers were localized at 5$\sp\prime$-TA/5$\sp\prime$-TAT sites, potential sites of psoralen photoadditions. Mutations at these sequences are exceedingly rare in UV-induced murine skin cancers. In addition, PUVA-induced murine skin cancers did not contain UV signature (C $\to$ T or CC $\to$ TT transitions) mutations in p53. These results suggest that PUVA induces unique mutations in p53 that can be distinguished from those induced by UV.^ Next we determined whether SCCs arising in PUVA treated psoriasis patients have PUVA-type or UV-type p53 mutations. The results indicated that 16 of 25 (64%) missense p53 mutations detected in SCCs from PUVA treated patients were located at 5$\sp\prime$-TG, 5$\sp\prime$-TA and 5$\sp\prime$-TT sites, putative sites of psoralen photobinding. Interestingly, about 32% of p53 mutations detected in SCCs from PUVA treated patients had the UV signature. Taken together these results suggest that both PUVA and UVB play a role in the development of SCCs in psoriasis patients undergoing PUVA therapy. ^

### Papel de la interleuquina 23 en la diferenciación hacia Th17

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The incidence of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has increased among developed countries in the past 30 years, creating a demand for the development of effective and economic therapies for these diseases. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose increased production has been shown to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in different murine models such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. More importantly, increased levels of IL-23 have been found in biopsies from patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and psoriasis. The pathological consequences of excessive IL-23 signalling have been linked to its ability to promote the production of interleukin 17 (IL-17), particularly in the subpopulation of CD4 T cells Th17. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which IL-23 sustains the Th17 response and induces pathogenic effector functions in these cells remain largely unknown. The global objective of the experiments carried out in this work was to determine the effect of IL-23 on the proliferation, survival and IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) production in Th17 cells. These experiments have shown that IL-23 does not promote proliferation or survival of in vitro generated Th17 cells, and that there is no difference in the production of IL -17 in the absence or presence of IL -23. The IL-23 receptor, like other cytokine receptors, lacks intrinsic enzymatic activity. Instead, IL-23 receptor associates with members of the Janus tyrosine kinase family (Jaks). Cytokine binding to a Jak-associated receptor triggers the activation of the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors. Previous work indicated that the IL-23 receptor complex is associated with the tyrosine kinases Jak2 and Tyk2 that promote STAT3 phosphorylation. Subsequent studies showed that IL23 activation of STAT3 induces the expression of the transcription factor RORγt, which is crucial for IL-17 production. This work has explored the IL-23 signalling cascade, determining the optimal conditions for STAT3 activation and demonstrating the activation of other transcription factors such as STAT4, STAT5 and STAT1 that contribute to IL-23-mediated signalling pathways.

### An antagonistic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variant inhibits VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of human endothelial cells

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen with a unique specificity for endothelial cells and a key mediator of aberrant endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in a variety of human pathological situations, such as tumor angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. VEGF is a symmetric homodimeric molecule with two receptor binding interfaces lying on each pole of the molecule. Herein we report on the construction and recombinant expression of an asymmetric heterodimeric VEGF variant with an intact receptor binding interface at one pole and a mutant receptor binding interface at the second pole of the dimer. This VEGF variant binds to VEGF receptors but fails to induce receptor activation. In competition experiments, the heterodimeric VEGF variant antagonizes VEGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation and proliferation of endothelial cells. A 15-fold excess of the heterodimer was sufficient to inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 50%, and a 100-fold excess resulted in an almost complete inhibition. By using a rational approach that is based on the structure of VEGF, we have shown the feasibility to construct a VEGF variant that acts as an VEGF antagonist.

### A 12R-lipoxygenase in human skin: Mechanistic evidence, molecular cloning, and expression

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A recognized feature of psoriasis and other proliferative dermatoses is accumulation in the skin of the unusual arachidonic acid metabolite, 12R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12R-HETE). This hydroxy fatty acid is opposite in chirality to the product of the well-known 12S-lipoxygenase and heretofore in mammals is known only as a product of cytochrome P450s. Here we provide mechanistic evidence for a lipoxygenase route to 12R-HETE in human psoriatic tissue and describe a 12R-lipoxygenase that can account for the biosynthesis. Initially we demonstrated retention of the C-12 deuterium of octadeuterated arachidonic acid in its conversion to 12R-HETE in incubations of psoriatic scales, indicating the end product is not formed by isomerization from 12S-H(P)ETE via the 12-keto derivative. Secondly, analysis of product formed from [10R-3H] and [10S-3H]-labeled arachidonic acids revealed that 12R-HETE synthesis is associated with stereospecific removal of the pro-R hydrogen from the 10-carbon of arachidonate. This result is compatible with 12R-lipoxygenase-catalyzed formation of 12R-HETE and not with a P450-catalyzed route to 12R-HETE in psoriatic scales. We cloned a lipoxygenase from human keratinocytes; the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences share ≤50% identity to other human lipoxygenases. This enzyme, when expressed in Hela cells, oxygenates arachidonic acid to 12-HPETE, >98% 12R in configuration. The 12R-lipoxygenase cDNA is detectable by PCR in psoriatic scales and as a 2.5-kilobase mRNA by Northern analysis of keratinocytes. Identification of this enzyme extends the known distribution of R-lipoxygenases to humans and presents an additional target for potential therapeutic interventions in psoriasis.

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