234 resultados para PSORIASIS


Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Untersuchungen zur autoimmunen Genese der thrombotisch thrombozytopenischen Purpura. rnEinführung: Die idiopathische thrombotisch thrombozytopenische Purpura (TTP) ist eine lebensbedrohliche Mikroangiopathie und wird durch ein Autoantikörper-induziertes Defizit der ADAMTS13-Protease ausgelöst. Eine Assoziation zwischen Krankheitsprädisposition und Vorliegen bestimmter humaner Leukozytenantigene (HLA) wird vermutet. Untersuchungen zu diesem Zusammenhang stellen einen Teil dieser Arbeit dar. rnAutoimmunkrankheiten tendieren zum gemeinsamen Auftreten innerhalb eines Individuums. Im zweiten Teil dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob eine solche Kookkurrenz verschiedener Autoimmunkrankheiten auch bei Patienten mit idiopathischer TTP beobachtet werden kann.rnMethodik: Zur Untersuchung der ersten Fragestellung werden die HLA-Klasse I und II-Merkmale von 54 deutschen TTP-Patienten bestimmt. Alle Patienten weisen Autoantikörper gegen ADAMTS13 und eine Protease-Aktivität <5% vor. Die Blutproben werden mittels Sequence Specific Primer-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) und Sequence Specific Oligonucleotid-PCR auf HLA-DRB1, -DRB3-5 und –DQB1 untersucht. Als Referenz dienen die Werte deutscher Knochenmark- und Blutspender, erhalten über www.allelefrequencies.net. Die statistische Auswertung erfolgt mittels zweiseitigem Binomialtest und die resultierenden p-Werte werden nach Benjamini-Hochberg korrigiert.rnZur Beantwortung der zweiten Fragestellung werden 76 deutsche TTP-Patienten anhand eines standardisierten Fragebogens nach Begleiterkrankungen befragt. Als Vergleichswerte dient die Prävalenz der jeweiligen Erkrankung in der Allgemeinbevölkerung. Die statistische Auswertung erfolgt mittels zweiseitigem Binomialtest. Da die p-Werte nicht korrigiert werden, sind die Ergebnisse nur deskriptiv zu verstehen.rnErgebnis: Der Vergleich der HLA-Frequenzen ergibt ein signifikant gehäuftes Vorkommen von HLA-DQB1*02:02 (p<0,001) und -DRB1*11 (p=0,003) innerhalb des Patientenkollektivs. 20% (DQB1*02:02) bzw. 48,1% (DRB1*11) der TTP-Patienten sind im Gegensatz zu nur 1,2% (DQB1*02:02) bzw. 23,5% (DRB1*11) innerhalb der Vergleichsgruppe für das jeweilige HLA-Merkmal positiv.rnDie Befragung der TTP-Patienten bezüglich weiterer Erkrankungen ergab im Vergleich mit der Allgemeinbevölkerung fünf auffällig häufig im Patientenkollektiv vorkommende Autoimmunkrankheiten: Hashimoto Thyreoiditis (23,5% in der Patientengruppe zu 0,7% in der Allgemeinbevölkerung; p<0,001), systemischer Lupus erythematodes (6,5% der Patienten im Gegensatz zu 0,025% in der Allgemeinbevölkerung, p<0,001), Immunthrombozytopenie (6,3% der Patienten zu 0,02% in der Allgemeinbevölkerung; p<0,001), Psoriasis (9,4% der Patienten zu 2,5% in der Allgemeinbevölkerung; p=0,005) und glutensensitive Enteropathie (3,1% der Patienten zu 0,2% in der Allgemeinbevölkerung; p=0,007). rnSchlussfolgerung: Das vermehrte Vorkommen bestimmter HLA-Merkmale im Patientenkollektiv spricht für eine prädisponierende Wirkung dieser Antigene im Krankheitsgeschehen. Eine mögliche HLA-vermittelte Assoziation zwischen TTP und den genannten Autoimmunkrankheiten wird vermutet, kann jedoch nicht in allen Fällen die beobachtete Kookkurrenz ausreichend erklären. Insgesamt bestätigt die vorliegende Arbeit die Assoziation verschiedener Autoimmunkrankheiten untereinander und spricht für eine genetische Prädisposition zur Ausbildung autoimmuner Störungen. rn

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Tiefes Wissen über den Ceramid Stoffwechsel ist rudimentär für das Verständnis der Haut-Pathophysiologie (z.B. für atopische Dermatitis oder Psoriasis ) und unabdingbar für gezielte Therapieansätze. Wenn die zwei wichtigen Barriere Funktionen, gegen transepidermalen Wasserverlust und Pathogene Invasionen undicht werden, sind bestimmte Barriere Komponenten wie z.B. Ceramide stark verändert. In Haut und Hoden führt die Deletion der Ceramid-Synthase 3 zu einem Arrest der epidermalen Reifung und der Spermatogenese, welches ihre Bedeutung für eine intakte Barriere heraushebt. Sphingosin (So), ein Abbauprodukt von Cer, wurde als antimikrobielles Mittel identifiziert. So konnte das Wachstum von Candida albicans hemmen und die Invasion von Pathogenen in tiefere Hautschichten verringern, wodurch ihre mögliche Rolle in der Therapie von Hauterkrankungen gezeigt wurde. Auch eine neue Klasse von Ceramiden, die 1-O-acylceramide, wurde entdeckt. 1-O-acylceramide könnten zu einer funktionellen Wasserdurchlässigkeit Barriere beitragen, da sie zu den hydrophobesten der epidermalen Cers gehören. Die neutrale Glucosylceramidase scheint topologisch mit der 1-Oacylceramid Produktion verbunden zu sein, sowie die Enzyme der Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) Familie eine Rolle dabei spielen könnten. Die Identifizierung der für die 1-O-acylceramid Synthese verantwortlichen Enzyme wir Gegenstand weiterer Forschung sein, jedoch zeigten Untersuchungen an Mäusen, defizient für die saure Ceramidase (Farber-Krankheit), dass Makrophagen ein weiterer potenzieller Produktionsort sein könnten.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Etanercept is a fully human tumor necrosis factor a receptor fusion protein that binds tumor necrosis factor a with greater affinity than natural receptors. Biologics are widely used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriasis arthritis and may represent a new therapeutic option for some patients with psoriatic nail disease. CASE REPORT: We report a case of lichen planus limited to the toe nails successfully treated with etanercept monotherapy. CONCLUSION: The significant improvement of our case suggests that etanercept is an effective treatment modality for lichen planus limited particularly to the nails. Further controlled studies are needed to establish the effectiveness and therapeutic regimes.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The homeodomain-only protein (HOP) contains an atypical homeodomain which is unable to bind to DNA due to mutations in residues important for DNA binding. Recently, HOP was reported to regulate proliferation/differentiation homeostasis in different cell types. In the present study, we performed transcriptional profiling of cultured primary human keratinocytes and noted a robust induction of HOP upon calcium-induced cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry of human skin localized HOP to the granular layer in the epidermis. Overexpression of HOP using a lentiviral vector up-regulated FLG and LOR expression during keratinocyte differentiation. Conversely, decreasing HOP expression using small interfering RNA markedly reduced the calcium-induced expression of late markers of differentiation in vitro, with the most prominent effect on profilaggrin (FLG) mRNA. Moreover, mRNA levels of profilaggrin and loricrin were downregulated in the epidermis of HOP knockout mice. Analysis of skin disorders revealed altered HOP expression in lichen planus, psoriasis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Our data indicate that HOP is a novel modulator of late terminal differentiation in keratinocytes.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family acting at the intersection between proliferation and cell survival. This protein exhibits low or undetectable expression in most adult tissues but is increased in the majority of cancers. Suggested to be one of the most cancer-specific proteins identified to date, survivin acts as a signalling node in tumour maintenance and, after first promising results, is now attracting increasing attention as a target in anti-cancer therapy. In the skin, survivin has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as psoriasis and tumours of melanocytic and epithelial origin. Its expression can correlate with tumour severity, metastasis and decreased patient survival and has been inversely correlated with the sensitivity to cytotoxic agents used in anti-cancer therapy. Survivin may also be of importance for normal epidermal homeostasis possibly supporting self-renewal of epidermal stem cells. In this review, the authors summarize and discuss current data of survivin in skin biology and provide a comprehensive compilation of survivin expression in skin pathologies with focus on future therapeutical use.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The zinc endopeptidase meprin (EC 3.4.24.18) is expressed in brush border membranes of intestine and kidney tubules, intestinal leukocytes, and certain cancer cells, suggesting a role in epithelial differentiation and cell migration. Here we show by RT-PCR and immunoblotting that meprin is also expressed in human skin. As visualized by immunohistochemistry, the two meprin subunits are localized in separate cell layers of the human epidermis. Meprin alpha is expressed in the stratum basale, whereas meprin beta is found in cells of the stratum granulosum just beneath the stratum corneum. In hyperproliferative epidermis such as in psoriasis vulgaris, meprin alpha showed a marked shift of expression from the basal to the uppermost layers of the epidermis. The expression patterns suggest distinct functions for the two subunits in skin. This assumption is supported by diverse effects of recombinant meprin alpha and beta on human adult low-calcium high-temperature keratinocytes. Here, beta induced a dramatic change in cell morphology and reduced the cell number, indicating a function in terminal differentiation, whereas meprin alpha did not affect cell viability, and may play a role in basal keratinocyte proliferation.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The process of epidermal renewal persists throughout the entire life of an organism. It begins when a keratinocyte progenitor leaves the stem cell compartment, undergoes a limited number of mitotic divisions, exits the cell cycle, and commits to terminal differentiation. At the end of this phase, the postmitotic keratinocytes detach from the basement membrane to build up the overlaying stratified epithelium. Although highly coordinated, this sequence of events is endowed with a remarkable versatility, which enables the quiescent keratinocyte to reintegrate into the cell cycle and become migratory when necessary, for example after wounding. It is this versatility that represents the Achilles heel of epithelial cells allowing for the development of severe pathologies. Over the past decade, compelling evidence has been provided that epithelial cancer cells achieve uncontrolled proliferation following hijacking of a "survival program" with PI3K/Akt and a "proliferation program" with growth factor receptor signaling at its core. Recent insights into adhesion receptor signaling now propose that integrins, but also cadherins, can centrally control these programs. It is suggested that the two types of adhesion receptors act as sensors to transmit extracellular stimuli in an outside-in mode, to inversely modulate epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and ensure cell survival. Hence, cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion receptors likely play a more powerful and wide-ranging role than initially anticipated. This Perspective article discusses the relevance of this emerging field for epidermal growth and differentiation, which can be of importance for severe pathologies such as tumorigenesis and invasive metastasis, as well as psoriasis and Pemphigus vulgaris.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

We report three women with hypercortisolism presenting with symptoms and signs of Cushing's syndrome. In two of the patients, initial symptoms of hypercortisolism were associated with spontaneous amelioration of previously known atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, respectively. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES: Diagnosis was established by demonstrating both lack of responsiveness to dexamethasone (1mg) suppression test and increased 24-hour urine cortisol secretion. One patient had a low serum ACTH level indicating Cushing's syndrome of adrenal origin. In the other two patients hypercortisolism proved to be ACTH-dependent, the source being the pituitary, as demonstrated by CRH stimulation test (elevation of ACTH and cortisol by 35 % and 20 %, respectively) and sampling of the petrosus sinus. In both patients imaging confirmed the presence of a pituitary adenoma.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Adalimumab is a fully humanized recombinant anti-tumour-necrosis-factor (TNF-alpha) monoclonal antibody which has been approved for rheumatoid arthritis, active ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and Crohn's disease. We report a case of alopecia areata (AA) universalis occurring 6 months after administration of adalimumab monotherapy in a patient with a long-standing history of psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a scalp biopsy which showed a peribulbar infiltrate of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD1a+ dendritic cells as well as CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages. In addition, immunofluorescence staining for TNF-alpha was found in the mononuclear cell infiltrate. This case suggests a complex role of TNF-alpha in the induction of AA.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal process observed in children and young adults. Recently, the acronym SAPHO syndrome (for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) was coined to emphasise the association between osteo-articular inflammations and different skin abnormalities which are aseptic and filled with neutrophils. In adults, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is now a classical manifestation of SAPHO syndrome. Chronic skin disorders were seen in eight of ten children on follow-up at the University Children's Hospitals in Bern and Zurich and in 61 of 260 paediatric cases reported in the literature. The different skin lesions were palmoplantar pustulosis (n = 40), non-palmoplantar pustulosis (n = 6), psoriasis vulgaris (n = 16) or severe acne (n = 4). More rarely Sweet syndrome (n = 2) or pyoderma gangrenosum (n = 1) were reported. Conclusion: The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome is pertinent even in paediatrics since skin involvement is frequent.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from enzymatic degradation and transport it into the endosomal compartments of both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells. In the plasmacytoid DCs, the self-RNA-LL37 complexes activate TLR7 and like the self-DNA-LL37 complexes, trigger the production of IFN-α in the absence of induction of maturation or production of IL-6 and TNF-α. In contrast to the self-DNA-LL37 complexes, the self-RNA-LL37 complexes are also internalized into the endosomal compartments of myeloid dendritic cells and trigger activation through TLR8, leading to the production of TNF-α and IL-6, and the maturation of the myeloid DCs. Furthermore, we found that these self nucleic acid-LL37 complexes can be found in vivo in the skin lesions of the cutaneous autoimmune disease psoriasis, where they are associated with mature mDCs in situ. On the other hand, in the systemic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, self-DNA-LL37 complexes were found to be a constituent of the circulating immune complexes isolated from patient sera. This interaction between the endogenous peptide with the self nucleic acid molecules present in the immune complexes was found to be electrostatic and it confers resistance to enzymatic degradation of the nucleic acid molecules in the immune complexes. Moreover, autoantibodies to these endogenous peptides were found to trigger neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil extracellular traps composed of DNA, which are potential sources of the self nucleic acid-LL37 complexes present in SLE immune complexes. Our results demonstrate that the cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 drives the innate immune recognition of self nucleic acid molecules through toll-like receptors in human dendritic cells, thus elucidating a pathway for innate sensing of host cell death. This pathway of autoreactivity was found to be pathologically relevant in human autoimmune diseases psoriasis and SLE, and thus this study provides new insights into the mechanisms autoimmune diseases.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is used as a very effective treatment modality for various diseases, including psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PUVA-induced immune suppression and/or apoptosis are thought to be responsible for the therapeutic action. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PUVA acts are not well understood. We have previously identified platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent phospholipid mediator, as a crucial substance triggering ultraviolet B radiation-induced immune suppression. In this study, we used PAF receptor knockout mice, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, a COX-2 inhibitor (presumably blocking downstream effects of PAF), and PAF-like molecules to test the role of PAF receptor binding in PUVA treatment. We found that activation of the PAF pathway is crucial for PUVA-induced immune suppression (as measured by suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to Candida albicans) and that it plays a role in skin inflammation and apoptosis. Downstream of PAF, interleukin-10 was involved in PUVA-induced immune suppression but not inflammation. Better understanding of PUVA's mechanisms may offer the opportunity to dissect the therapeutic from the detrimental (ie, carcinogenic) effects and/or to develop new drugs (eg, using the PAF pathway) that act like PUVA but have fewer side effects.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Only limited data are available about the precise mechanism leading to tissue inflammation and damage in patients with hidradenits suppurativa (HS). The central pathogenetic event in HS is the occlusion of the upper parts of the hair follicle leading to a perifollicular lympho-histiocytic inflammation. In early lesions, neutrophilic abscess formation and influx of mainly macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells predominate. In chronic disease, the infiltrate expand with increased frequencies of B cells and plasma cells. In the inflammatory infiltrates toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) was highly expressed by infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells indicating that stimulation of inflammatory cells by TLR2 activating microbial products may be important trigger factors in the chronic inflammatory process. Furthermore, the pro inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 are abundantly expressed by macrophages infiltrating papillary and reticular dermis of HS skin. Both of these cytokines are believed to be important mediators in autoimmune tissue destruction and its blocking by biologics has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. Especially IL-23 has been shown to be involved in the induction of a T helper cell subset producing IL-17, therefore, named Th17, which is distinct from the classical Th1/Th2 subsets. In chronic HS lesions IL-17-producing T helper cells were found to infiltrate the dermis. An overexpression of various other cytokines like IL-1beta, CYCL9 (MIG), IL-10 , IL-11 and BLC has been described in HS lesion whereas IL-20 and IL-22 have been shown to be down regulated. Similar to psoriasis also in HS the antimicrobial peptides beta defensin 2 and psoriasin are highly upregulated. This may at least in part explain the clinical finding that HS patients suffer only rarely from skin infections. Taken together the inflammatory reaction leading to HS are only poorly understood, but they show many similarity with other inflammatory reactions as e.g. in psoriasis.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a rare population of circulating cells, which selectively express intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLR)-7 and TLR-9 and have the capacity to produce large amounts of type I IFNs (IFN-a/b) in response to viruses or host derived nucleic acid containing complexes. pDCs are normally absent in skin but accumulate in the skin of psoriasis patients where their chronic activation to produce IFN-a/b drives the disease formation. Whether pDCs and their activation to produce IFN-a/b play a functional role in healthy skin is unknown. Here we show that pDCs are rapidly and transiently recruited into healthy human and mouse skin upon epidermal injury. Infiltrating pDCs were found to sense nucleic acids in wounded skin via TLRs, leading to the production of IFN-a/b. The production of IFN-a/b was paralleled by a short lived expression of cathelicidins, which form complexes with extracellular nucleic acids and activated pDCs to produce IFN-a/b in vitro. In vivo, cathelicidins were sufficient but not necessary for the induction of IFN-a/b in wounded skin, suggesting redundancy of this pathway. Depletion of pDCs or inhibition of IFN-a/bR signaling significantly impaired the inflammatory response and delayed re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thus we uncover a novel role of pDCs in sensing skin injury via TLR mediated recognition of nucleic acids and demonstrate their involvement in the early inflammatory process and wound healing response through the production of IFN-a/b.