227 resultados para PLGA


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Polymer microspheres loaded with bioactive particles, biomolecules, proteins, and/or growth factors play important roles in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and cell therapy. The conventional double emulsion method and a new method of electrospraying into liquid nitrogen were used to prepare bovine serum albumin (BAS)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous microspheres. The particle size, the surface morphology and the internal porous structure of the microspheres were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The loading efficiency, the encapsulation efficiency, and the release profile of the BSA-loaded PLGA microspheres were measured and studied. It was shown that the microspheres from double emulsion had smaller particle sizes (3-50 m), a less porous structure, a poor loading efficiency (5.2 %), and a poor encapsulation efficiency (43.5%). However, the microspheres from the electrospraying into liquid nitrogen had larger particle sizes (400-600 m), a highly porous structure, a high loading efficiency (12.2%), and a high encapsulation efficiency (93.8%). Thus the combination of electrospraying with freezing in liquid nitrogen and subsequent freeze drying represented a suitable way to produce polymer microspheres for effective loading and sustained release of proteins.

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The development of growth factor delivery strategies to circumvent the burst release phenomenon prevalent in most current systems has driven research towards encapsulating molecules in resorbable polymer matrices. For these polymer release techniques to be efficacious in a clinical setting, several key points need to be addressed. This present study has investigated the encapsulation of the growth factor, BMP-2 within PLGA/PLGA-PEG-PLGA microparticles. Morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics were investigated and we have demonstrated a sustained release of bioactive BMP-2. Furthermore, biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles was established and released BMP-2 was shown to promote the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells towards the osteogenic lineage to a greater extent than osteogenic supplements (as early as day 10 in culture), as determined using alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red assays. This study showcases a potential BMP-2 delivery system which may now be translated into more complex delivery systems, such as 3D, mechanically robust scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration applications.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-7) are key regulators of angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of realizing sequential release of the two growth factors using a novel composite scaffold. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-Akermanite (AK) microspheres were used to make the composite scaffold, which was then loaded with BMP-7, followed by embedding in a gelatin hydrogel matrix loaded with VEGF. The release profiles of the growth factors were studied and selected osteogenic related markers of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were analysed. It was shown that the composite scaffolds exhibited a fast initial burst release of VEGF within the first 3 days and a sustained slow release of BMP-7 over the full period of 20 days. The in vitro proliferation and differentiation of the BMSCs cultured in the osteogenic medium were enhanced by 1 to 2 times, resulting from the additionally and sequentially release of growth factors from the PLGA-AK/gelatin composite scaffolds.

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[EN] Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) represent a major clinical challenge in the ageing population. To address this problem, rhEGF-loaded Poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic-Acid (PLGA)-Alginate microspheres (MS) were prepared by a modified w/o/w-doubleemulsion/ solvent evaporation method. Different formulations were evaluated with the aim of optimising MSs properties by adding NaCl to the surfactant solution and/or the solvent removal phase and adding alginate as a second polymer. The characterization of the developed MS showed that alginate incorporation increased the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and NaCl besides increasing the EE also became the particle surface smooth and regular. Once the MS were optimised, the target loading of rhEGF was increased to 1% (PLGA-Alginate MS), and particles were sterilised by gamma radiation to provide the correct dosage for in vivo studies. In vitro cell culture assays demonstrated that neither the microencapsulation nor the sterilisation process affected rhEGF bioactivity or rhEGF wound contraction. Finally, the MS were evaluated in vivo for treatment of the full-thickness wound model in diabetised Wistar rats. rhEGF MS treated animals showed a statistically significant decrease of the wound area by days 7 and 11, a complete re-epithelisation by day 11 and an earlier resolution of the inflammatory process. Overall, these findings demonstrate the promising potential of rhEGF-loaded MS (PLGA-Alginate MS) to promote faster and more effective wound healing, and suggest its possible application in DFU treatment.

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以丙交酯开环聚合原位接枝改性的纳米生物玻璃(PLLA-g-BG)与聚丙交酯-乙交酯(PLGA)复合材料为研究对象,采用TGA,ESEM和EDX分析其接枝率,粒子分散性和表面元素分布,通过将兔成骨细胞种植于材料膜表面进行体外培养,采用荧光染色法、NIH Image J图像分析软件、MTT法和流式细胞术等手段检测细胞在材料表面的平均黏附数量、扩展面积比、增殖能力和细胞周期的变化,综合评价新型改性纳米复合材料的生物相容性和生物活性.结果表明,聚乳酸表面接枝改性可明显改善纳米生物玻璃粒子的团聚;PLGA中掺入一定比例的改性PLLA-g-BG可明显促进兔成骨细胞的黏附、扩展与增殖;改性纳米生物玻璃的应用可提高生物可降解聚酯材料的生物相容性和生物活性.

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以低聚乳酸接枝改性的羟基磷灰石纳米粒子(op-HA)和聚丙交酯-乙交酯(PLGA)制备的生物可降解纳米复合材料(op-HA/PLGA)为研究对象,采用FTIR,TGA,ESEM和EDX分析其接枝反应、接枝率、表面形貌和钙磷沉积情况,通过在材料膜表面接种兔成骨细胞进行体外培养,采用荧光染色、NIH ImageJ图像分析和Real-time PCR综合评价细胞在材料表面的形态、黏附面积比、增殖能力和基因表达水平,以此评价新型骨修复纳米复合材料op-HA/PLGA的表面性质和生物活性.研究结果表明,op-HA的表面接枝率为8.3%,掺入至PLGA后可形成富含钙磷的粗糙表面,促进成骨细胞的黏附、扩展和增殖,提高Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(Collagen-Ⅰ)、骨形态蛋白-2(BMP-2)和骨连接蛋白(Osteonectin)的基因表达水平,提高材料的钙磷沉积能力.op-HA/PLGA具有良好的细胞相容性和...

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The current study investigates the feasibility of using a biodegradable polymeric stent in common bile duct (CBD) repair and reconstruction. Here, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, molar ratio LA/GA = 80/20) was processed into a circular tube- and dumbbell-shaped specimens to determine the in vitro degradation behavior in bile. The morphology, weight loss, and molecular weight changes were then investigated in conjunction with evaluations of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Circular tube-shaped PLGA stents with X-ray opacity were subsequently used in common bile duct exploration (CBDE) and primary suturing in canine models. Next, X-ray images of CBD stents in vivo were compared and levels of serum liver enzymes and a histological analysis were conducted after stent transplantation. The results showed that the PLGA stents exhibited the required biomedical properties and spontaneously disappeared from CBDs in 4-5 weeks. The degradation period and function match the requirements in repair and reconstruction of CBDs to support the duct, guide bile drainage, and reduce T-tube-related complications.

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The hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals of 100-200 nm in length and 20-30 nm in width were hydrothermally synthesized by the reaction of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide. Lactic acid oligomer surface grafted HA(op-HA) nanoparticles were obtained by oligomeric lactic acid with a certain molecular weight grafting onto the HA surface to form a Ca carboxylate bond in the absence of any catalyst. The op-HA was further blended with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to prepare the nanocomposite of op-HA/PLGA. FTIR, TGA, ESEM and EDX were used to analyze grafting reaction, the graft ratio of op-HA, surface topography and calcium deposition of the composites, respectively. The rabbit osteoblasts were seeded and cultured on the surface of composites in vitro. The cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation and gene expression were evaluated with FITC staining, NIH image J software and the analysis of real-time PCR, respectively. The results show that the graft ratio of op-HA is 8.3% (mass fraction). The op-HA/PLGA nanocomposite possessed more suitable surface properties, including roughness and plenty of calcium and phosphor. It exhibited better cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation of rabbit osteoblasts, compared to pure PLGA.

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用聚乙二醇PEG1000和4600引发乙交酯(GA)和L-丙交酯(L-LA)开环共聚合得到一系列数均分子量为3 000~7 000的PLGA-PEG-PLGA水凝胶材料.综合应用动态粘弹谱仪和相图,系统报道了该凝胶力学性质和溶胶-凝胶转变的关系,凝胶区间的模量在102~104Pa之间.用荧光光谱证明了该三嵌段聚合物形成胶束的性质并测定了临界胶束浓度,验证了凝胶由胶束形成的机理.凝胶中的头孢他定释放呈现一定程度的缓释作用.

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The degradable polymers polylactide (PLA) and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) have found widespread use in modern medical practice. However, their slow degradation rates and tendency to lose strength before mass have caused problems. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether treatment with e-beam radiation could address these problems. Samples of PLA and PLGA were manufactured and placed in layered stacks, 8.1 mm deep, before exposure to 50 kGy of e-beam radiation from a 1.5 MeV accelerator. Gel permeation chromatography testing showed that the molecular weight of both materials was depth-dependent following irradiation, with samples nearest to the treated surface showing a reduced molecular weight. Samples deeper than 5.4 mm were unaffected. Computer modeling of the transmission of a 1.5 MeV e-beam in these materials corresponded well with these findings. An accelerated mass-loss study of the treated materials found that the samples nearest the irradiated surface initiated mass loss earlier, and at later stages showed an increased percentage mass loss. It was concluded that e-beam radiation could modify the degradation of bioabsorbable polymers to potentially improve their performance in medical devices, specifically for improved orthopedic fixation.

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In this present work we describe a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle formulation for intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA. This formulation was developed to encapsulate DNA within PLGA nanoparticles that combined salting out and emulsion evaporation processes. This process reduced the requirement for sonication which can induce degradation of the DNA. A monodispersed nanoparticle population with a mean diameter of approximately 240 nm was produced, entrapping a model plasmid DNA in both supercoiled and open circular structures. To induce endosomal escape of the nanoparticles, a superficial cationic charge was introduced using positively charged surfactants cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide (DMAB), which resulted in elevated zeta potentials. As expected, both cationic coatings reduced cell viability, but at equivalent positive zeta potentials, the DMAB coated nanoparticles induced significantly less cytotoxicity than those coated with CTAB. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the DMAB coated cationic nanoparticles were able to evade the endosomal lumen and localise in the cytosol of treated cells. Consequently, DMAB coated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with a GFP reporter plasmid exhibited significant improvements in transfection efficiencies with comparison to non-modified particles, highlighting their functional usefulness. These nanoparticles may be useful in delivery of gene therapies to targeted cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Antibody targeting of drug substances can improve the efficacy of the active molecule, improving distribution and concentration of the drug at the site of injury/disease. Encapsulation of drug substances into polymeric nanoparticles can also improve the therapeutic effects of such compounds by protecting the molecule until its action is required. In this current study, we have brought together these two rationales to develop a novel immunonanoparticle with improved therapeutic effect against colorectal tumor cells. This nanoparticle comprised a layer of peripheral antibodies (Ab) directed toward the Fas receptor (CD95/Apo-1) covalently attached to poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NP) loaded with camptothecin. Variations in surface carboxyl density permitted up to 48.5 mu g coupled Ab per mg of NP and analysis of nanoparticulate cores showed efficient camptothecin loading. Fluorescence visualization studies confirmed internalization of nanoconstructs into endocytic compartments of HCT 116 cells, an effect not evident in NP without superficial Ab. Cytotoxicity studies were then carried out against HCT116 cells. After 72 h, camptothecin solution resulted in an IC50 of 21.8 ng mL(-1). Ab-directed delivery of NP-encapsulated camptothecin was shown to be considerably more effective with an IC50 of 0.37 ng mL(-1). Calculation of synergistic ratios for these nanoconstructs demonstrated synergy of pharmacological relevance. Indeed, the results in this paper suggest that the attachment of anti-Fas antibodies to camptothecin-loaded nanoparticles may result in a therapeutic strategy that could have potential in the treatment of tumors expressing death receptors.

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The aim of this study was to design a controlled release vehicle for insulin to preserve its stability and biological activity during fabrication and release. A modified, double emulsion, solvent evaporation, technique using homogenisation force optimised entrapment efficiency of insulin into biodegradable nanoparticles (NP) prepared from poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and its PEGylated diblock copolymers. Formulation parameters (type of polymer and its concentration, stabiliser concentration and volume of internal aqueous phase) and physicochemical characteristics (size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profiles and in vitro stability) were investigated. In vivo insulin sensitivity was tested by dietinduced type II diabetic mice. Bioactivity of insulin was studied using Swiss TO mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic profile. Insulin-loaded NP were spherical and negatively charged with an average diameter of 200–400 nm. Insulin encapsulation efficiency increased significantly with increasing ratio of co-polymeric PEG. The internal aqueous phase volume had a significant impact on encapsulation efficiency, initial burst release and NP size. Optimised insulin NP formulated from 10% PEG-PLGA retained insulin integrity in vitro, insulin sensitivity in vivo and induced a sustained hypoglycaemic effect from 3 hours to 6 days in type I diabetic mice.