1000 resultados para Mutant


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Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play diverse roles in the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, angiogenesis and development. Activating the mutations of FGFRs in the germline has long been known to cause a variety of skeletal developmental disorders, but it is only recently that a similar spectrum of somatic FGFR mutations has been associated with human cancers. Many of these somatic mutations are gain-of-function and oncogenic and create dependencies in tumor cell lines harboring such mutations. A combination of knockdown studies and pharmaceutical inhibition in preclinical models has further substantiated genomically altered FGFR as a therapeutic target in cancer, and the oncology community is responding with clinical trials evaluating multikinase inhibitors with anti-FGFR activity and a new generation of specific pan-FGFR inhibitors.

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BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer, but recent advances in molecularly targeted agents against the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway demonstrate promise as effective therapies. Despite these advances, resistance remains an issue, as illustrated recently by the clinical experience with vemurafenib. Such acquired resistance appears to be the result of parallel pathway activation, such as PI3K, to overcome single-agent inhibition. In this report, we describe the cytotoxicity and anti-tumour activity of the novel MEK inhibitor, E6201, in a broad panel of melanoma cell lines (n = 31) of known mutational profile in vitro and in vivo. We further test the effectiveness of combining E6201 with an inhibitor of PI3K (LY294002) in overcoming resistance in these cell lines. RESULTS: The majority of melanoma cell lines were either sensitive (IC50 < 500 nM, 24/31) or hypersensitive (IC50 < 100 nM, 18/31) to E6201. This sensitivity correlated with wildtype PTEN and mutant BRAF status, whereas mutant RAS and PI3K pathway activation were associated with resistance. Although MEK inhibitors predominantly exert a cytostatic effect, E6201 elicited a potent cytocidal effect on most of the sensitive lines studied, as evidenced by Annexin positivity and cell death ELISA. Conversely, E6201 did not induce cell death in the two resistant melanoma cell lines tested. E6201 inhibited xenograft tumour growth in all four melanoma cell lines studied to varying degrees, but a more pronounced anti-tumour effect was observed for cell lines that previously demonstrated a cytocidal response in vitro. In vitro combination studies of E6201 and LY294002 showed synergism in all six melanoma cell lines tested, as defined by a mean combination index < 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that E6201 elicits a predominantly cytocidal effect in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cells of diverse mutational background. Resistance to E6201 was associated with disruption of PTEN and activation of downstream PI3K signalling. In keeping with these data we demonstrate that co-inhibition of MAPK and PI3K is effective in overcoming resistance inherent in melanoma.

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Homologous recombination repair (HRR) is required for both the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and the maintenance of the integrity of DNA replication forks. To determine the effect of a mutant allele of the RAD51 paralog XRCC2 (342delT) found in an HRR-defective tumour cell line, 342delT was introduced into HRR proficient cells containing a recombination reporter substrate. In one set of transfectants, expression of 342delT conferred sensitivity to thymidine and mitomycin C and suppressed HRR induced at the recombination reporter by thymidine but not by DSBs. In a second set of transfectants, the expression of 342delT was accompanied by a decreased level of the full-length XRCC2. These cells were defective in the induction of HRR by either thymidine or DSBs. Thus 342delT suppresses recombination induced by thymidine in a dominant negative manner while recombination induced by DSBs appears to depend upon the level of XRCC2 as well as the expression of the mutant XRCC2 allele. These results suggest that HRR pathways responding to stalled replication forks or DSBs are genetically distinguishable. They further suggest a critical role for XRCC2 in HRR at replication forks, possibly in the loading of RAD51 onto gapped DNA.

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Forward genetic screens have identified numerous genes involved in development and metabolism, and remain a cornerstone of biological research. However, to locate a causal mutation, the practice of crossing to a polymorphic background to generate a mapping population can be problematic if the mutant phenotype is difficult to recognize in the hybrid F2 progeny, or dependent on parental specific traits. Here in a screen for leaf hyponasty mutants, we have performed a single backcross of an Ethane Methyl Sulphonate (EMS) generated hyponastic mutant to its parent. Whole genome deep sequencing of a bulked homozygous F2 population and analysis via the Next Generation EMS mutation mapping pipeline (NGM) unambiguously determined the causal mutation to be a single nucleotide polymorphisim (SNP) residing in HASTY, a previously characterized gene involved in microRNA biogenesis. We have evaluated the feasibility of this backcross approach using three additional SNP mapping pipelines; SHOREmap, the GATK pipeline, and the samtools pipeline. Although there was variance in the identification of EMS SNPs, all returned the same outcome in clearly identifying the causal mutation in HASTY. The simplicity of performing a single parental backcross and genome sequencing a small pool of segregating mutants has great promise for identifying mutations that may be difficult to map using conventional approaches.

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Posttranscriptional silencing (PTGS) in plants, nematodes, Drosophila, and perhaps all eukaryotes operates by sequence-specific degradation or translational inhibition of the target mRNA. These processes are mediated by duplexed RNA. In Drosophila and nematodes, double-stranded (ds)RNA or self-complementary RNA is processed into fragments of approximately 21 nt by Dicer-1 [1, 2]. These small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) serve as guides to target degradation of homologous single-stranded (ss)RNA [1, 3]. In some cases, the approximately 21 nt guide fragments derived from endogenous, imperfectly self-complementary RNAs cause translational inhibition of their target mRNAs, with which they have substantial, but not perfect sequence complementarity [4-6]. These small temporal RNAs (stRNAs) belong to a class of noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs), 20-24 nt in length, that are found in flies, plants, nematodes, and mammals [4, 6-12]. In nematodes, the Dicer-1 enzyme catalyzes the production of both siRNA and stRNA [2, 13-15]. Mutation of the Arabidopsis Dicer-1 homolog, CARPEL FACTORY (CAF), blocks miRNA production [1, 4, 16-18]. Here, we report that the same caf mutant does not block either PTGS or siRNA production induced by self-complementary hairpin RNA. This suggests either that this mutation only impairs miRNA formation or, more interestingly, that plants have two distinct dicer-like enzymes, one for miRNA and another for siRNAi production.

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This paper presents a novel algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) to estimate the states of electric distribution networks. In order to improve the performance, accuracy, convergence speed, and eliminate the stagnation effect of original PSO, a secondary PSO loop and mutation algorithm as well as stretching function is proposed. For accounting uncertainties of loads in distribution networks, pseudo-measurements is modeled as loads with the realistic errors. Simulation results on 6-bus radial and 34-bus IEEE test distribution networks show that the distribution state estimation based on proposed DLM-PSO presents lower estimation error and standard deviation in comparison with algorithms such as WLS, GA, HBMO, and original PSO.

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Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is used widely as an expression host for various gene products. We have explored cellular effects caused by the expression of a mutant form of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), the major secreted protein of T. reesei using biochemical and transcriptomic analyses and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mutated CBHI was tagged fluorescently with Venus to establish the subcellular location of the fusion protein and its potential association with the proteasome, an organelle assigned for the disposal of misfolded proteins. Expression of the mutant CBHI in the high protein-secreting host Rut-C30 caused physiological changes in the fungal hyphae, affected protein secretion and elicited ER stress. A massive upregulation of UPR- and ERAD-related genes sec61, der1, uba1, bip1, pdi1, prp1, cxl1 and lhs1 was observed by qRT-PCR in the CBHIΔ4-Venus strain with four mutations introduced in the DNA encoding the core domain of CBHI. Further stress was applied to this strain by inhibiting function of the proteasome with MG132 (N-benzoylcarbonyl(Cbz)-Leu-Leu-leucinal). The effect of MG132 was found to be specific to the proteasome-associated genes. There are no earlier reports on the effect of proteasome inhibition on protein quality control in filamentous fungi. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies suggested that the mutant CBHI accumulated in the ER and colocalized with the fungal proteasome. These results provide an indication that there is a limit to how far T. reesei Rut-C30, already under secretion stress, can be pressed to produce higher protein yields.

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Mutations of K-ras have been found in 30-60% of colorectal carcinomas and are believed to be associated with tumor initiation, tumor progression and metastasis formation. Therefore, silencing of mutant K-ras expression has become an attractive therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of microRNA (miRNA) molecules directed against K-ras (miRNA-K-ras) on K-ras expression level and the growth of colorectal carcinoma cell line LoVo in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we evaluated electroporation as a gene delivery method for transfection of LoVo cells and tumors with plasmid DNA encoding miRNA-K-ras (pmiRNA-K-ras). Results of our study indicated that miRNAs targeting K-ras efficiently reduced K-ras expression and cell survival after in vitro electrotransfection of LoVo cells with pmiRNA-K-ras. In vivo, electroporation has proven to be a simple and efficient delivery method for local administration of pmiRNA-K-ras molecules into LoVo tumors. This therapy shows pronounced antitumor effectiveness and has no side effects. The obtained results demonstrate that electrogene therapy with miRNA-K-ras molecules can be potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of colorectal cancers harboring K-ras mutations. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

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Tobacco use is causally associated with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Here, we present the results of a case-control study that investigated the effects that the genetic variants of the cytochrome (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes have on modifying the risk of smoking-related HNSCC. Allelisms of the CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes alone were not associated with an increased risk. CYP1B1 codon 432 polymorphism was found to be a putative susceptibility factor in smoking-related HNSCC. The frequency of CYP1B1 polymorphism was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the group of smoking cases when compared with smoking controls. Additionally, an odds ratio (OR) of 4.53 (2.62-7.98) was discovered when investigating smoking and nonsmoking cases for the susceptible genotype CYP1B1*2/*2, when compared with the presence of the genotype wild type. In combination with polymorphic variants of the GST genes, a synergistic-effect OR was observed. The calculated OR for the combined genotype CYP1B1*2/*2 and GSTM1*2/*2 was 12.8 (4.09-49.7). The calculated OR for the combined genotype was 13.4 (2.92-97.7) for CYP1B1*2/*2 and GSTT1*2/*2, and 24.1 (9.36-70.5) for the combination of CYP1B1*2/*2 and GSTT1-expressors. The impact of the polymorphic variants of the CYP1B1 gene on HNSCC risk is reflected by the strong association with the frequency of somatic mutations of the p53 gene. Smokers with susceptible genotype CYP1B1*2/*2 were 20 times more likely to show evidence of p53 mutations than were those with CYP1B1 wild type. Combined genotype analysis of CYP1B1 and GSTM1 or GSTT1 revealed interactive effects on the occurrence of p53 gene mutations. The results of the present study indicate that polymorphic variants of CYP1B1 relate significantly to the individual susceptibility of smokers to HNSCC.

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The lipid A and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralizing activities of a synthetic, polycationic, amphiphilic peptide were studied. The branched peptide, designed as a functional analog of polymyxin B, has a six residue hydrophobic sequence, bearing at its N-terminus a penultimate lysine residue whose alpha- and epsilon-amino groups are coupled to two terminal lysine residues. In fluorescence spectroscopic studies designed to examine relative affinities of binding to the toxin, neutralization of surface charge and fluidization of the acyl domains, the peptide was active, closely resembling the effects of polymyxin B and its nonapeptide derivative; however, the synthetic peptide does not induce phase transitions in LPS aggregates as do polymyxin B and polymyxin B nonapeptide. The peptide was also comparable with polymyxin B in its ability to inhibit LPS-mediated IL-l and IL-6 release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The synthetic compound is devoid of antibacterial activities and did not induce conductance fluxes in LPS-containing asymmetric planar membranes. These results strengthen the premise that basicity and amphiphilicity are necessary and sufficient physical properties that ascribe endotoxin binding and neutralizing activities, and further suggest that antibacterial/membrane perturbant and LPS neutralizing activities are dissociable, which may be of value in designing LPS-sequestering agents of low toxicity.

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The conformational stability of Plasmodium falciparum triosephosphate isomerase (TIMWT) enzyme has been investigated in urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) solutions using circular dichroism, fluorescence, and size-exclusion chromatography. The dimeric enzyme is remarkably stable in urea solutions. It retains considerable secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure even in 8 M urea. In contrast, the unfolding transition is complete by 2.4 M GdmCl. Although the secondary as well as the tertiary interactions melt before the perturbation of the quaternary structure, these studies imply that the dissociation of the dimer into monomers ultimately leads to the collapse of the structure, suggesting that the interfacial interactions play a major role in determining multimeric protein stability. The C-m(urea)/C-m(GdmCl) ratio (where C-m is the concentration of the denaturant required at the transition midpoint) is unusually high for triosephosphate isomerase as compared to other monomeric and dimeric proteins. A disulfide crosslinked mutant protein (Y74C) engineered to form two disulfide cross-links across the interface (13-74') and (13'-74) is dramatically destablized in urea. The unfolding transition is complete by 6 M urea and involves a novel mechanism of dimer dissociation through intramolecular thiol-disulfide exchange.