1000 resultados para Microbiota


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Apples are rich in polyphenols, which provide antioxidant properties, mediation of cellular processes such as inflammation, and modulation of gut microbiota. In this study we compared genetically engineered apples with increased flavonoids [myeloblastis transcription factor 10 (MYB10)] with nontransformed apples from the same genotype, "Royal Gala" (RG), and a control diet with no apple. Compared with the RG diet, the MYB10 diet contained elevated concentrations of the flavonoid subclasses anthocyanins, flavanol monomers (epicatechin) and oligomers (procyanidin B2), and flavonols (quercetin glycosides), but other plant secondary metabolites were largely unaltered. We used these apples to investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids on inflammation and gut microbiota in 2 mouse feeding trials. In trial 1, male mice were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with 20% MYB10 apple flesh and peel (MYB-FP) or RG apple flesh and peel (RG-FP) for 7 d. In trial 2, male mice were fed MYB-FP or RG-FP diets or diets supplemented with 20% MYB10 apple flesh or RG apple flesh for 7 or 21 d. In trial 1, the transcription levels of inflammation-linked genes in mice showed decreases of >2-fold for interleukin-2 receptor (Il2rb), chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2), chemokine ligand 10 (Cxcl10), and chemokine receptor 10 (Ccr10) at 7 d for the MYB-FP diet compared with the RG-FP diet (P <0.05). In trial 2, the inflammation marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the plasma of mice fed the MYB-FP diet at 21 d was reduced by 10-fold (P < 0.01) compared with the RG-FP diet. In colonic microbiota, the number of total bacteria for mice fed the MYB-FP diet was 6% higher than for mice fed the control diet at 21 d (P = 0.01). In summary, high-flavonoid apple was associated with decreases in some inflammation markers and changes in gut microbiota when fed to healthy mice.

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Aim The composition of faecal microbiota of babies is known to be influenced by diet. Faecal calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin concentrations may be associated with mucosal permeability and inflammation. We aimed to assess whether there was any difference after consumption of a probiotic/prebiotic formula on faecal microbiota composition, calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin levels, and diarrhoea in comparison with breast milk-fed Indonesian infants. Methods One hundred sixty infants, 2 to 6 weeks old, were recruited to the study. They were either breastfed or formula fed (80 per group). Faecal samples were collected at recruitment and 3 months later. Bacterial groups characteristic of the human faecal microbiota were quantified in faeces by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin concentrations were measured using commercial kits. Details of diarrhoeal morbidity were documented and rated for severity. Results The compositions of the faecal microbiota of formula-fed compared with breast milk-fed children were similar except that the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactisâ€...DR10 was more abundant after 3 months consumption of the formula. Alpha1-antitrypsin levels were higher in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. The occurrence of diarrhoea did not differ between the groups of babies. Conclusion Feeding Indonesian babies with a probiotic/prebiotic formula did not produce marked differences in the composition of the faecal microbiota in comparison with breast milk. Detrimental effects of formula feeding on biomarkers of mucosal health were not observed.

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common multifactorial functional intestinal disorder, the pathogenesis of which is not completely understood. Increasing scientific evidence suggests that microbes are involved in the onset and maintenance of IBS symptoms. The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract constitutes a massive and complex ecosystem consisting mainly of obligate anaerobic microorganisms making the use of culture-based methods demanding and prone to misinterpretation. To overcome these drawbacks, an extensive panel of species- and group-specific assays for an accurate quantification of bacteria from fecal samples with real-time PCR was developed, optimized, and validated. As a result, the target bacteria were detectable at a minimum concentration range of approximately 10 000 bacterial genomes per gram of fecal sample, which corresponds to the sensitivity to detect 0.000001% subpopulations of the total fecal microbiota. The real-time PCR panel covering both commensal and pathogenic microorganisms was assessed to compare the intestinal microbiota of patients suffering from IBS with a healthy control group devoid of GI symptoms. Both the IBS and control groups showed considerable individual variation in gut microbiota composition. Sorting of the IBS patients according to the symptom subtypes (diarrhea, constipation, and alternating predominant type) revealed that lower amounts of Lactobacillus spp. were present in the samples of diarrhea predominant IBS patients, whereas constipation predominant IBS patients carried increased amounts of Veillonella spp. In the screening of intestinal pathogens, 17% of IBS samples tested positive for Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no positive cases were discovered among healthy controls. Furthermore, the methodology was applied to monitor the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on GI microbiota of IBS sufferers. In the placebo-controlled double-blind probiotic intervention trial of IBS patients, each supplemented probiotic strain was detected in fecal samples. Intestinal microbiota remained stable during the trial, except for Bifidobacterium spp., which increased in the placebo group and decreased in the probiotic group. The combination of assays developed and applied in this thesis has an overall coverage of 300-400 known bacterial species, along with the number of yet unknown phylotypes. Hence, it provides good means for studying the intestinal microbiota, irrespective of the intestinal condition and health status. In particular, it allows screening and identification of microbes putatively associated with IBS. The alterations in the gut microbiota discovered here support the hypothesis that microbes are likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. The central question is whether the microbiota changes described represent the cause for, rather than the effect of, disturbed gut physiology. Therefore, more studies are needed to determine the role and importance of individual microbial species or groups in IBS. In addition, it is essential that the microbial alterations observed in this study will be confirmed using a larger set of IBS samples of different subtypes, preferably from various geographical locations.

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The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is a complex ecosystem that lives in symbiosis with its host. The growing awareness of the importance of the microbiota to the host as well as the development of culture-free laboratory techniques and computational methods has enormously expanded our knowledge of this microbial community. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disorder affecting up to a fifth of the Western population. To date, IBS diagnosis has been based on GI symptoms and the exclusion of organic diseases. The GI microbiota has been found to be altered in this syndrome and probiotics can alleviate the symptoms, although clear links between the symptoms and the microbiota have not been demonstrated. The aim of the present work was to characterise IBS related alterations in the intestinal microbiota, their relation to IBS symptoms and their responsiveness to probiotic theraphy. In this thesis research, the healthy human microbiota was characterised by cloning and sequencing 16S rRNA genes from a faecal microbial community DNA pool that was first profiled and fractionated according to its guanine and cytosine content (%G+C). The most noticeable finding was that the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (the phylum Actinobacteria) were more abundant compared to a corresponding library constructed from the unfractionated DNA pool sample. Previous molecular analyses of the gut microbiota have also shown comparatively low amounts of high G+C bacteria. Furthermore, the %G+C profiling approach was applied to a sample constructed of faecal DNA from diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) subjects. The phylogenetic microbial community comparison performed for healthy and IBS-D sequence libraries revealed that the IBS-D sample was rich in representatives of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria whereas Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in the healthy subjects. The family Lachnospiraceae within the Firmicutes was especially prevalent in the IBS-D sample. Moreover, associations of the GI microbiota with intestinal symptoms and the quality of life (QOL) were investigated, as well as the effect of probiotics on these factors. The microbial targets that were analysed with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in this study were phylotypes (species definition according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) previously associated with either health or IBS. With a set of samples, the presence or abundance of a phylotype that had 94% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Ruminococcus torques (R. torques 94%) was shown to be associated with the severity of IBS symptoms. The qPCR analyses for selected phylotypes were also applied to samples from a six-month probiotic intervention with a mixture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99. The intervention had been previously reported to alleviate IBS symptoms, but no associations with the analysed microbiota representatives were shown. However, with the phylotype-specific assays applied here, the abundance of the R. torques 94% -phylotype was shown to be lowered in the probiotic-receiving group during the probiotic supplementation, whereas a Clostridium thermosuccinogenes 85% phylotype, previously associated with a healthy microbiota, was found to be increased compared to the placebo group. To conclude, with the combination of methods applied, higher abundance of Actinobacteria was detected in the healthy gut than found in previous studies, and significant phylum-level microbiota alterations could be shown in IBS-D. Thus, the results of this study provide a detailed overview of the human GI microbiota in healthy subjects and in subjects with IBS. Furthermore, the IBS symptoms were linked to a particular clostridial phylotype, and probiotic supplementation was demonstrated to alter the GI microbiota towards a healthier state with regard to this and an additional bacterial phylotype. For the first time, distinct phylotype-level alterations in the microbiota were linked to IBS symptoms and shown to respond to probiotic therapy.

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The commensal microbiota impacts specific immune cell populations and their functions at peripheral sites, such as gut mucosal tissues. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota control immunity through regulation of hematopoiesis at primary immune sites. We reveal that germ-free mice display reduced proportions and differentiation potential of specific myeloid cell progenitors of both yolk sac and bone marrow origin. Homeostatic innate immune defects may lead to impaired early responses to pathogens. Indeed, following systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes, germ-free and oral antibiotic-treated mice display increased pathogen burden and acute death. Recolonization of germ-free mice with a complex microbiota restores defects in myelopoiesis and resistance to Listeria. These findings reveal that gut bacteria direct innate immune cell development via promoting hematopoiesis, contributing to our appreciation of the deep evolutionary connection between mammals and their microbiota.

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A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prática de cirurgiões dentistas em uma unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) de um hospital militar, o estabelecimento de um protocolo de higiene oral e os seus efeitos sobre a redução de pneumonias associadas à ventilação mecânica (PAVM). As percepções da equipe da UTI sobre as atividades dos cirurgiões dentistas também foram avaliadas por meio de um questionário. O perfil de colonização microbiana da mucosa oral antes e depois do estabelecimento das medidas de higiene oral também foi avaliado tanto por diluição e plaqueamento em meios de cultura microbiológicos seletivos e enriquecidos e através da amplificação pelo método de PCR e eletroforese em gel desnaturante em gradiente (DGGE), subsequente ao sequenciamento dos amplicons. A carga microbiana foi avaliada após a contagem de placas de agar e através da amplificação por PCR em tempo real (qPCR) do gene rrs nas amostras. O protocolo de higiene oral, realizado pelos cirurgiões dentistas, foi capaz de reduzir a incidência de PAVM (p <0,05). O questionário revelou que a modificação da halitose foi percebida por 93,33% dos participantes. A redução da ocorrência das úlceras orais e dos lábios durante a internação dos pacientes foi observada por 80% da equipe da UTI. Foi observada a redução da produção das secreções nasais e bucais por 70% da equipe dos profissionais da UTI. Para 86,66% dos participantes a assistência aos pacientes tornou-se mais agradável após a instituição dos cuidados bucais. O protocolo, realizado com a utilização de solução 0,12% de clorexidina, não foi capaz de evitar a colonização da mucosa oral por patógenos microbianos usualmente encontrados no ambiente hospitalar tais como os bastonetes Gram-negativos entéricos e não fermentadores, nem foi capaz de eliminá-los quando tais micro-organismos já se encontravam presentes antes dos procedimentos de higiene bucal. Alguns Bastonetes Gram-positivos (Lactobacillus sp e corinebactérias) e Staphylococcus epidermidis permaneceram após a realização dos procedimentos. O protocolo de higiene oral permitiu a redução da carga microbiana na mucosa oral de 50% dos pacientes considerando-se o método de contagem microbiana e para 35% dos pacientes pela avaliação dos números de cópias de genes rrs através de qPCR. Em conclusão, o protocolo de higiene oral desenvolvido pelos cirurgiões dentistas foi capaz de reduzir a incidência de PAV na UTI, embora não tenha sido capaz de prevenir a colonização da mucosa oral por supostos patógenos microbianos. O protocolo de higiene oral com a participação ativa dos cirurgiões dentistas foi bem aceito pelos profissionais da UTI e foi capaz de melhorar a qualidade da assistência aos pacientes críticos.

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O aumento da concentração de nutrientes nos corpos receptores, principalmente nitrogênio e fósforo oriundos de efluentes sanitários e industriais pode gerar o fenômeno da eutrofização. Para que isto não ocorra é necessário que este efluente passe por um tratamento adequado, no entanto, o papel desempenhado por diversos grupos de microrganismos encontrados nos sistemas de tratamento de efluentes não é completamente compreendido devido à complexidade das interações. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade microbiana (bactérias envolvidas no ciclo do nitrogênio e microfauna) e avaliar a atividade biológica dos reatores aeróbio e anaeróbio de uma indústria de alimentos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da estação de tratamento foram monitorados, bem como foi feita a avaliação da estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade bacteriana envolvida no ciclo do nitrogênio por meio da técnica de Hibridização in situ Fluorescente. A microfauna do reator aeróbio foi caracterizada e classificada conforme o Índice Biótico do Lodo. A atividade biológica do lodo foi avaliada através do Teste de Respirometria e foram feitas correlações entre a microbiota encontrada no reator aeróbio e parâmetros físico-químicos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos analisados estiveram dentro dos limites permitidos pelas legislações federais e estaduais e os parâmetros Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio e Nitrogênio Kjeldahl foram reduzidos de 99,8%, 99,6% e 74,9%, respectivamente. Foi possível observar a presença tanto de bactérias oxidadoras de nitrito quanto de amônia em ambos os reatores analisados, bem como em cada ponto de coletas dentro dos reatores. A bactéria Pseudomonas fluorescens também ocorreu em todos os pontos de coleta dos dois reatores. Dentre os grupos que compõem a microfauna do lodo ativado, os ciliados rastejantes foram os mais frequentes, seguido pelas tecamebas, rotíferos, ciliados sésseis, ciliados livre natantes, flagelados e outros invertebrados. Além disso, não houve diferença entre as densidades dos grupos encontradas nos Pontos 1 e 2 do reator aeróbio e o Índice Biótico do Lodo encontrado foi igual a 8 (classe I). A semelhança apresentada entre a Taxa de Consumo de Oxigênio dos pontos 1 e 2, bem como a Taxa de Consumo de Oxigênio específica entre os pontos 1 e 2 sugere que o oxigênio é distribuído de forma homogênea dentro do tanque de aeração, fazendo com que os microrganismos tenham condições semelhantes de crescimento. Os ciliados livre natantes apresentaram correlação positiva com a DQO e DBO5 e os ciliados sésseis apresentaram correlação negativa com a DQO e com a DBO5. Os rotíferos apresentaram correlação negativa com Sólidos Suspensos Voláteis do reator aeróbio. Os ciliados rastejantes, tecamebas e rotíferos apresentaram correlação positiva com a microfauna total encontrada no reator aeróbio. Os ciliados livre natantes apresentaram correlação negativa com os ciliados sésseis, bactérias totais, Nitrobacter e outras bactérias; e correlação positiva com outros invertebrados. Os flagelados apresentaram correlação negativa com as bactérias totais, enquanto as outras bactérias apresentaram correlação positiva. Os outros invertebrados apresentaram correlação negativa com Nitrobacter.

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Regular physical exercise provides many health benefits, protecting against the development of chronic diseases, and improving quality of life. Some of the mechanisms by which exercise provides these effects are the promotion of an anti-inflammatory state, reinforcement of the neuromuscular function, and activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it has been proposed that physical exercise is able to modify gut microbiota, and thus this could be another factor by which exercise promotes well-being, since gut microbiota appears to be closely related to health and disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent findings on gut microbiota modification by exercise, proposing several mechanisms by which physical exercise might cause changes in gut microbiota.

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Schizophrenia represents one of the world’s most devastating illnesses due to its often lifelong course and debilitating nature. The treatment of schizophrenia has vastly improved over recent decades with the discovery of several antipsychotic compounds; however these drugs are not without adverse effects that must be addressed to maximize their therapeutic value. Newer, atypical, antipsychotics are associated with a compilation of serious metabolic side effects including weight gain, insulin resistance, fat deposition, glucose dysregulation and ensuing co-morbidities such as type II diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms underlying these side effects remain to be fully elucidated and adequate interventions are lacking. Further understanding of the factors that contribute these side effects is therefore required in order to develop effective adjunctive therapies and to potentially design antipsychotic drugs in the future with reduced impact on the metabolic health of patients. We investigated if the gut microbiota represented a novel mechanism contributing to the metabolic dysfunction associated with atypical antipsychotics. The gut microbiota comprises the bacteria that exist symbiotically within the gastrointestinal tract, and has been shown in recent years to be involved in several aspects of energy balance and metabolism. We have demonstrated that administration of certain antipsychotics in the rat results in an altered microbiota profile and, moreover, that the microbiota is required for the full scale of metabolic dysfunction to occur. We have further shown that specific antibiotics can attenuate certain aspects of olanzapine and risperidone–induced metabolic dysfunction, in particular fat deposition and adipose tissue inflammation. Mechanisms underlying this novel link appear to involve energy utilization via expression of lipogenic genes as well as reduced inflammatory tone. Taken together, these data indicate that the gut microbiota is an important factor involved in the myriad of metabolic complications associated with antipsychotic therapy. Furthermore, these data support the future investigation of microbial-based therapeutics for not only antipsychotic-induced weight gain but also for tackling the global obesity epidemic.

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Endospore-forming bacteria are often isolated from different marine sponges, but their abundance varies, and they are frequently missed by culture-independent studies. Within endospore-formers, Bacillus are renowned for the production of antimicrobials and other compounds of medical and industrial importance. Although this group has been well studied in many different environments, very little is known about the actual diversity and properties of sporeformers associated with marine sponges. Identification of the endospore-forming bacteria associated with the marine sponges; Haliclona simulans, Amphilectus fucorum and Cliona celata, has uncovered an abundant and diverse microbial population composed of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Solibacillus, Halobacillus and Viridibacillus species. This diversity appears to be overlooked by other non-targeted approaches where spore-formers are masked by more dominant species within the ecosystem. In addition to the identification of two antibiotic resistant plasmids, this bank of sporeformers produce a range of bioactive compounds. New antimicrobial compounds are urgently needed to combat the spread of multidrug resistant pathogens, as few new options are entering the drug discovery pipelines for clinical trials. Based on the results of this project, endospore-formers associated with marine sponges may hold the answer. The power of coupling functional based assays with genomic approaches has enabled us to identify a novel class 1 lantibiotic, subtilomycin, which is active against several clinically relevant pathogens. Subtilomycin is encoded in the genomes of all the marine sponge B. subtilis isolates analysed. They cluster together phylogenetically and form a distinct group from other sequenced B. subtilis strains. Regardless of its potential clinical relevance, subtilomycin may be providing these strains with a specific competitive advantage(s) within the stringent confines of the marine sponge environment. This work has outlined the industrial and biotechnological potential of marine sponge endospore-formers which appear to produce a cocktail of bioactive compounds. Genome sequencing of specific marine sponge isolates highlighted the importance of mining extreme environments and habitats for new lead compounds with potential therapeutic applications.

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To screen for novel ribosomally synthesised antimicrobials, in-silico genome mining was performed on all publically available fully sequenced bacterial genomes. 49 novel type 1 lantibiotic clusters were identified from a number of species, genera and phyla not usually associated with lantibiotic production, and indicates high prevalence. A crucial step towards the commercialisation of fermented beverages is the characterisation of the microbial content. To achieve this goal, we applied next-generation sequencing techniques to analyse the bacterial and yeast populations of the organic, symbiotically-fermented beverages kefir, water kefir and kombucha. A number of minor components were revealed, many of which had not previously been associated with these beverages. The dominant microorganism in each of the water kefir grains and fermentates was Zymomonas, an ethanol-producing bacterium that had not previously been detected on such a scale. These studies represent the most accurate description of these populations to date, and should aid in future starter design and in determining which species are responsible for specific attributes of the beverages. Finally, high-throughput robotics was applied to screen for the presence of antimicrobial producers associated with these beverages. This revealed a low frequency of bacteriocin production amongst the bacterial isolates, with only lactococcins A, B and LcnN of lactococcin M being identified. However, a proteinaceous antimicrobial produced by the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, isolated from kombucha, was found to be active against Lactobacillus bulgaricus. This peptide was patially purified.