97 resultados para MTHFR


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Background Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation. Methods The 114 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and their DNA was extracted. Primer pair was designed using Primer 3 Software version 0.4.0 and validated against the BLAST database. The primer specificity, functionality and annealing temperature were tested using uniplex PCR methods that were later combined into a single multiplex PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed in three separate tubes followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product residual was purified and sent for DNA sequencing. Results The allele frequencies for MTHFR 677 C > T were 0.89 (C allele) and 0.11 (T allele); for eNOS +894 G > T, the allele frequencies were 0.58 (G allele) and 0.43 (T allele); and for eNOS −786 T > C, the allele frequencies were 0.87 (T allele) and 0.13 (C allele). Conclusions Our PCR-RFLP method is a simple, cost-effective and time-saving method. It can be used to successfully genotype subjects for the MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants simultaneously with 100% concordance from DNA sequencing data. This method can be routinely used for rapid investigation of the MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants.

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BACKGROUND: Migraine is a chronic disabling neurovascular condition that may in part be caused by endothelial and cerebrovascular disruption induced by hyperhomocysteinaemia. We have previously provided evidence indicating that reduction of homocysteine by vitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of migraine in women. The current study examined the genotypic effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene variants on the occurrence of migraine in response to vitamin supplementation. METHODS: This was a 6-month randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of daily vitamin B supplementation (B(6), B(9) and B(12)) on reduction of homocysteine and of the occurrence of migraine in 206 female patients diagnosed with migraine with aura. RESULTS: Vitamin supplementation significantly reduced homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of headache in migraine (P=0.017) and high migraine disability (P=0.022) in migraineurs compared with the placebo effect (P>0.1). When the vitamin-treated group was stratified by genotype, the C allele carriers of the MTHFR C677T variant showed a higher reduction in homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of pain in migraine (P=0.01) and percentage of high migraine disability (P=0.009) compared with those with the TT genotypes. Similarly, the A allele carriers of the MTRR A66G variants showed a higher level of reduction in homocysteine levels (P<0.001), severity of pain in migraine (P=0.002) and percentage of high migraine disability (P=0.006) compared with those with the GG genotypes. Genotypic analysis for both genes combined indicated that the treatment effect modification of the MTRR variant was independent of the MTHFR variant. CONCLUSION: This provided further evidence that vitamin supplementation is effective in reducing migraine and also that both MTHFR and MTRR gene variants are acting independently to influence treatment response in female migraineurs.

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Migraine is a common neurological disorder and is characterized by debilitating head pain and an assortment of additional symptoms which can include nausea, emesis, photophobia, phonophobia, and occasionally, visual sensory disturbances. A number of genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, including genes involved in regulating the vascular system. Of particular importance are the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the role it plays in migraine with aura. Migraine with aura has previously been shown to have a significant comorbidity with stroke, making the vascular class of genes a priority for migraine studies. In this report, we outline the importance of the MTHFR gene in migraine and also discuss the use of a genetic isolate to investigate MTHFR genetic variants. From this study, 3 MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms showing association with migraine in the Norfolk Island population have been identified, thus reinforcing the potential role of MTHFR in migraine susceptibility. Further studies will continue to build a gene profile of variants involved in the complex disease migraine and improve understanding of the underlying genetic causes of this disorder.

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Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant C677T has been implicated as a genetic risk factor in migraine susceptibility, particularly in Migraine with Aura. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO) have many diagnostic characteristics in common. It is postulated that migraine symptomatic characteristics might themselves be influenced by MTHFR. Here we analysed the clinical profile, migraine symptoms, triggers and treatments of 267 migraineurs previously genotyped for the MTHFR C677T variant. The chi-square test was used to analyse all potential relationships between genotype and migraine clinical variables. Regression analyses were performed to assess the association of C677T with all migraine clinical variables after adjusting for gender. Findings The homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with MA (P < 0.0001) and unilateral head pain (P = 0.002). While the CT genotype was significantly associated with physical activity discomfort (P < 0.001) and stress as a migraine trigger (P = 0.002). Females with the TT genotype were significantly associated with unilateral head pain (P < 0.001) and females with the CT genotype were significantly associated with nausea (P < 0.001), osmophobia (P = 0.002), and the use of natural remedy for migraine treatment (P = 0.003). Conversely, male migraineurs with the TT genotype experienced higher incidences of bilateral head pain (63% vs 34%) and were less likely to use a natural remedy as a migraine treatment compared to female migraineurs (5% vs 20%). Conclusions MTHFR genotype is associated with specific clinical variables of migraine including unilateral head pain, physical activity discomfort and stress.

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BACKGROUND: Migraine is a prevalent and debilitating disease that may, in part, arise because of disruption in neurovascular endothelia caused by elevated homocysteine. This study examined the homocysteine-lowering effects of vitamin supplementation on migraine disability, frequency and severity and whether MTHFRC677T genotype influenced treatment response. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo, controlled trial of 6 months of daily vitamin supplementation (i.e. 2 mg of folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B6, and 400 microg of vitamin B12) in 52 patients diagnosed with migraine with aura. FINDINGS: Vitamin supplementation reduced homocysteine by 39% (approximately 4 mumol/l) compared with baseline, a reduction that was greater then placebo (P=0.001). Vitamin supplementation also reduced the prevalence of migraine disability from 60% at baseline to 30% after 6 months (P=0.01), whereas no reduction was observed for the placebo group (P>0.1). Headache frequency and pain severity were also reduced (P<0.05), whereas there was no reduction in the placebo group (P>0.1). In this patient group the treatment effect on both homocysteine levels and migraine disability was associated with MTHFRC677T genotype whereby carriers of the C allele experienced a greater response compared with TT genotypes (P<0.05). INTERPRETATION: This study provides some early evidence that lowering homocysteine through vitamin supplementation reduces migraine disability in a subgroup of patients. Larger trials are now warranted to establish whether vitamin therapy is a safe, inexpensive and effective prophylactic option for treatment of migraine and whether efficacy is dependant on MTHFRC677T genotype.

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in debilitating neuropathology. Pathogenesis is primarily defined by CNS inflammation and demyelination of nerve axons. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine via cobalamin and folate dependant reactions. Cobalamin acts as an intermediate methyl carrier between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Hcy. MTRR plays a critical role in maintaining cobalamin in an active form and is consequently an important determinant of total plasma Hcy (pHcy) concentrations. Elevated intracellular pHcy levels have been suggested to play a role in CNS dysfunction, neurodegenerative, and cerebrovascular diseases. Our investigation entailed the genotyping of a cohort of 140 cases and matched controls for MTRR and MTHFR, by restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Two polymorphisms: MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C were investigated in an Australian age and gender matched case-control study. No significant allelic frequency difference was observed between cases and controls at the α = 0.05 level (MTRR χ2 = 0.005, P = 0.95, MTHFR χ2 = 1.15, P = 0.28). Our preliminary findings suggest no association between the MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and MS

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. The C677T substitution variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Higher blood levels of homocysteine have also been reported in MS. Thus, the C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene may influence MS susceptibility. Noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter believed to play an immunosupressive role in neuroinflammatory disorders, is catabolized by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). The COMT G158A substitution results in a three- to four-fold decreased activity of the COMT enzyme, which may influence CNS synaptic catecholamine breakdown and could also play a role in MS inflammation. We tested DNA from Australian MS patients and unaffected control subjects, matched for gender, age and ethnicity. Specifically, we genotyped the MTHFR C677T and the COMT G158A mutations. Genotype distributions showed that the homozygous mutant MTHFR genotype (T/T) and the COMT (H/H) genotype were slightly over-represented in the MS group (16% versus 11% and 24% versus 19%, respectively), but both variations failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.15 and P=0.32, respectively). Hence, results from the present study do not support a major role for either functional gene mutation in MS susceptibility.

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Background Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting approximately 12% of the Caucasian population. There are two main sub-types of migraine, migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA). Migraine exhibits varied phenotypic expression with sufferers experiencing a range of neurological and other symptoms. It is likely that multiple susceptibility genes play a role in this varied phenotypic expression, thus investigation of genotype-phenotype relationships may provide valuable insights into the role of susceptibility genes in this disorder. Methods This study investigated the links between migraine susceptibility genes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and clinical manifestation through statistical analyses. Results The result showed that for the MTHFR genotypes, there was a statistically significant correlation with the TT homozygous genotype and visual disturbances, unilateral head pain and physical activity discomforts. It was also found that bilateral head pain was associated with the male gender. Conclusion From these study results, it is plausible to state that MTHFR genotypes affect the phenotypic expression of migraine disease manifestation.

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Computational epigenetics is a new area of research focused on exploring how DNA methylation patterns affect transcription factor binding that affect gene expression patterns. The aim of this study was to produce a new protocol for the detection of DNA methylation patterns using computational analysis which can be further confirmed by bisulfite PCR with serial pyrosequencing. The upstream regulatory element and pre-initiation complex relative to CpG islets within the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene were determined via computational analysis and online databases. The 1,104 bp long CpG island located near to or at the alternative promoter site of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene was identified. The CpG plot indicated that CpG islets A and B, within the island, contained 62 and 75 % GC content CpG ratios of 0.70 and 0.80–0.95, respectively. Further exploration of the CpG islets A and B indicates that the transcription start sites were GGC which were absent from the TATA boxes. In addition, although six PROSITE motifs were identified in CpG B, no motifs were detected in CpG A. A number of cis-regulatory elements were found in different regions within the CpGs A and B. Transcription factors were predicted to bind to CpGs A and B with varying affinities depending on the DNA methylation status. In addition, transcription factor binding may influence the expression patterns of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene by recruiting chromatin condensation inducing factors. These results have significant implications for the understanding of the architecture of transcription factor binding at CpG islets as well as DNA methylation patterns that affect chromatin structure.

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The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene codes for the MTHFR enzyme which plays a key role in the pathway of folate and methionine metabolism. Polymorphisms of genes in this pathway affect its regulation and have been linked to lymphoma. In this study we examined whether we could detect an association between two common non-synonomous MTHFR polymorphisms, 677C>T (rs1801133) and 1298A>C (rs1801131), and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in an Australian case-control cohort. We found no significant differences between genotype or allele frequencies for either polymorphisms between lymphoma cases and controls. We also explored whether epigenetic modification of MTHFR, specifically DNA methylation of a CpG island in the MTHFR promoter region, is associated with NHL using blood samples from patients. No difference in methylation levels was detected between the case and control samples suggesting that although hypermethylation of MTHFR has been reported in tumour tissues, particularly in the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtype of NHL, methylation of this MTHFR promoter CpG island is not a suitable epigenetic biomarker for NHL diagnosis or prognosis in peripheral blood samples. Further studies into epigenetic variants could focus on genes that are robustly associated with NHL susceptibility.

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Background The purpose of this study was threefold. First, it was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin profiles and ischemic stroke. The second purpose was to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke and further correlate with serum vitamin profiles among ischemic stroke patients. The third purpose of the study was to highlight the interaction of MTHFR and eNOS haplotypes with serum vitamin profiles and ischemic stroke risks. Methods Polymorphisms of these genes were analyzed in age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched case–controls (n = 594); serum vitamin profiles were determined using immunoassays. Results The MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C, eNOS intron 4a/b, and ApoE polymorphisms were significantly associated with the increased risk of ischemic stroke. Elevated serum homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels were associated with MTHFR 677C>T and eNOS intron 4a/b polymorphisms. The ApoE and eNOS −786T>C polymorphisms were associated with increased serum vitamin B12 levels. However, none of the polymorphisms influenced serum folate levels except for the MTHFR 1298A>C. Different patterns of MTHFR and eNOS haplotypes tend to affect serum vitamin profiles to different degrees, which contribute to either different susceptibility risk or protective effect on ischemic stroke. Overall, increased levels of serum homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels were associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in the investigated population. Conclusions The present study suggests that the genotypes and haplotypes of MTHFR 677C>T and eNOS intron 4a/b polymorphisms are potential serum biomarkers in the pathophysiological processes of ischemic stroke, by modulating homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated plasma homocysteine level has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Variation in the levels of this amino acid has been shown to be due to nutritional status and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype. METHODS: Under a case-control design we compared fasting levels of homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes in groups of subjects consisting of stroke, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease patients and normal controls from Northern Ireland. RESULTS: A significant increase in plasma homocysteine was observed in all 3 disease groups compared with controls. This remained significant after allowance for confounding factors (age, sex, hypertension, cholesterol, smoking, creatinine, and nutritional measures). MTHFR genotype was not found to influence homocysteine levels, although the T allele was found to increase risk for VaD and perhaps dementia after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We report that moderately high plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with stroke, VaD, and Alzheimer disease. This is not due to vascular risk factors, nutritional status, or MTHFR genotype