999 resultados para Isolation


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Several protocols for isolation of mycobacteria from water exist, but there is no established standard method. This study compared methods of processing potable water samples for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare using spiked sterilized water and tap water decontaminated using 0.005% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Samples were concentrated by centrifugation or filtration and inoculated onto Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 plates and Lowenstein-Jensen slants and into mycobacterial growth indicator tubes with or without polymyxin, azlocillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, and amphotericin B. The solid media were incubated at 32°C, at 35°C, and at 35°C with CO2 and read weekly. The results suggest that filtration of water for the isolation of mycobacteria is a more sensitive method for concentration than centrifugation. The addition of sodium thiosulfate may not be necessary and may reduce the yield. Middlebrook M7H10 and 7H11 were equally sensitive culture media. CPC decontamination, while effective for reducing growth of contaminants, also significantly reduces mycobacterial numbers. There was no difference at 3 weeks between the different incubation temperatures.

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The traditional means for isolating applications from each other is via the use of operating system provided “process” abstraction facilities. However, as applications now consist of multiple fine-grained components, the traditional process abstraction model is proving to be insufficient in ensuring this isolation. Statistics indicate that a high percentage of software failure occurs due to propagation of component failures. These observations are further bolstered by the attempts by modern Internet browser application developers, for example, to adopt multi-process architectures in order to increase robustness. Therefore, a fresh look at the available options for isolating program components is necessary and this paper provides an overview of previous and current research on the area.

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The mechanisms of helicopter flight create a unique, high-vibration environment which can play havoc with the accurate operation of on-board sensors. Vibration isolation of electronic sensors from structural borne oscillations is paramount to their reliable and accurate use. Effective isolation is achieved by realising a trade-off between the properties of the suspended instrument package, and the isolation mechanism. This is made more difficult as the weight and size of the sensors and computing hardware decreases with advances in technology. This paper presents a history of the design, challenges, constraints and construction of an integrated isolated vision and sensor platform and landing gear for the CSIRO autonomous X-Cell helicopter. The results of isolation performance and in-flight tests of the platform in autonomous flight are presented.

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Recently, research has focused on bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) for their potential clinical use in bone engineering. Prior to clinical application, MPC-based treatment concepts need to be evaluated in preclinical, immunocompetent, large animal models. Sheep in particular are considered a valid model for orthopaedic and trauma related research. However, ovine MPC and their osteogenic potential remain poorly characterized. In the present study, ex vivo expanded MPC isolated from ovine bone marrow proliferated at a higher rate than osteoblasts (OB) derived from tibial compact bone as assessed using standard 2D culture. MPC expressed the respective phenotypic profile typical for different mesenchymal cell populations (CD14-/CD31-/CD45- /CD29+/CD44+/CD166+) and showed a multilineage differentiation potential. When compared to OB, MPC had a higher mineralization potential under standard osteogenic culture conditions and expressed typical markers such as osteocalcin, osteonectin and type I collagen at the mRNA and protein level. After 4 weeks in 3D culture, MPC constructs demonstrated higher cell density and mineralization, whilst cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed >90%. Cells displayed a spindle-like morphology and formed an interconnected network. Implanted subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice on type I collagen coated polycaprolactone-tricalciumphosphate (mPCL-TCP) scaffolds, MPC presented a higher developmental potential than osteoblasts. In summary, this study provides a detailed in vitro characterisation of ovine MPC from a bone engineering perspective and suggests that MPC provide promising means for future bone disease related treatment applications.

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Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of screening, isolation and decolonisation strategies in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs). Design: Economic evaluation. Setting: England and Wales. Population: ICU patients. Main outcome measures: Infections, deaths, costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for alternative strategies, net monetary benefits (NMBs). Results: All strategies using isolation but not decolonisation improved health outcomes but increased costs. When MRSA prevalence on admission to the ICU was 5% and the willingness to pay per QALY gained was between £20,000 and £30,000, the best such strategy was to isolate only those patients at high risk of carrying MRSA (either pre-emptively or following identification by admission and weekly MRSA screening using chromogenic agar). Universal admission and weekly screening using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based MRSA detection coupled with isolation was unlikely to be cost-effective unless prevalence was high (10% colonised with MRSA on admission to the ICU). All decolonisation strategies improved health outcomes and reduced costs. While universal decolonisation (regardless of MRSA status) was the most cost-effective in the short-term, strategies using screening to target MRSA carriers may be preferred due to reduced risk of selecting for resistance. Amongst such targeted strategies, universal admission and weekly PCR screening coupled with decolonisation with nasal mupirocin was the most cost-effective. This finding was robust to ICU size, MRSA admission prevalence, the proportion of patients classified as high-risk, and the precise value of willingness to pay for health benefits. Conclusions: MRSA control strategies that use decolonisation are likely to be cost-saving in an ICU setting provided resistance is lacking, and combining universal PCR-based screening with decolonisation is likely to represent good value for money if untargeted decolonisation is considered unacceptable. In ICUs where decolonisation is not implemented there is insufficient evidence to support universal MRSA screening outside high prevalence settings.

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Protection of a distribution network in the presence of distributed generators (DGs) using overcurrent relays is a challenging task due to the changes in fault current levels and reverse power flow. Specifically, in the presence of current limited converter interfaced DGs, overcurrent relays may fail to isolate the faulted section either in grid connected or islanded mode of operation. In this paper, a new inverse type relay is presented to protect a distribution network, which may have several DG connections. The new relay characteristic is designed based on the measured admittance of the protected line. The relay is capable of detecting faults under changing fault current levels. The relay performance is evaluated using PSCAD simulation and laboratory experiments.

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Habitat fragmentation as a result of urbanisation is a growing problem for native lizard species. The Eastern Water Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) is a social arboreal agamid lizard, native to Australia. This species represents an ideal model species to investigate the effect of urbanisation because of their prominent abundance in the urban landscape. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of a novel set of 74 di-, tri-, and tetramicrosatellites from which 18 were selected and optimised into two multiplexes. The 18 microsatellites generated a total 148 alleles across the two populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 18 alleles and measures of Ho and He varied from 0.395 to 0.877 and from 0.441 to 0.880, respectively. We also present primers for four novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. The combined length of the four mtDNA marker pairs was 2,528 bp which included 15 nucleotides changes. In comparison to threatened species, which are generally characterised by small population sizes, the Eastern Water Dragon represents an ideal model species to investigate the effect of urbanisation on their behavioural ecology and connectivity patterns among populations.

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Carotenoids occur in all photosynthetic organisms where they protect photosystems from auto-oxidation, participate in photosynthetic energy-transfer and are secondary metabolites. Of the more than 600 known plant carotenoids, few can be converted into vitamin A by humans and so these pro-vitamin A carotenoids (pVAC) are important in human nutrition. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of pVACs and plays a central role in regulating pVAC accumulation in the edible portion of crop plants. Bananas are a major commercial crop and serve as a staple crop for more than 30 million people. There is natural variation in fruit pVAC content across different banana cultivars, but this is not well understood. Therefore, we isolated PSY genes from banana cultivars with relatively high (cv. Asupina) and low (cv. Cavendish) pVAC content. We provide evidence that PSY in banana is encoded by two paralogs (PSY1 and PSY2), each with a similar gene structure to homologous genes in other monocots. Further, we demonstrate that PSY2 is more highly expressed in fruit pulp compared to leaf. Functional analysis of PSY1 and PSY2 in rice callus and E. coli demonstrate that both genes encode functional enzymes, and that Asupina PSYs have approximately twice the enzymatic activity of the corresponding Cavendish PSYs. These results suggest that differences in PSY enzyme activity contribute significantly to the differences in Asupina and Cavendish fruit pVAC content. Importantly, Asupina PSY genes could potentially be used to generate new cisgenic or intragenic banana cultivars with enhanced pVAC content.

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The Capricorn silvereye (Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus) is ideally suited to investigating the genetic basis of body size evolution. We have isolated and characterized a set of microsatellite markers for this species. Seven out of 11 loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles detected ranged from two to five and observed heterozygosities between 0.12 and 0.67. One locus, ZL49, was found to be sex-linked. This moderate level of diversity is consistent with that expected in an isolated, island population.

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A high-throughput method of isolating and cloning geminivirus genomes from dried plant material, by combining an Extract-n-Amp™-based DNA isolation technique with rolling circle amplification (RCA) of viral DNA, is presented. Using this method an attempt was made to isolate and clone full geminivirus genomes/genome components from 102 plant samples, including dried leaves stored at room temperature for between 6 months and 10 years, with an average hands-on-time to RCA-ready DNA of 15 min per 20 samples. While storage of dried leaves for up to 6 months did not appreciably decrease cloning success rates relative to those achieved with fresh samples, efficiency of the method decreased with increasing storage time. However, it was still possible to clone virus genomes from 47% of 10-year-old samples. To illustrate the utility of this simple method for high-throughput geminivirus diversity studies, six Maize streak virus genomes, an Abutilon mosaic virus DNA-B component and the DNA-A component of a previously unidentified New Word begomovirus species were fully sequenced. Genomic clones of the 69 other viruses were verified as such by end sequencing. This method should be extremely useful for the study of any circular DNA plant viruses with genome component lengths smaller than the maximum size amplifiable by RCA. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.