1000 resultados para Immunology and Allergy


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In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine.

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PRACTALL is a joint initiative of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology to provide shared evidence-based recommendations on cutting-edge topics in the field of allergy and immunology. PRACTALL 2017 is focused on what has been established regarding the role of the microbiome in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. This is complemented by outlining important knowledge gaps regarding its role in allergic disease and delineating strategies necessary to fill these gaps. In addition, a review of progress in approaches used to manipulate the microbiome will be addressed, identifying what has and has not worked to serve as a baseline for future directions to intervene in allergic disease development, progression, or both.

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Asthma is a major risk cofactor for anaphylactic deaths in children with peanut allergy. Peanut allergy is generally thought to be a lifelong condition, but some children outgrow their coexistent asthma. It has recently been shown that children who have ‘outgrown’ their asthma symptoms may have ongoing eosinophilic airways inflammation. The need for regular inhaled corticosteroid treatment in peanut allergic children and adolescents who have outgrown their asthma is however unclear. The aims of our study were to look at fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), as a non-invasive marker of eosinophilic airways inflammation, in peanut allergic children and assess whether children with outgrown asthma had elevated levels. Children with peanut allergy were recruited at two pediatric allergy clinics in Belfast, UK. Exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO) were measured using the Niox Mino in all children. Of the 101 peanut allergic children who consented for enrolment in the study, 94 were successfully able to use the NIOX Mino. Age range was 4–15 yr (median 10 yr); 61% were boys. Thirty (32%) had never wheezed, 37 (39%) had current treated asthma, 20 (21%) had at least 1 wheezing episode within the last year but were not taking any regular asthma medication (wheeze no treatment), and 7 (7%) had outgrown asthma. All children with outgrown asthma had elevated levels of FeNO (>35 ppb), and 75% of children defined as ‘wheeze no treatment’ had elevated FeNO levels (>35 ppb). Outgrown asthma and children defined as ‘wheeze no treatment’ had higher levels of FeNO than those with no history of wheeze or current treated asthma (p = 0.003). In children with peanut allergy, we found that those who had outgrown asthma had elevated FeNO levels in keeping with ongoing eosinophilic airways inflammation.

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Mode of access: Internet.

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New methods for controlling blowfly strike will be needed when mulesing is phased out and the availability or efficacy of insecticides for control of fly strike decreases. The Australian Sheep Industry CRC has pursued two approaches for the development of new methods to help control blowfly strike. In the first, genetic resistance of sheep to survival and growth of blowfly larvae was examined. Resistance to growth of larvae was heritable (0.29 ± 0.22). The trait was not associated with resistance to internal parasites, nor was it influenced by wool characteristics such as fibre diameter or coefficient of variation of fibre diameter. This new trait differs from resistance to fly strike associated with resistance to fleece rot. Because measurement of the trait is labour intensive, gene markers or correlated measures are needed before it will be suitable for industry adoption. The second approach examined the impact of larval products on the immmune system of the sheep. Larvae suppress the sheep immune system and thereby limit the ability of the sheep to reject the larvae. The immunosuppresive agent is being purified and strategies to abolish its activity are being explored. Abolition of immunosuppression would create opportunities for the development of new vaccines againts blowfly strike.

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My work describes two sectors of the human bacterial environment: 1. The sources of exposure to infectious non-tuberculous mycobacteria. 2. Bacteria in dust, reflecting the airborne bacterial exposure in environments protecting from or predisposing to allergic disorders. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) transmit to humans and animals from the environment. Infection by NTM in Finland has increased during the past decade beyond that by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among the farm animals, porcine mycobacteriosis is the predominant NTM disease in Finland. Symptoms of mycobacteriosis are found in 0.34 % of slaughtered pigs. Soil and drinking water are suspected as sources for humans and bedding materials for pigs. To achieve quantitative data on the sources of human and porcine NTM exposure, methods for quantitation of environmental NTM are needed. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR method, utilizing primers targeted at the 16S rRNA gene of the genus of Mycobacterium. With this method, I found in Finnish sphagnum peat, sandy soils and mud high contents of mycobacterial DNA, 106 to 107 genome equivalents per gram. A similar result was obtained by a method based on the Mycobacterium-specific hybridization of 16S rRNA. Since rRNA is found mainly in live cells, this result shows that the DNA detected by qPCR mainly represented live mycobacteria. Next, I investigated the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria in the bedding materials obtained from 5 pig farms with high prevalence (>4 %) of mycobacteriosis. When I used for quantification the same qPCR methods as for the soils, I found that piggery samples contained non-mycobacterial DNA that was amplified in spite of several mismatches with the primers. I therefore improved the qPCR assay by designing Mycobacterium-specific detection probes. Using the probe qPCR assay, I found 105 to 107 genome equivalents of mycobacterial DNA in unused bedding materials and up to 1000 fold more in the bedding collected after use in the piggery. This result shows that there was a source of mycobacteria in the bedding materials purchased by the piggery and that mycobacteria increased in the bedding materials during use in the piggery. Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in urbanized countries. At the same time, childhood in rural environment or simple living conditions appears to protect against allergic disorders. Exposure to immunoreactive microbial components in rural environments seems to prevent allergies. I searched for differences in the bacterial communities of two indoor dusts, an urban house dust shown to possess immunoreactivity of the TH2-type and a farm barn dust with TH1-activity. The immunoreactivities of the dusts were revealed by my collaborators, in vitro in human dendritic cells and in vivo in mouse. The dusts accumulated >10 years in the respiratory zone (>1.5 m above floor), thus reflecting the long-term content of airborne bacteria at the two sites. I investigated these dusts by cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from dust contained DNA. From the TH2-active urban house dust, I isolated 139 16S rRNA gene clones. The most prevalent genera among the clones were Corynebacterium (5 species, 34 clones), Streptococcus (8 species, 33 clones), Staphylococcus (5 species, 9 clones) and Finegoldia (1 species, 9 clones). Almost all of these species are known as colonizers of the human skin and oral cavity. Species of Corynebacterium and Streptococcus have been reported to contain anti-inflammatory lipoarabinomannans and immunmoreactive beta-glucans respectively. Streptococcus mitis, found in the urban house dust is known as an inducer of TH2 polarized immunity, characteristic of allergic disorders. I isolated 152 DNA clones from the TH1-active farm barn dust and found species quite different from those found from the urban house dust. Among others, I found DNA clones representing Bacillus licheniformis, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Lactobacillus each of which was recently reported to possess anti-allergy immunoreactivity. Moreover, the farm barn dust contained dramatically higher bacterial diversity than the urban house dust. Exposure to this dust thus stimulated the human dendritic cells by multiple microbial components. Such stimulation was reported to promote TH1 immunity. The biodiversity in dust may thus be connected to its immunoreactivity. Furthermore, the bacterial biomass in the farm barn dust consisted of live intact bacteria mainly. In the urban house dust only ~1 % of the biomass appeared as intact bacteria, as judged by microscoping. Fragmented microbes may possess bioactivity different from that of intact cells. This was recently shown for moulds. If this is also valid for bacteria, the different immunoreactivities of the two dusts may be explained by the intactness of dustborne bacteria. Based on these results, we offer three factors potentially contributing to the polarized immunoreactivities of the two dusts: (i) the species-composition, (ii) the biodiversity and (iii) the intactness of the dustborne bacterial biomass. The risk of childhood atopic diseases is 4-fold lower in the Russian compared with the Finnish Karelia. This difference across the country border is not explainable by different geo-climatic factors or genetic susceptibilities of the two populations. Instead, the explanation must be lifestyle-related. It has already been reported that the microbiological quality of drinking water differs on the two sides of the borders. In collaboration with allergists, I investigated dusts collected from homes in the Russian Karelia and in the Finnish Karelia. I found that bacterial 16S rRNA genes cloned from the Russian Karelian dusts (10 homes, 234 clones) predominantly represented Gram-positive taxa (the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, 67%). The Russian Karelian dusts contained nine-fold more of muramic acid (60 to 70 ng mg-1) than the Finnish Karelian dusts (3 to 11 ng mg-1). Among the DNA clones isolated from the Finnish side (n=231), Gram-negative taxa (40%) outnumbered the Gram-positives (34%). Out of the 465 DNA clones isolated from the Karelian dusts, 242 were assigned to cultured validly described bacterial species. In Russian Karelia, animal-associated species e.g. Staphylococcus and Macrococcus were numerous (27 clones, 14 unique species). This finding may connect to the difference in the prevalence of allergy, as childhood contacts with pets and farm animals have been connected with low allergy risk. Plant-associated bacteria and plant-borne 16S rRNA genes (chloroplast) were frequent among the DNA clones isolated from the Finnish Karelia, indicating components originating from plants. In conclusion, my work revealed three major differences between the bacterial communtites in the Russian and in the Finnish Karelian homes: (i) the high prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria on the Russian side and of Gram-negative bacteria on the Finnish side and (ii) the rich presence of animal-associated bacteria on the Russian side whereas (iii) plant-associated bacteria prevailed on the Finnish side. One or several of these factors may connect to the differences in the prevalence of allergy.

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The first chapter of this thesis deals with automating data gathering for single cell microfluidic tests. The programs developed saved significant amounts of time with no loss in accuracy. The technology from this chapter was applied to experiments in both Chapters 4 and 5.

The second chapter describes the use of statistical learning to prognose if an anti-angiogenic drug (Bevacizumab) would successfully treat a glioblastoma multiforme tumor. This was conducted by first measuring protein levels from 92 blood samples using the DNA-encoded antibody library platform. This allowed the measure of 35 different proteins per sample, with comparable sensitivity to ELISA. Two statistical learning models were developed in order to predict whether the treatment would succeed. The first, logistic regression, predicted with 85% accuracy and an AUC of 0.901 using a five protein panel. These five proteins were statistically significant predictors and gave insight into the mechanism behind anti-angiogenic success/failure. The second model, an ensemble model of logistic regression, kNN, and random forest, predicted with a slightly higher accuracy of 87%.

The third chapter details the development of a photocleavable conjugate that multiplexed cell surface detection in microfluidic devices. The method successfully detected streptavidin on coated beads with 92% positive predictive rate. Furthermore, chambers with 0, 1, 2, and 3+ beads were statistically distinguishable. The method was then used to detect CD3 on Jurkat T cells, yielding a positive predictive rate of 49% and false positive rate of 0%.

The fourth chapter talks about the use of measuring T cell polyfunctionality in order to predict whether a patient will succeed an adoptive T cells transfer therapy. In 15 patients, we measured 10 proteins from individual T cells (~300 cells per patient). The polyfunctional strength index was calculated, which was then correlated with the patient's progress free survival (PFS) time. 52 other parameters measured in the single cell test were correlated with the PFS. No statistical correlator has been determined, however, and more data is necessary to reach a conclusion.

Finally, the fifth chapter talks about the interactions between T cells and how that affects their protein secretion. It was observed that T cells in direct contact selectively enhance their protein secretion, in some cases by over 5 fold. This occurred for Granzyme B, Perforin, CCL4, TNFa, and IFNg. IL- 10 was shown to decrease slightly upon contact. This phenomenon held true for T cells from all patients tested (n=8). Using single cell data, the theoretical protein secretion frequency was calculated for two cells and then compared to the observed rate of secretion for both two cells not in contact, and two cells in contact. In over 90% of cases, the theoretical protein secretion rate matched that of two cells not in contact.

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Langerhans cells (LCs) are prominent dendritic cells (DCs) in epithelia, but their role in immunity is poorly defined. To track and discriminate LCs from dermal DCs in vivo, we developed knockin mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the langerin (CD207) gene. By using vital imaging, we showed that most EGFP(+) LCs were sessile under steady-state conditions, whereas skin inflammation induced LC motility and emigration to lymph nodes (LNs). After skin immunization, dermal DCs arrived in LNs first and colonized areas distinct from slower migrating LCs. LCs reaching LNs under steady-state or inflammatory conditions expressed similar levels of costimulatory molecules. Langerin and EGFP were also expressed on thymic DCs and on blood-derived, CD8alpha(+) DCs from all secondary lymphoid organs. By using a similar knockin strategy involving a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) fused to EGFP, we demonstrated that LCs were dispensable for triggering hapten-specific T cell effectors through skin immunization.