527 resultados para IgA


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Problem: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. While infection in females requires a Th1 response for clearance, such a response in males may disrupt the immune privileged nature of the male reproductive tract, potentially contributing to infertility. Method of study: We investigated the role of IgA in protection against an intrapenile Chlamydia muridarum infection of C57BL/6 and pIgR−/− mice. Results: Here, we show that the poly immunoglobulin receptor is the main pathway for IgA transport into the male reproductive tract. The high levels of IgA seen in prostatic fluid of wild-type mice correlate with reduction in chlamydial infection both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that a Chlamydia vaccine that induces neutralizing IgA in the prostate will aid in the protection against infection in males.

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Background: We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initiated after HPV antigenic stimulation at the cervix via the common mucosal immune system. The present study aimed to further evaluate the effectiveness of oral fluid testing for detecting the mucosal humoral response to HPV infection and to advance our limited understanding of the immune response to HPV. Methods: The prevalence of oral HPV infection and oral antibodies to HPV types 16, 18 and 11 was determined in a normal, healthy population of children, adolescents and adults, both male and female, attending a dental clinic. HPV types in buccal cells were determined by DNA sequencing. Oral fluid was collected from the gingival crevice of the mouth by the OraSure method. HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 antibodies in oral fluid were detected by virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a reference group 44 women with cervical neoplasia were included in the study. Results: Oral HPV infection was h ighest in children (9/114, 7.9%), followed by adolescents (4/78, 5.1%), and lowest in normal adults (4/116, 3.5%). The predominant HPV type found was HPV-13 (7/22, 31.8%) followed by HPV-32 (5/22, 22.7%). The prevalence of oral antibodies to HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 was low in children and increased substantially in adolescents and normal adults. Oral HPV-16 IgA was significantly more prevalent in women with cervical neoplasia (30/44, 68.2%) than the women from the dental clinic (18/69, 26.1% P = 0.0001). Significantly more adult men than women displayed oral HPV-16 IgA (30/47 compared with 18/69, OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.09-12.1, P < 0.001) and HPV-18 IgA (17/47 compared with 13/69, OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.97-6.2, P = 0.04). Conclusion: The increased prevalence of oral HPV antibodies in adolescent individuals compared with children was attributed to the onset of sexual activity. The increased prevalence of oral anti-HPV IgA in men compared with women was noteworthy considering reportedly fewer men than women make serum antibodies, and warrants further investigation. © 2006 Marais et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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Successful control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through vaccination will require the development of vaccine strategies that target protective immunity to both the female and male reproductive tracts (MRT). In the male, the immune privileged nature of the male reproductive tract provides a barrier to entry of serum immunoglobulins into the male reproductive ducts, thereby preventing the induction of protective immunity using conventional injectable vaccination techniques. In this study we investigated the potential of intranasal (IN) immunization to elicit anti-chlamydial immunity in BALB/c male mice. Intranasal immunization with Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) admixed with cholera toxin (CT) resulted in high levels of MOMP-specific IgA in prostatic fluids (PF) and MOMP-specific IgA-secreting cells in the prostate. Prostatic fluid IgA inhibited in vitro infection of McCoy cells with C. muridarum. Using RT-PCR we also show that mRNA for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIgR), which transports IgA across mucosal epithelia, is expressed only in the prostate but not in other regions of the male reproductive ducts upstream of the prostate. These data suggest that using intranasal immunization to target IgA to the prostate may protect males against STDs while at the same time maintaining the state of immune privilege within the MRT.

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Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a subgroup of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli that cause gastrointestinal disease with the potential for life-threatening sequelae. Cattle serve as the natural reservoir for EHEC and outbreaks occur sporadically as a result of contaminated beef and other farming products. While certain EHEC virulence mechanisms have been extensively studied, the factors that mediate host colonization are poorly defined. Previously, we identified four proteins (EhaA,B,C,D) from the prototypic EHEC strain EDL933 that belong to the autotransporter (AT) family. Here we characterize the EhaB AT protein. EhaB was shown to be located at the cell surface and overexpression in E. coli K-12 resulted in significant biofilm formation under continuous flow conditions. Overexpression of EhaB in E. coli K12 and EDL933 backgrounds also promoted adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins collagen I and laminin. An EhaB-specific antibody revealed that EhaB is expressed in E. coli EDL933 following in vitro growth. EhaB also cross-reacted with serum IgA from cattle challenged with E. coli O157:H7, indicating that EhaB is expressed in vivo and elicits a host IgA immune response.

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IgA is an important mucosal antibody that can neutralize mucosal pathogens by either preventing attachment to epithelia (immune exclusion) or alternatively inhibit intraepithelial replication following transcytosis by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen that initially targets the endocervical or urethral epithelium in women and men, respectively. As both tissues contain abundant SIgA we assessed the protection afforded by IgA targeting different chlamydial antigens expressed during the extra and intraepithelial stages of infection. We developed an in vitro model utilizing polarizing cells expressing the murine pIgR together with antigen-specific mouse IgA, and an in vivo model utilizing pIgR-/- mice. SIgA targeting the extraepithelial chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), significantly reduced infection in vitro by 24 % and in vivo by 44 %. Conversely, pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting the intraepithelial inclusion membrane protein A (IncA) bound to the inclusion but did not reduce infection in vitro or in vivo. Similarly, intraepithelial IgA targeting the secreted protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor (CPAF) also failed to reduce infection. Together, these data suggest the importance of pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting extra but not intraepithelial chlamydial antigens for protection against a genital tract infection.

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IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis. In one third of the patients the disease progresses, and they eventually need renal replacement therapy. IgAN is in most cases a slowly progressing disease, and the prediction of progression has been difficult, and the results of studies have been conflicting. Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN) is rare in adults, and prediction of the outcome is even more difficult than in IgAN. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and histopathological features and predictors of the outcome of IgAN and HSN diagnosed in one centre (313 IgAN patients and 38 HSN patients), and especially in patients with normal renal function at the time of renal biopsy. The study also aimed to evaluate whether there is a difference in the progression rates in four countries (259 patients from Finland, 112 from UK, 121 from Australia and 274 from Canada), and if so, can this be explained by differences in renal biopsy policy. The third aim was to measure urinary excretions of cytokines interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in patients with IgAN and HSN and the correlations of excretion of these substances with histopathological damage and clinical factors. A large proportion of the patients diagnosed in Helsinki as having IgAN had normal renal function (161/313 patients). Four factors, (hypertension, higher amounts of urinary erythrocytes, severe arteriolosclerosis and a higher glomerular score) which independently predicted progression (logistic regression analysis), were identified in mild disease. There was geographic variability in renal survival in patients with IgAN. When age, levels of renal function, proteinuria and blood pressure were taken into account, it showed that the variability related mostly to lead-time bias and renal biopsy indications. Amount of proteinuria more than 0.4g/24h was the only factor that was significantly related to the progression of HSN. the Hypertension and the level of renal function were found to be factors predicting outcome in patients with normal renal function at the time of diagnosis. In IgAN patients, IL-1ra excretion into urine was found to be decreased as compared with HSN patients and healthy controls. Patients with a high IL-1ra/IL-1ß ratio had milder histopathological changes in renal biopsy than patients with a low/normal IL-1ra/IL-1ß ratio. It was also found that the excretion of IL-1ß and especially IL-1ra were significantly higher in women. In conclusion, it was shown that factors associated with outcome can reliably be identified even in mild cases of IgAN. Predicting outcome in adult HSN, however, remains difficult.

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Entamoeba histolytica-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE antibodies were assayed in cases of amoebiasis in an endemic area. Patient groups consisted of amoebic liver abscess (n=18), pre-abscess hepatic amoebiasis (n=22) and amoebic colitis (n=30). Control subjects comprised 26 asymptomatic cyst passers, 13 giardiasis cases, 20 typhoid patients and 24 non-amoebic individuals. Serum IgG was assayed by ELISA, using a monoclonal anti IgG β- galactosidase (IgG β-gal) conjugate, a polyclonal avidin biotin horse radish peroxidase (AB-HRP), and a polyclonal anti IgG horse radish peroxidase (IgG HRP) conjugate. IgA and IgM were assayed by the β-gal ELISA and IgE by AB-HRP. Diagnostically significant IgG and IgA while lower IgM and IgE antibody levels were seen in extraintestinal cases. About 40% of suspected pre-abscess hepatic amoebiasis cases were confirmed by antibody estimation. All isotype levels in most dysentery cases were in the range of the controls.

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为了测定抗精子IgA在免疫不育和抗精子避孕疫苗研制方面的生物学作用,用肠道内免疫的方法制备了一组抗乳酸脱氢酶C4(LDH-C4)的单克隆IgA抗体(moIgA)。以免疫印迹证实了它们的异质同形体。大部分moIgA(PA1-PA5)是用肠道内免疫和以派依尔氏淋巴细胞作为亲本细胞进行融合来获得的。在豚鼠血清补体存在的情况下,小鼠精子可以被moIgAPA1、PA2和PA4所制动。高浓度PA4和PA5可凝集小鼠精子。小鼠体外受精率可被3个moIgA(PA2、PA3和PA4)显著降低,但用PA1、PA2和PA5被动免疫之后,小鼠体内受精无明显变化。纯化的小鼠胆汁分泌片可同纯化的moIgA或腹水中的moIgA在体外组装起来。同分泌片结合之后,moIgA对精子的制动、凝集和体外受精无明显变化。这些研究结果提供了抗LDH-C4的moIgA和分泌性IgA对精子功能和体外受精的生物学作用的直接证据,在免疫不育的防治,避孕疫苗的研制以及性传播疾病的防治方面均有一定的指导意义。

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IgA抗体是介导机体粘膜免疫的主要因子,其在粘膜分泌物中能有效地阻止外界抗原(包括可溶性抗原、病原微生物以及存在于食物中的致癌物质)附着或侵入粘膜上皮,从而避免这些外来物给机体造成损伤,保持机体粘膜完整并避免胃肠道疾病、呼吸道疾病及泌尿生殖道各种疾病的发生。为了能有效地利用IgA抗体的免疫保护功能,解决诸多困扰人类的粘膜性疾病,前人从很多方面对IgA抗体做了大量的研究,得到很多有意义的结果。本文试图总结这些研究成果,结合最新的研究进展,对IgA抗体的结构、功能及调控等进行评述。

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对消化道免疫获得的33个抗精子IgA单抗, 12个IgG和35个IgM单抗靶抗原的生化性质及末端单糖做了鉴定。免疫印迹的结果显示, IgA、IgG和IgM类单抗靶抗原的分子量范围分别为10-89、11-75和12-94KDa。有12个单抗的靶抗原为非蛋白类的糖复合物, 一个IgA单抗(A22)的靶抗原为不含糖的蛋白。凝集素封闭和糖苷酶消化试验的结果显示, 98.7%单抗的靶抗原分子末端含一种或几种糖。五种凝集素对IgA类单抗靶抗原的抗原的封闭效应均较强, 表明IgA类单抗靶抗原的抗原决定簇含有岩藻糖、乙酰氨基葡萄糖、乙酰氨基半乳糖、半乳糖和甘露糖等末端单糖者较多。IgG类单抗靶抗原的抗原决定簇则含有带岩藻糖、乙酰氨基半乳糖和#alpha#-甘露糖等末端单糖者较多。内切-#beta#-半乳糖苷酶消化试验的结果表明, 54.4%IgA类单抗的靶抗原为依赖半乳糖苷连接的糖肽化合物。这些结果表明, 经消化道免疫能产生IgA及其它类别抗体的绝大多数人精子抗原为含多种类型末端单糖的膜表面分子。

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BALB/c mice were immunized intragastrically with human sperm. Cells from the Peyer's patches and spleens of the immunized mice were for the preparation of hybridomas secreting antisperm monoclonal IgA (mcIgA). The specific ratio of IgA-secreting cells in Peyer's patches was much higher than that in spleen. The binding site on human sperm of 9 of 19 mcIgA was in the post-acrosomal region using an immunofluorescent assay. Two of eight selected mcIgA caused strong human sperm agglutination and three of them produced significant inhibition of mouse in vitro fertilization. No mcIgA tested caused obvious human sperm immobilization or inhibited mouse in vivo fertilization. In vitro assembly of selected mcIgA in ascites with mouse secretory component (SC) caused no significant changes in effects on sperm function and in vitro fertilization. By use of Western blotting, dimer or higher polymers were demonstrated in all selected mcIgAs and corresponding protein antigens in 6 of 8 selected mcIgAs. These results suggest that human sperm function may be inhibited and fertilization rate reduced by specific secretory IgA to human sperm and that secretory immunity to protein antigens of human sperm could be induced by intragastrointestinal immunization.

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Ab levels in the genital tract may be important in fertility and in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, In this study, I-125-labeled polymer or monomer mAb IgA (C4pIgA or C4mIgA) and IgC2b (C4IgC) to murine lactate dehydrogenase C4 and a polymer mAb IgA (npIgA) not cross-reacting with mouse sperm were intravenously injected into BALB/c mice, and the relative distribution of these Abs was determined. Polymer IgA was transported much more efficiently into the genital tract, trachea, and duodenum of both sexes than C4IgG and C4 mIgA (p < 0.01), The transport of polymer IgA (C4pIgA and npIgA) into the male genital tract greatly increased following orchiectomy (p < 0.01); this change was not affected by testosterone, suggesting that the unknown regulatory factor(s) from the testis may suppress polymer IgA transport, However, the transport of polymer IgA into female genital tissues was significantly decreased by ovariectomy (p < 0.01); this decline can be rectified by P-estradiol but not progesterone treatment, suggesting that estradiol may stimulate polymer IgA transport, Furthermore, the transport of C4IgG into tissues of the Fallopian tubes and the uterus was significantly decreased by treatment with progesterone (p < 0.01). Together, these findings indicate that serum polymer IgA can be transported selectively into the genital tracts of both sexes, that this transport is strongly under the control of gonads, and that transport of Ige into the Fallopian tubes and uterus is downregulated by progesterone.

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已有的研究表明,小鼠背部携带能分泌抗原特异的IgA 单克隆抗体的杂交细 胞瘤,可以保护小鼠抵抗微生物和病毒等多种病原体经粘膜途径感染机体。我们 利用背部携带能分泌抗精子特异抗原(LDH-C4)的IgA 和IgG 杂交细胞瘤、以 及抗DNP 的IgA 骨髓细胞瘤的小鼠为动物模型,采用定量ELISA 法研究了抗 LDH-C4 IgA 与抗DNP IgA 单克隆抗体在呼吸道、肠道及生殖道内转运和分布, 抗LDH-C4 IgG2b 在肠道内转运与分布,以及抗LDH-C4 IgA 和IgG 单克隆抗体 在体内抗生育作用。 研究结果表明,带瘤小鼠血液中含有较高水平抗原特异的 IgA 和IgG 单克 隆抗体。PA4 和MOPC IgA 单克隆抗体在呼吸道、肠道以及雌性生殖道分泌物 内有较高的分布水平。在肠道,PA4 和MOPC IgA 单克隆抗体的分布水平显著 高于IgG(p<0.01 和p<0.05)。在肠道和生殖道的不同部位,IgA 抗体的分布水 平不同。在肠道,结肠分泌物中的IgA 单克隆抗体显著高于其它肠道部位 (p<0.01)。在生殖道,IgA 单克隆抗体分布水平以子宫角分泌物中最高。雄性 的前列腺也有较高的IgA 抗体水平。在呼吸道、肠道以及雌性生殖道相应部位的 分泌物内,PA4 IgA 单克隆抗体的水平显著高于MOPC IgA 单克隆抗体的分布水 平(p<0.05)。PA4 和MOPC IgA 单克隆抗体在粘膜分泌物内的分布水平差异可 能与其IgA 聚合形式的不同有关。另外,除气管外,在两时间点间分泌物中的 IgA 抗体水平没有显著差异。 检测背部带瘤小鼠交配后的两细胞胚胎期,发现携带PA4 和G2b 杂交细瘤 的雌性小鼠的受精率与对照组并没有显著的差异,这表明抗LDH-C4 IgA 和IgG 单克隆抗体在体内不能明显抑制小鼠的精子和卵子的结合或受精过程。注射细 胞后的27 天,检测鼠着床胚胎时,发现带瘤两性小鼠均携带PA4 时或者只有 雌性携带PA4 杂交瘤时,以及雌雄两性小鼠均携带G2b 杂交瘤细胞时,交配后的怀孕率与能分泌抗DNP 抗体的MOPC 的骨髓瘤细胞瘤的相应组别相比,显 著降低(p<0.01)。但PA4 各组与G2b 各组之间无显著差异(p>0.05)。然而,雌 雄的小鼠均带瘤时,最高怀孕减少率未能达100%。这些结果提示,抗LDHC4 IgA 和IgG 单克隆抗体在小鼠体内不能有效地抑制小鼠的精子与卵子的结 合,但能显著地抑制小鼠受精后胚胎的发育。抗LDH-C4 的IgA 和IgG 单克隆 抗体单独存在时,在体内均具有抗生育作用,但不能完全抑制生育。