979 resultados para Histopathology


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Endocrinopathic laminitis is frequently associated with hyperinsulinaemia but the role of glucose in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to determine the endogenous insulin response to a quantity of glucose equivalent to that administered during a laminitis-inducing, euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp, over 48. h in insulin-sensitive Standardbred racehorses. In addition, the study investigated whether glucose infusion, in the absence of exogenous insulin administration, would result in the development of clinical and histopathological evidence of laminitis. Glucose (50% dextrose) was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.68 mL/kg/h for 48. h in treated horses (n = 4) and control horses (n = 3) received a balanced electrolyte solution (0.68 mL/kg/h). Lamellar histology was examined at the conclusion of the experiment. Horses in the treatment group were insulin sensitive (M value 0.039 ± 0.0012. mmol/kg/min and M-to-I ratio (100×) 0.014 ± 0.002) as determined by an approximated hyperglycaemic clamp. Treated horses developed glycosuria, hyperglycaemia (10.7 ± 0.78. mmol/L) and hyperinsulinaemia (208 ± 26.1. μIU/mL), whereas control horses did not. None of the horses became lame as a consequence of the experiment but all of the treated horses developed histopathological evidence of laminitis in at least one foot. Combined with earlier studies, the results showed that laminitis may be induced by either insulin alone or a combination of insulin and glucose, but that it is unlikely to be due to a glucose overload mechanism. Based on the histopathological data, the potential threshold for insulin toxicity (i.e. laminitis) in horses may be at or below a serum concentration of ∼200. μIU/mL.

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The health and continued existence of coral reef ecosystems are threatened by an increasing array of environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Coral disease is one of the prominent causes of increased mortality among reefs globally, particularly in the Caribbean. Although over 40 different coral diseases and syndromes have been reported worldwide, only a few etiological agents have been confirmed; most pathogens remain unknown and the dynamics of disease transmission, pathogenicity and mortality are not understood. Causal relationships have been documented for only a few of the coral diseases, while new syndromes continue to emerge. Extensive field observations by coral biologists have provided substantial documentation of a plethora of new pathologies, but our understanding, however, has been limited to descriptions of gross lesions with names reflecting these observations (e.g., black band, white band, dark spot). To determine etiology, we must equip coral diseases scientists with basic biomedical knowledge and specialized training in areas such as histology, cell biology and pathology. Only through combining descriptive science with mechanistic science and employing the synthesis epizootiology provides will we be able to gain insight into causation and become equipped to handle the pending crisis. One of the critical challenges faced by coral disease researchers is to establish a framework to systematically study coral pathologies drawing from the field of diagnostic medicine and pathology and using generally accepted nomenclature. This process began in April 2004, with a workshop titled Coral Disease and Health Workshop: Developing Diagnostic Criteria co-convened by the Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC), a working group organized under the auspices of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, and the International Registry for Coral Pathology (IRCP). The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) in Madison, Wisconsin and was focused on gross morphology and disease signs observed in the field. A resounding recommendation from the histopathologists participating in the workshop was the urgent need to develop diagnostic criteria that are suitable to move from gross observations to morphological diagnoses based on evaluation of microscopic anatomy. (PDF contains 92 pages)

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Subsistence food items can be a health concern in rural Alaska because community members often rely on fish and wildlife resources not routinely monitored for persistent bioaccumulative contaminants and pathogens. Subsistence activities are a large part of the traditional culture, as well as a means of providing protein in the diets for Tribal members. In response to the growing concerns among Native communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta and Oncorhynchus nerka) and the shellfish cockles and softshell clams (Clinocardium nuttallii and Mya arenaria) were assessed. In the Spring of 2010, the fish and shellfish were collected from traditional subsistence harvest areas in the vicinity of Nanwalek, Port Graham, and Seldovia, AK, and were analyzed for trace metals and residues of organic contaminants routinely monitored by the NOAA National Status & Trends Program (NS&T). Additionally, the fish and shellfish were histologically characterized for the presence, prevalence and severity of tissue pathology, disease, and parasite infection. The fish and shellfish sampled showed low tissue contamination, and pathologic effects of the parasites and diseases were absent or minimal. Taken together, the results showed that the fish and shellfish were healthy and pose no safety concern for consumption. This study provides reliable chemistry and histopathology information for local resource managers and Alaska Native people regarding subsistence fish and shellfish use and management needs.

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Impact of phosphamidon, an organophosphorus pesticide and its metabolites viz. dimethyl phosphoric acid and 2-chloro 2-diethyl carbamoylmethyl vinyl acid on histopathology of a common teleost, Labeo rohita was studied by exposing the fish to sub-lethal concentrations which were taken as 1/3rd of LC50 and were equal to 0.0123 ppm for phosphamidon, 0.0160 ppm for dimethyl phosphoric acid and 0.0167 ppm for 2-chloro 2-diethyl carbamoylmethyl vinyl acid respectively. The results revealed that hepatocytes in the liver were markedly swollen and exhibited hydropic degeneration. Fusion of primary lamellae and moderate congestion of blood vessels were evident in the gill. Intestine showed degeneration of mucosa and cellular infiltration in sub-mucosa. LC50 values and histopathological photomicrographs suggest that phosphamidon is more toxic as compared to dimethyl phosphoric and 2-chloro 2-diethyl carbamoylmethyl vinyl acid.

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