1000 resultados para Eucalyptus grandis


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Axillary shoot proliferation was obtained using explants of Eucalyptus grandis L. juvenile and mature stages on a defined medium. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and additional thiamine. Excised shoots were induced to root on a sequence of three media: (1) White's medium containing indoleacetic acid (IAA), NAA and indole butyric acid; (IBA), (2) half-strength MS medium with charcoal and (3) half-strength MS liquid medium. The two types of explants differed in rooting response, with juvenile-derived shoots giving 60% rooting and adult-derived ones only 35%. Thus, the factors limiting cloning of selected trees in vitro are determined to be those controlling rooting of shoots in E. grandis.

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Ceratocystis spp. include important pathogens of trees as well as apparently saprophytic species. Four species have been recorded on Eucalyptus grandis in Australia, of which only one, C. pirilliformis Barnes and M.J. Wingf., is known to be pathogenic. A recent survey of pests and diseases of Eucalyptus trees in northern Queensland revealed a species of Ceratocystis associated with the tunnels made by the aggressive wood-boring insect Phoracantha acanthocera (Macleay) (Cerambicydae: Coleoptera). The aim of the present study was to identify the fungus based on morphological characteristics and comparisons of DNA sequence data for three gene regions. The fungus peripherally resembles C. fimbriata Ell. and Halst. but differs from this species most obviously by having much darker mycelium, longer ascomatal necks, segmented hyphae and an absence of aleuroconidia. Comparisons of combined sequence data confirmed that the Ceratocystis sp. from P. acanthocera represents an undescribed taxon, which is provided with the name Ceratocystis atrox sp. nov. C. atrox appears to have a close relationship with P. acanthocera, although its role in the biology of the insect is unknown and its pathogenicity has not been considered.

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Multiple shoots were induced from nodal segments of five year old trees of Eucalyptus grandis L. on solid medium containing Murashige and Skoog's (MS) Basal medium supplemented with additional thiamine, BAP and NAA. Rooting could be achieved from shoot culture on half strength MS salts or white's medium supplemented with low auxins like IAA, IBA and NAA.

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O Eucalyptus grandis é uma das espécies mais cultivadas no Brasil devido à sua produtividade e qualidade da madeira. Avaliaram-se o efeito da aplicação de lodo de esgoto tratado (0 a 40 t ha-1 base seca) e uma dose de adubo mineral nos atributos físicos e químicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de árvores com cinco anos de idade, no Município de Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil. O tipo de solo foi caracterizado como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (argila = 120 g kg-1 na camada de 0-20 cm) e o clima, como mesotérmico úmido (Cwa), segundo a classificação de Köeppen. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP), a altura das árvores e o volume de madeira foram obtidos em todas as parcelas de oito árvores com DAP na classe de maior freqüência. As caracterizações físicas e químicas da madeira foram realizadas de acordo com as normas da ABTCP, TAPPI e ABNT. O lodo de esgoto diminuiu a densidade básica da madeira, mas não afetou os teores de celulose, lignina, extrativos e o poder calorífico da madeira. O decréscimo de densidade da madeira pela adubação com lodo de esgoto foi compensado pela maior produtividade de madeira.

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m(3) e 508 kg/m(3)) on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties). The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17 +/- 1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90 +/- 1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

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The objectives of the study were to assess changes in fine root anisotropy and specific root lengths throughout the development of Eucalyptus grandis ( W. Hill ex Maiden) plantations and to establish a predictive model of root length density (RLD) from root intercept counts on trench walls. Fine root densities (<1 mm in diameter) were studied in 6-, 12-, 22-, 28-, 54-, 68- and 72-month-old E. grandis plantations established on deep Ferralsols in southern Brazil. Fine root intercepts were counted on 3 faces of 90-198 soil cubes (1 dm(3) in volume) in each stand and fine root lengths (L) were measured inside 576 soil cubes, sampled between the depths of 10 cm and 290 cm. The number of fine root intercepts was counted on one vertical face perpendicular to the planting row (N(t)), one vertical face parallel to the planting row (N(l)) and one horizontal face (N(h)), for each soil cube sampled. An overall isotropy of fine roots was shown by paired Student's t-tests between the numbers of fine roots intersecting each face of soil cubes at most stand ages and soil depths. Specific root lengths decreased with stand age in the upper soil layers and tended to increase in deep soil layers at the end of the rotation. A linear regression established between N(t) and L for all the soil cubes sampled accounted for 36% of the variability of L. Such a regression computed for mean Nt and L values at each sampling depth and stand age explained only 55% of the variability, as a result of large differences in the relationship between L and Nt depending on stand productivity. The equation RLD=1.89*LAI*N(t), where LAI was the stand leaf area index (m(2) m(-2)) and Nt was expressed as the number of root intercepts per cm(2), made it possible to predict accurately (R(2)=0.84) and without bias the mean RLDs (cm cm(-3)) per depth in each stand, for the whole data set of 576 soil cubes sampled between 2 years of age and the end of the rotation.

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The components used in the production of substrates influence directly the growth cycle, quality and consequently the cost of production of seedlings. In this experiment we studied the development, quality and cost of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x E. urophylla S. T. Blake, through sexual propagation using 12 compositions of substrate. The results showed that the pure substrates, with the exception of coconut fiber, did not present physical characteristics appropriate for the production from seedlings of eucalyptus in container, with the best results obtained for the substrates with a mixture 1:1 of carbonized rid of rice and coconut-fiber and a mixture 1:1 of vermiculite and coconut fiber, due to the best morphological characteristics and the possibility of reducing the production period which enables a reduction in the cost of final seedling.

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The juvenile wood presents great difference in its anatomical and physical properties in relation to the mature wood. That heterogeneity of the wood causes a series of upset for the processing industry. The present research had as objective the study of the physical properties of the juvenile and mature wood of Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii, with 25 years of age and of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, with 30 years of age, coming from the Experimental Station of Itapetininga and State Forest of Santa Barbara, belonging to the Forest Institute of the state of São Paulo. From both species there were taken from radial boards, specimens with dimensions of 20x30x50 mm, for the determination of density, swelling and swelling coefficient of the juvenile and mature wood. The results of the species showed that the mature compared with the juvenile wood presented: (1) an increase in the values of the basic density, at 0% and at 12% of moisture content and of the volumetric, radial and tangential swelling at 12% moisture content and maximum coefficient of radial and tangential swelling; (2) a reduction in the values of longitudinal swelling at 12% and maximum and of the longitudinal swelling coefficient.

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This study aimed to evaluate the adhesion ability of eucalyptus lumber from three tillage systems, using adhesives: resorcinol formaldehyde and two adhesives in water emulsion based on vinyl poly-acetate. The management systems were characterized by three strata, the stratum one (E1) characterized by wood from coppice and 70 months of age, the stratum two (E2) characterized by wood and retirement age of 166 months and stratum three (E3), also characterized by retirement at 70 months of age. The wood was derived from a random mixture of the first two sawn logs, each three feet from the base, which comprised three treatments on the adhesive used. We evaluated the shear strength by compression tests and the percentage of wood failure in the glue line. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the adhesion had satisfactory performance with all the resins used, and the average values of shear strength of the glue line were shown to be equivalent to the shear strength of solid wood only for the samples which adhered with 'Wonderbond' adhesive and also provide higher values for wood failure (97.64%). The highest density present in the wood of the second stratum (E2) influenced only sticking with the resorcinol formaldehyde resin. For polyvinyl acetate (Cascorez 2590), shear values decreased in the third management condition (E3).

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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

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This paper mainly aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of LVL panels made from Eucalyptus grandis, from reforestation at the region of Senges, in Parana state, Brazil. LVL panels were manufactured using 23 veneers (2,4mm thick each one) in commercial dimension of 2.500 mm long and 1,200 mm wide. The properties of static bending were analyzed (strength and rigidity) in beams of the LVL, in the flatwise and edgewise positions. The properties of compression parallel to grain and shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y and density in this LVL panels were also analyzed according to ASTM-D 5456/4761 and ASTM-D 198 codes. The mean values to flatwise bending MOE and MOR were 13114 MPa and 88.76 MPa, respectively, and for edgewise bending MOE and MOR were 15871 MPa and 88.63 MPa, respectively. The density (12%) of the LVL panels and of the veneers were 690 kg/m(3) and 649 kg/m(3). The mean values to parallel compression MOE and MOR were 16856 MPa and 58.05 MPa, respectively. The mean values of the maximum resistance to shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y were 5.96 MPa and 591 MPa, respectively. All these values reached partially or they passed the medium limits of reference (normative codes, researches and commercial catalogs) established for LVL panels and original solid wood, attesting overall the quality of those panels produced with this wood.

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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)