1000 resultados para Canine Gastroenteritis


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Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis.

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BACKGROUND Adenoviruses are common pathogens in vertebrates, including humans. In marine mammals, adenovirus has been associated with fatal hepatitis in sea lions. However, only in rare cases have adenoviruses been detected in cetaceans, where no clear correlation was found between presence of the virus and disease status. CASE PRESENTATION A novel adenovirus was identified in four captive bottlenose dolphins with self-limiting gastroenteritis. Viral detection and identification were achieved by: PCR-amplification from fecal samples; sequencing of partial adenovirus polymerase (pol) and hexon genes; producing the virus in HeLa cells, with PCR and immunofluorescence detection, and with sequencing of the amplified pol and hexon gene fragments. A causative role of this adenovirus for gastroenteritis was suggested by: 1) we failed to identify other potential etiological agents; 2) the exclusive detection of this novel adenovirus and of seropositivity for canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 in the four sick dolphins, but not in 10 healthy individuals of the same captive population; and 3) the virus disappeared from feces after clinical signs receded. The partial sequences of the amplified fragments of the pol and hexon genes were closest to those of adenoviruses identified in sea lions with fatal adenoviral hepatitis, and to a Genbank-deposited sequence obtained from a harbour porpoise. CONCLUSION These data suggest that adenovirus can cause self-limiting gastroenteritis in dolphins. This adenoviral infection can be detected by serology and by PCR detection in fecal material. Lack of signs of hepatitis in sick dolphins may reflect restricted tissue tropism or virulence of this adenovirus compared to those of the adenovirus identified in sea lions. Gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis supports a common origin of adenoviruses that affect sea mammals. Our findings suggest the need for vigilance against adenoviruses in captive and wild dolphin populations.

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Our strategy entails investigating the influence of varied concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/ml) of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the osteogenic expression of canine osteoblasts, seeded onto poly-caprolactone 20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds in vitro. Biochemical assay revealed that groups with rhBMP-2 displayed an initial burst in cell growth that was not dose-dependent. However, after 13 days, cell growth declined to a value similar to control. Significantly less cell growth was observed for construct with 1000 ng/ml of rhBMP-2 from 20 days onwards. Confocal microscopy confirmed viability of osteoblasts and at day 20, groups seeded with rhBMP-2 displayed heightened cell death as compared to control. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed that osteoblasts heavily colonized surfaces, rods and pores of the PCL-TCP scaffolds. This was consistent for all groups. Finally, Von Kossa and osteocalcin assays demonstrated that cells from all groups maintained their osteogenic phenotype throughout the experiment. Calcification was observed as early as four days after stimulation for groups seeded with rhBMP-2. In conclusion, rhBMP-2 seems to enhance the differentiated function of canine osteoblasts in a non-dose dependent manner. This resulted in accelerated mineralization, followed by death of osteoblasts as they underwent terminal differentiation. Notably, PCL-TCP scaffolds seeded only with canine osteoblasts could sustain excellent osteogenic expression in vitro. Hence, the synergy of PCL with bioactive TCP and rhBMP-2 in a novel composite scaffold, could offer an exciting approach for bone regeneration.

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Survivin is a member of the family of proteins known as 'inhibitors of apoptosis proteins'. Survivin has a role in cellular decisions concerning division and survival and is frequently expressed in neoplastic cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression of survivin in normal canine tissues and in canine lymphoma. A representative range of fetal and adult normal tissues as well as biopsy samples from dogs with lymphoma were assembled in tissue arrays. The lymphomas were classified according to the revised Kiel and to the Revised European American Lymphoma - World Health Organization (REAL-WHO) schemes. Polyclonal and monoclonal antisera cross-reactive with canine survivin identified cytoplasmic expression of the molecule in a broad range of normal canine cells. The same reagents demonstrated cytoplasmic labelling of more than 5% of cells in all 83 lymphoma samples tested with polyclonal antiserum and in 67 of 82 (82%) of samples tested with monoclonal antiserum. Survivin was expressed by a wide range of canine lymphoma subtypes, but the expression of this molecule in normal canine tissues must be considered if novel therapies targeting survivin are applied to the management of canine lymphoma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs)-based therapies show great potential in regenerative medicine. However, long-term storage and preservation of BMSCs for clinical use is still a great clinical challenge. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of long-term cryopreservation on the regenerative ability of BMSCs. After cryopreservation of BMSCs from beagle dogs for three years, cell viability, and quantitative analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, surface adherence, and mineralized nodule formation were analyzed. BMSCs in cell-scaffold complex were then implanted into nude mice. There was no significant difference in cell viability and ALP activity between osteogenic differentiation and non-osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and BMSCs in cell-scaffold complex retained osteogenic differentiation ability in vivo. These results indicate that long-term cryopreserved BMSCs maintain their have capacity to contribute to regeneration.

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Establishment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) with Escherichia coli 83972 is a viable prophylactic alternative to antibiotic therapy for the prevention of recurrent bacterial urinary tract infection in humans. Approximately 2 x 108 viable E. coli 83972 cells were introduced into the bladder of six healthy female dogs via a sterile urinary catheter. The presence of pyuria, depression, stranguria, pollakiuria and haematuria was documented for 6 weeks and urinalysis and aerobic bacterial cultures were performed every 24–72 h. Pyuria was present in all dogs on day 1 post-inoculation and 4/6 dogs (67%) had a positive urine culture on this day. Duration of colonization ranged from 0 to 10 days (median 4 days). Four dogs were re-inoculated on day 20. Duration of colonization following the second inoculation ranged from 1 to 3 days. No dog suffered pyrexia or appeared systemically unwell but all dogs initially exhibited mild pollakiuria and a small number displayed gross haematuria and/or stranguria. By day 3 of each trial all clinical signs had resolved. Persistent bacteriuria was not achieved in any dog but two dogs were colonized for 10 days following a single inoculation. Further research is required to determine whether establishment of ABU in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infection is a viable alternative to repeated doses of antimicrobial agents.

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Background Today, finding an ideal biomaterial to treat the large bone defects, delayed unions and non-unions remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeions and researchers. Several studies have been carried out on the subject of bone regeneration, each having its own advantages. The present study has been designed in vivo to evaluate the effects of cellular auto-transplantation of tail vertebrae on healing of experimental critical bone defect in a dog model. Methods Six indigenous breeds of dog with 32 ± 3.6 kg average weight from both sexes (5 males and 1 female) received bilateral critical-sized ulnar segmental defects. After determining the health condition, divided to 2 groups: The Group I were kept as control I (n = 1) while in Group II (experimental group; n = 5) bioactive bone implants were inserted. The defects were implanted with either autogeneic coccygeal bone grafts in dogs with 3-4 cm diaphyseal defects in the ulna. Defects were stabilized with internal plate fixation, and the control defects were not stabilized. Animals were euthanized at 16 weeks and analyzed by histopathology. Results Histological evaluation of this new bone at sixteen weeks postoperatively revealed primarily lamellar bone, with the formation of new cortices and normal-appearing marrow elements. And also reformation cortical compartment and reconstitution of marrow space were observed at the graft-host interface together with graft resorption and necrosis responses. Finally, our data were consistent with the osteoconducting function of the tail autograft. Conclusions Our results suggested that the tail vertebrae autograft seemed to be a new source of autogenous cortical bone in order to supporting segmental long bone defects in dogs. Furthermore, cellular autotransplantation was found to be a successful replacement for the tail vertebrae allograft bone at 3-4 cm segmental defects in the canine mid- ulna. Clinical application using graft expanders or bone autotransplantation should be used carefully and requires further investigation.

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Objective: To explore relationships between malnutrition and pancreatic damage in hospitalised aboriginal children. Methods: Immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) concentrations were measured in two populations of hospitalised aboriginal children in Australia; 472 children aged 0-3 years, in Alice Springs (Northern Territory); and 187 children aged 0-16 years in Mount Isa (Queensland). Correlation of whole blood IRT with height and weight z-scores, four-site skinfold thickness and upper arm circumference was sought. Results: In Mount Isa, the geometric mean IRT concentration rose with decreasing weight z-score. The IRT concentration was otherwise unrelated to nutritional indices. Sixty percent of the 39 Mount Isa patients with gastroenteritis and 24.5% of the 358 Alice Springs patients with gastroenteritis had an IRT concentration in the upper quartile for their population, compared with 16% for patients with other diagnoses in both populations. Conclusions: A high IRT concentration in patients with low weight z-scores is a confounding effect of gastroenteritis, and may result from subclinical pancreatic disease in gastroenteritis.

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A prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) with glucose ORS in infants and children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhoea and mild to moderate dehydration (<10%). One hundred children presenting to a large metropolitan teaching hospital were eligible for entry to the study and were randomized to receive rice ORS or glucose ORS. Outcome measures were stool output (SO), duration of illness (DD) and recovery time to introduction of other fluids (RTF) and diet (RTD). Significant differences were found for all outcome measures in favour of the rice ORS group. Mean SO was lower (160 vs 213 mt; P<0.02), mean DD was reduced (17.3 vs 24.3 h; P = 0.03) and median RTF was decreased (12.7 vs 18.1 h; P< 0.001) in the rice ORS group compared with the glucose ORS group. The median rime to introduction of diet and mean length of hospital stay showed similar significant reductions. Our study has shown rice ORS to be an acceptable alternative to glucose ORS in young children and have shown that it is significantly more effective in reducing the course of diarrhoeal illness and the time taken to return to normal drinking and eating habits.

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We report electron microscopic evidence of transmission from a pet dog to a 12-year-girl of Gastrospirillum hominis which caused gastric disease in both that was eradicable with treatment. © 1994.

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An open-label inpatient study is in progress to compare the efficacy and safety of two oral rehydration solutions in children and infants with acute diarrhea and mild to moderate dehydration. One solution (ORS-60) contains 60 mmol/L of sodium and 1.8% glucose, with a total osmolatity of 240 mosm/kg; the other (ORS-26) contains 26 mmol/L of sodium, 2.7% glucose, and 3.6% sucrose, with a total osmolality of 340 mosm/kg. An outcome analysis of 28 children with gastroenteritis indicated that ORS-60 (n = 13) reduced stool volume during the first eight hours after admission to a significantly greater (P < 0.05) extent than did ORS-26 (n = 15). Diarrhea had ceased by 24 hours in 64% of ORS-60 patients but in only 31% of ORS-26 patients, and the patients' clinical conidition was improved at eight hours in 84% of ORS-60 patients versus 60% of ORS-26 patients. Differences between treatments in degree of dehydration at each follow-up point, total duration of diarrhea, and duration of hospital stay were not detected. No adverse drug reactions occurred. Four patients received intravenous rehydration therapy, but none was considered a treatment failure. We conclude that the lower osmolar solution, ORS-60, conferred earlier recovey and reduced continuing fluid losses in the management of gastroenteritis.

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Phylogenetic group D extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), including O15:K52:H1 and clonal group A, have spread globally and become fluoroquinolone-resistant. Here we investigated the role of canine feces as a reservoir of these (and other) human-associated ExPEC and their potential as canine pathogens. We characterized and compared fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates originally identified as phylogenetic group D from either the feces of hospitalized dogs (n = 67; 14 dogs) or extraintestinal infections (n = 53; 33 dogs). Isolates underwent phylogenetic grouping, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, virulence genotyping, resistance genotyping, human-associated ExPEC O-typing, and multi-locus sequence typing. Five of seven human-associated sequence types (STs) exhibited ExPEC-associated O-types, and appeared in separate RAPD clusters. The largest subgroup (16 fecal, 26 clinical isolates) were ST354 (phylogroup F) isolates. ST420 (phylogroup B2); O1-ST38, O15:K52:H1-ST393, and O15:K1-ST130 (phylogroup D); and O7-ST457, and O1-ST648 (phylogroup F) were also identified. Three ST-specific RAPD sub-clusters (ST354, ST393, and ST457) contained closely related isolates from both fecal or clinical sources. Genes encoding CTX-M and AmpC β-lactamases were identified in isolates from five STs. Major human-associated fluoroquinolone-resistant ± extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant ExPEC of public health importance may be carried in dog feces and cause extraintestinal infections in some dogs.